Saturday, September 27, 2008

Ministry to probe report on ne girls trafficking

Manipur Information Centre

NEW DELHI, Sep 26: The Union Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (OIA) ordered an inquiry into the reports of girls from the North Eastern Region being sold to night clubs in Malaysia. "I am looking into the matter. We have also alerted our Embassies in Singapore and Malaysia," Vayalar Ravi, OIA Minister said on Thursday. The Minister directed the Protectorate of Emigrants (PoE) Officer to track records on the basis of which these girls were taken.

Naga Peoples Movement for Human Rights (NPMHR) and Shakti Vahini made a complaint recently to the Union Minister for Overseas Indian Affairs regarding trafficking of girls from Zeliangrong community in Tamenglong district in Manipur. The NGOs urged the Minister to investigate the matter and take immediate actions so that victims of human trafficking could be rescued.

The two NGOs were alerted after three girls escaped from their traffickers in Malaysia and were rescued by a priest, Rev. David. He, in turn, got in touch with NPMHR, UNIFEM and Shakti Vahini. NGOs claimed that as many as 150 girls were reported to have been promised jobs in Singapore but landed up in clubs in Kaula Lampur instead.

Shakti Vahini's Executive Director Ravi Kant said, "This information only hints at what could be a larger racket of human trafficking from the N-E." NGOs said that a Singapore-based group was recruiting girls not just from Manipur but Guwahati, Kolkata, Dimapur and Shillong. NGOs also claimed that five girls on their way to Singapore were intercepted and rescued at Dimapur recently

The North East States along North Bengal have emerged as hot spots for human traffickers, who lure innocent women and children even boys with promise of jobs outside the region. However, this is perhaps the first instance of traffickers making inroads into interior hill areas and taking girls abroad.

Human trafficking, coupled with trafficking of drugs and arms, has left the entire region in turmoil and internal strife. Concerned over the increasing number of fake recruiting agencies, the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs has planned to strengthen the Emigration Act that will allow authorities to take stringent action against fraudulent agents. The amendments to the legislation are in the pipeline.

Source: Imphal Free Press

Wages of NREGS to be given through post offices for interior hill blocks

IMPHAL, Sep 26: Authorities of the Manipur government is planning to disburse the wages of the NREGS workers at the interior hill areas of the state where there is no banking facilities through local postal offices.

Postal authorities have been requested to open accounts for all NREGS workers, an official statement on the progress of the implementation of the National Rural Employment Generation Scheme, NREGS furnished to the Union Cabinet secretary for cooperation Dr. Renuka Viswanathan at Rastrapati Bhavan, New Delhi said.

“The state government will finalize agreement with the postal department and introduce payment of wages through post office,” a statement furnished on September 2 last regarding the action taken report on decision taken on core development issues in the state of Manipur in a meeting under the chair of the Union secretary in June this year said.

Dr. Renuka intimated the state principal secretary to submit an action taken report on decision taken during a meeting with the state official on various core developmental works taken up in the state with the Centre’s funding during her visit in the state in June this year.

The Union secretary is also inviting state principal secretary planning, AP Sharma to attend a meeting at New Delhi on September 29 coming in connection with the action taken report.

Manipur government decided to disburse the wages to beneficiaries through bank accounts or postal accounts with an objective to check unwanted elements like the militant groups cutting percentage from the wages at the distribution points.

In the four valley districts of the state where the implementation of the scheme commenced from this current financial year, the wages are paid through banks.

In the five hill districts including two districts which started the implementation of the scheme from this year, Ukhrul and Senapati districts the banking and postal facilities are limited in the interior blocks.

Currently, wages in the hill areas are disbursing through the village councils.

Recently, state cabinet has also cleared the engagement of field staff dedicated to NREGS for all nine districts and the process for engagement of the staff on contract basis in the districts is targeted to complete by this month, September, source said.

The Centre has also released funds for first installment of Central share in respect of six districts for the year 2008-09 and district-wise availability of funds have also been work out, it said.

A total of 10,9,567 job cards under NREGS have been provided in three hill districts, Tamenglong, Churachandpur and Chandel of Manipur since commencement of the implementation of the same from 2006-07, according to the latest status progress report of the state government.

A total of Rs 6044.91 lakhs have been incurred during the period from 2006-07 till 2007-08 in providing wages to the job card holders in these three hill district.

Mention may be made that implementation of the Centre’s flagship programme, NREGS was first started in Tamenglonglong district in 2006-07 after the district have been listed among 100 most-backward districts of the country.

A government statement showing the district-wise achievement under NREGS from 2006-07 to 2007-08 indicated that till 2007-08, a total of 40,118 job cards have been issued in Tamenglong district.

The figure was after the rectification of the discrepancy between the number of household provided employment and job cards issued in respect of Tamenglong district for the year 2006-07 and 2007-08.

The share of women beneficiaries under NREGA has increased during the year 2007-08 compared with that of 2006-07 in Tamenglong district.

In Chandel and Churachandpur districts where the implementation of the scheme started from 2007-08 simultaneously 24344 and 45105 job cards have been issued, the statement said.

As per the decision taken in meeting between the Union secretary, cooperation and state concerned officials in June this year, rural connectivity is a priority due to hilly terrain and inaccessibility of habitations in the districts. However, from 2008-09 onwards schemes relating to water conservation and water harvesting, minor irrigation development, etc. are being accorded due priority.

Meanwhile, director of NREGS, Union ministry of rural development Nitenchandra is also currently camping to inspects the works taken up in the state under the scheme.

He arrived at Imphal on September 24 last and inspected works places at Wangoi, Sawambung blocks in Imphal west and east on the first day of his arrival.

He also inspected works in Ukhrul district and scheduled to inspect the works places in Churachandpur tomorrow. After returned from Churachandpur, he will hold a meeting with the officials of the district planning officers, deputy commissioners at old secretariat building in Imphal.

Source: Imphal Free Press

Friday, September 26, 2008

Sepna zonna ah pilvan poimoh

Editorial, The Lamka Post September 26, 2008

Thupi: Zawlnei takloute lak ah pilvang un; huaite tuh belam vun silh in na kiang uah a hong pai nak ua; a sung lam uah lah nge duhgawlpipi a hingal ua. - Matthai 7:15

Mihing a sumdawnna, human trafficking kichi khovel mun tuamtuam, a diak in gam khangtou lellelte a uang mahmah hi. India leng gam khangtou lellel khat ahihna ah human trafficking case tamtak buaipihta a, a tangpi in numei kum chingloute sumdawnna zatna hideuh hi. Mihing a sumdawngte’n khemna zang in kum chinglou naupangte (numei kia hilou in pasal leng) ahihkeileh a nu-le-pate uh thuzoh in sumdawnna di’n zang sek uhi. A khen chiang in, khosakna a haksatluat ziak bang in nu-le-pate nasan in leng a tate uh zuak mai sek uhi. Hiai bang a mihing a sumdawnna kichi i lak uah leng i phawklouh kal un ana om tham hi. Manipur apat thu a ngah dungzui un Dimapur Police team in Chummukedima Check Gate a Manipur apat hong kipan bus a dapna uah mihing a sumdawng hidia muanmoh Manipur mi 1 mankhia ua, pasal naupang khat tel in numei naupang 17 hunkhia uhi. Hiai naupangte Manipur mi ngen ahih banuah numei 3 leh 4 velte kum 18 leh a tunglam ching ding ua gintak hi a, himahleh, a dang teng bel kum chinglou ngen hi uhi. Mat a omte gendan in, Manipur a agent khat in Chennai khopi a ‘factory/industry’ a sepna piak ding a chiam dungzui a Chennai zuan hi uhi. Hiai naupangte pitu kiang a police-te’n thil omdan a dot chiang un police-te lungtunna tan ding dawnna pe theilou a, phetlou in, hiai naupangte sepna mun ding ‘factory/industry’ om taktak hina ahi chih chetna lehkha poimoh leng bangmah posuah theilou hi. Hiai tungtang Manipur leh Chennai tanpha ah Dimapur police-te’n leng hoihtak in kansui mahle uh a ngaihmuanna ding khop uh dawnna koimah a mulou ahihman un naupangte tengteng Dimapur Police women cell khut ah pekhe ngal uhi. Hampha petmah ahi ua, Dimapur Police-te’n hiai tungtang Manipur sorkar leh NGO-te theisak ngal ua, Sepnawnni a Mao Gate chiang hong kha in Manipur official-te, NGO-te, Mao Public Organization leh pawlpi tuamtuam khut ah pekhia uhi.

Hiai bang thiltung pen a khatveina ahikei a, tumalam in leng Nagaland police-te mah in Manipur mi numei hon bangzah hiam ana hunkhe ngeita uhi. I khosakna uh a niam mahmah ziak leh sepna muh a haksat mahmah ziak in sum 1000, 2000 loh theihna ahihnakleh, chih ngaihdan nei tampi petmah i om uhi. Khopi a sepna awng om chih dandeuh newspaper ahihkeileh koilak hiam a ‘advertisement’ a om chiang in i kithalawp thei mahmah ua, i kithalawpna uh bel a hoihlou hizenzenlou in leh sepna zon a zon maimah ding mah ahi a, himahleh, bangchibang nna ahia? Bang company ahia? Company om taktak mah ahi hia? Company min kiphuaktawm zual khat houh ahi hia? chihte bang pilvangtak a theihchet masak tuak mahmah ahi. Company hoihtak leh piching mahmah bang ana himahleh ‘recruiting agent’ pen huai company toh kizom taktak mah ahi hia? Tuma a Johnson Enterprise bawlte’n Lamka mipi tamtak a hong khem hai dandeuh bang lel a kibawl tawm ‘recruiting agent’ ahikha diam chih pilvanhuai mahmah hi. Mihing kipummat a kipuakmang chih thil haksapi hiding ahihna ah, mihing a sumdawngte’n leng i khem nop ding dan thei mahmah ua, i lunglutna, i ut ding zawng mah a hon khem ding hi uhi. Khemna ngen ahi chih vek theih mawk kei mahleh, houchik a i ngaihtuah leh, mihing sahna mahmah Vaigam a company-te’n a ‘factory/industry’ ua semtu a taksap uh gintak haksa mahmah hi. Huai banah, hiai tungtang pen Vaigam a sepna zonna toh kisai kia ahikei hi. Tumalam in leng mi inn nasem ding dan in numei khat in Imphal lam ah numei naupang khat zawlkhe ngei hi. Himahleh, vangphathuaitak in hiai numei naupang pen hutkhiak man in om a, galvan tawi pawl khat in Lamka a ‘agent’ numeinu pen leng mankhia uhi. Sepna i deihluatnalam a i ta leh naute ‘nohchi zuakna inn’ ahihkeileh mi bawlduhdah leh mi suak-le-sal ding lel a omsak khak ding pilvan ngai mahmah ahi.



~ By: Zokhual

There's a divinity that shapes our ends, Rough-hew them how we will. - William Shakespeare

Even though India has democratic republic form of Govt, we have hereditary form of village chiefs in Manipur hills especially in Zomi/Kuki villages. Village chief system is the stumbling block of development of our Zomi/Kuki society as below: -

1. Village land belongs to village chief. So,no alternative land use policy can be implemented without the consent of the chief. This snuff off innovative and progressive land use policy for the villagers. Certain chiefs even sale the whole village with the village land solely for monetary gain.

2. As the village land is in the name of the chiefs, any Rural Development Fund that come from Central Govt or even State Govt has to come in the personal name of village chiefs. So the fund never reached the targetted poor villagers. On the other hand, why should Govt spend money for development of someone's private land!!

3. The institution of village chiefs is hereditary. The chiefs are generally not the best and deserving ones available in the village. They are simply chiefs by virtue of birth. It is a dichotomy in a democratic and republic form of Govt. Some village chiefs are simply the worst people in the village. Development and progress of the village entirely depend on the chief. You can imagine the likely fate of the village in such condition. As the people does not elect the village chief, he is not answerable to the villagers and there is no provision at all to throw away a bad chief. The villagers are simply tenants and perpetually under the mercy of the chief.

4. As the post of village chiefs carry some privilege, so many people try to be chiefs by starting new villages with even less than ten households. These atomized villages could not support schools and even churches. Without church and school, there is no chance of giving not only basic education but also moral teaching and civic sense to children. In such environment, children are born and grew up with disadvantage in the world and become criminals since young age. They also don’t have any civic sense.

5. These few households comprising the hamlet are all close relatives. They have to marry amongst themselves, which is not good biologically as there is a chance of spreading of bad genes to the next generations. Not only that, it is the root cause of giving more importance to “beh-leh-phung/phung le chang” at the expense of zomi/kuki nation at large in our society.

6. As the village chief post is hereditary and not elected post, there is no village level healthy competitive politics. Without village level development politics and progressive political process, our people never experienced healthy political education. No wonder, we can’t compete with Mizos and Nagas in political awareness. Please accept that our people are political ignorants. Our present plight is the consequence of that and our present so-called politics in 'Outer Manipur" is no politics at all.

7. Nowadays, most of the village chiefs in our area are non-resident chiefs. "Out of sight, out of mind", they say. You know what I mean. The village administration is entrusted to a relative who has no intelligence to cross the village boundary. There is considerable difference between the real sheepherd and a sheepherd who take charge for profit in the way they look after the sheep.

In view of above points, we should strive for some attainable objectives to lift up our people as suggested below: -

1. We should fight for to be under the 6th Schedule of Indian Constitution for tribal land protection and District level autonomous administration for Sadar Hills, Churachandpur District and Chandel District.

2. The village chief system should be abolished for good. In place of village chief system, we should have Panchajat Raj system entirely manned by elected representatives of the villagers with definite term.You can't abolish a system before a viable alternative is in place.

3. Pu Zauva implied that abolishion of village chief system in Mizoram was a mistake. I don't come across anyone in Mizoram who regretted about it. In compare with villagers in "Outer Manipur", I find they actually prosper due to that.

4. Hence,first 6th scheduled,then abolish village chief system for good and PR System should be readily in place.

Instead of fighting for exotic concept like ‘sovereignty’ and all that, we should fight for clear-cut and attainable objectives. If what we fight for is attainable and easily beneficial for the common people, there will be more unity among us. ‘Sovereignty’ and all that will come later.

If some one don't share my opinion about village chief system especially its present ills and its abolishion as given above, please share with me,us your contra valued opinion in this Site. I'm an eager student.




Many a time, we are misled by our greedy and selfish instinct. We often misjudge and misinterpret things at our own conveniences.”

t was a windy afternoon in ARC, Shillong in 2005. I was going to a friend who had come to visit Shillong. As I reached close to ARC Taxi Stand, a huge Pine tree fell across the road. Bang!!! A speeding military truck collided with a car due to the blockade! Two people from the car died and a jawan seriously injured. People flocked all of a sudden while I try to recollect the incident. My inner self tells me “what a bad day for the men in car!”, “what a bad luck!” It never came into my mind that I got a second life and that I was lucky to be unharmed, at just a metre away from the spot. Seeing me standing there, everybody exclaimed that I was lucky.

Although I didn’t view the incident as anything but sheer chance, I nodded out the courtesy. Deep down, I didn’t feel any gratitude and thus quickly diverted the conversation to the cause of the uprooting, blaming callousness of the authorities.

When I narrated the incident to my visiting friend, he too suggested that I was lucky. He even embraced me and kissed me! Wait, “there is nothing special about it. I wasn’t destined to be under the tree today” I said.

Now three years past that incident had happened, I can still remember my calm and composure on that day.

Months later, a youth get together function was held at Laitmukhrah, near St. Anthony’s College. Apart from the food and entertainment, there was a special session wherein a lucky participant could win a prize. The organizer would pick a slip from a jar and read aloud the name of an item written there. Whoever produce the thing first, won a prize. “Get me a one rupee note and I pay Rs. 500”, announced a staff. My joy knew no bound. For I had a new one rupee note always kept in my wallet (I don’t know why) those days. I was a bit nervous. I asked myself “Are they serious”, etc. As I slowly reached for my wallet, someone else form the crowd hurriedly passed a one rupee note and claimed the prize before me. Believe me, I was red! I was inconsolable. For the rest of the day, my thoughts stayed rooted on the missed prize. ‘I would have won’. ‘I should have it.’ As everyone would put it, it was sheer bad luck. What a bad luck that I missed it by just a couple of seconds.

Then suddenly, I gained my conscious and recalled the incident at ARC. Where was the calm and composure that I had taken so much pride in that day? Did it exist only when things worked out in my favor? I could accept good fortune as a matter of destiny and brush it aside. Why is it then that I couldn’t accept bad luck too with the same intensity or equanimity?

I realized that while I look the good things that happened for granted, I grieved disproportionately when things didn’t go as I wished.

Later that evening, I was so to say at my best self. That grief and regret changed into joy! For from that moment I could maintain a balance between “good luck” and “bad luck”. Whenever disappointment comes, I quickly make a list of the times I have been lucky. If the Pipal tree is significant for Gautama Buddha, for me, it is the Pine tree at ARC!

Paddy fails to bear fruits

IMPHAL, Sep 25 : Consequent upon attack by sting bug, paddy planted in Tollen village located under Tousem sub-division of Tamenglong district along NH-53 have failed to bear fruits.

Lamkholun Haokip, son of the village chief brought some sample of the paddy plants which have failed to bear fruits to the office of this newspaper and narrated the woes of the villagers brought about by the crop failure.

A villager sowing five tins of rice seeds was expecting 250 tins of rice in yield but following the attack by sting bugs, the actual yield was only 10 tins.
Further compounding woes of the villagers, the number of mice has also increased to an alarming extent in Tollen village, conveyed Lamkholun Haokip.

Animals dying Saikul Sub-Divisional

IMPHAL, Sep 25: An unknown disease has claimed many domestic animals and poultry like pigs, chickens and ducks in many villages located in and around Saikul sub-divisional headquarters. According to presi- dent of Kuki Students’ Organisation, Saikul Thong- jalun Mate, villagers of Ma-kokching, Thangkhanphai, Saikul Bazar, Saikul village and Nungba were worried and caught helpless as domestic animals like pigs, chickens and ducks started dying suddenly due to an unknown disease in the pa-st one week. People are also apprehensive that the same disease may spread to the interior villages of Saikul. Taking into account of the toll taken by the disease, the KSO president sought immediate attention of the Govt officials concerned.

Source: The Sangai Express

Thursday, September 25, 2008

Cops identify cyber cafe from where email threat to Advani was sent

SHILLONG: Police have claimed to have identified the cyber cafe from which the email, purportedly sent by Indian Mujahideen terrorists, to eliminate BJP leader L K Advani during his Shillong visit on September 29, was sent.

Refusing to disclose the name of the cafe, DGP B K Dey Sawian said the mail was sent from a cafe in Shillong.

"Definitely the email was not sent by a prankster. It's a two page mail written with specific inputs and details. We are taking it seriously and working on it to trace the sender," Sawian said.

He said the police was taking the matter very seriously. "Advani is given the highest category security, yet we cannot afford to take any chances," the DGP said.

When asked whether the police had any specific input about the presence of Indian Mujahideen militants in the state, Sawian said, “As of now we do not have specific inputs on that, but it cannot be ruled out."

"Soon after the blasts in Ahmedabad and Delhi, we have put certain places across the state under scanner acting on intelligence inputs. We are looking at those (places)," he added.

BJP not to cancel Advani's visit despite threat

The BJP will go ahead with the scheduled visit of L K Advani to the northeast despite the email threat given by suspected Indian Mujahideen terrorists to eliminate him.

"We are going ahead with the programme," BJP president H S Syiemlieh said before going into a huddle with senior state leaders to discuss the matter.

Terming the threat as 'nothing unusual', he said the party was in touch with the police.

"We are not sure about the credential of the threat. The responsibility of his (Advani) security lies on the government," the BJP president said.

Govt to ensure Advani's security: CM

Meghalaya Chief Minister Donkupar Roy has assured that the state government would ensure BJP leader L K Advani's visit to Shillong is incident free.

In the wake of an email threat, purportedly by Indian Mujahideen terrorists to eliminate Advani during his visit here on September 29, Roy said, "We are verifying the matter. The government will ensure that Advani has a safe visit to the state."

"He (Advani) is an important leader. Police is taking all measures to trace the sender of the email and verify the authenticity of it," he told reporters here.


Another trafficking case, Tml girls flee Malaysia night club

IMPHAL, Sep 24: After the recent incident of rescuing one boy and 16 girls hailing from Ukhrul and Senapati District by Dimapur police from being trafficked to Chennai on promises of jobs, five girls, four of them from Tamenglong district and another from Assam but belonging to Zeliang-rong community who had been taken to Singapore on a similar promise but were sold off to a night club at Malaysia reportedly fled and have taken refuge in a destitute home.

After fleeing from the night club, the five girls are now reportedly staying in a destitute home at Singapore run by Reverend David of Tamil Nadu.

It is said that the girls do not have their passports and visas in their possession. The home at Singapore where they are currently putting up is located near the Indian Embassy.

In connection with this incident, human rights activist Kinderson Pamei told The Sangai Express that he came to know about it after one of the girls and Reverend David himself contacted him.

The Reverend in particular communicated that the girls have no means of coming back as their passports and visas are not with them and urged to make necessary arrangements for the girls to come back home, Kinderson said, while informing that he had also submitted a memorandum to the Ministry of Home Affairs as well as Union External Affairs in this regard.

The family members of the girls from Tamenglong have also lodged complaint with the police.

Out of the five girls, two hail from Dailong village in Tamenglong sub-division, one from Khunjaron village, also under the same sub-division and another one from Phaithingjang village under Khoupum sub-division of Tamenglong district.

The other girl is from Assam but belonging to Zeliangrong community.

The five girls had been reportedly taken to Singapore by an agent from Tamenglong on promise of providing them with job as domestic helpers in January this year.

In connection with this latest case of trafficking, president of United Naga Council (UNC) Samson Ramei said they have also heard about it informally. After establishing the truth of the matter, UNC would take up appropriate action and would not remain quiet, he said.

Expressing serious concerned over the incident, Chairperson of Manipur State Commission for Women Dr Ch Jamini said the light of increase in cases of human trafficking the State Government should not remain indifferent but take up appropriate measures to curb it. It is high time for the parents to be cautious, she said, adding that the Commission has not yet received any definite report on the latest incident.

Source: The Sangai Express

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Zogam Laigelhsiamte | Aloysius Nehkhojang Tungdim

Zomite lak a educationist leh thinker minthang Pu Aloysius Nehkhojang Tungdim in Zo suante lak a kipumkhatna ding ngai poimoh mahmah a, te kiang a a genna ah "Apaita kum 100 val a Dr. G.Grierson in na bawl 'Linguistic Survery of India' a 'Kuki-Chin Languages' na kichi pen 'Zo Languages' chia Zo suante pauteng lahkhawm a Common Dictionary khat bawl ding," a utdan gen hi. Amah ZORO a General Secretary ahih ban ah dinmun tuamtuam len a, tulel in Rayburn College ah Lecturer nna semlel hi. Pu Tungdim tanchin tomkim a nuai a bang ahi:

1. Min : Aloysius Nehkhojang Tungdim
2. Pian kum leh ni : 17th July 1946
3. Pianna veng/khua : Lhilhan Kholui (Near Tuilaphai) Henglep Sub-Divn.
4. Tulel a na omna veng : Chiimtui Veng, Thingkangphai, CCpur District
5. Pa/Nu min : (L) Letzachin Tungdim and (L) Elizabeth Thangzachiin
6. Zi/Pasal min : Angela Vungneiching Tungdim
7. Siamsinna munte : Thingkangphai, Imphal, Bandel (Hooghly Dist. W.B), Chennai, Shillong, Sonada (Darjeeling Dist. W.B), Bangalore (Karnataka) and Mysore.
8. Tulel a na zil/sepna :

i) Lecturer in MIL (Zou), Rayburn College, New Lamka from 2006 till date.
ii) Teacher of MIL (Zou), Don Bosco High School, Lamka, Churachandpur from 2003 till date.
iii) Secretary, Zou Literature Society, Manipur from 1984 till date.
iv) General Secretary, Zo Re-unification Organisation (ZORO) Gen. Hqtrs. From 1-4-2001 till date.
v) Member, Zomi Economic Planning and Development Agency (ZEPADA) from 28th April 2006 till date.
vi) Chairman, Legal Advisory Board, Elementary Aided School Teachers' Association, Churachandpur District, from 25th Sept.2007 till date.
vii) Investigator/Resource Person, Development of Zou language under N.E. Language Development (NELD) Project of Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL) Mysore

Thugelh/Laibu Toh kisai:

1. Kum/Kha bangzah laibu/thu na nagelhta a?
Dawnna : Kum 32 bang (1976-2008) laibu/thu leh la ka na gelh ta hi.

2. Bangchi lam thu a hia na gelh?
Dawnna :

i) Lailam khansakna, ii) Gam leh Nam, iii) khotang hindan, iv) Niteng simthu,
v) Pathian thu, vi) Mimal ngaihdan

3. Laibu bangzah na bawl/gelh kheta a? Ahihtheih leh laibu min hon telsak in.
Dawnna : Laibu pen sagih (7) vel bang keima mimal leh lawmte toh kithuah a ka nabawl a tamzaw ahi

4. Na laibu bawl/gelh te nang mimal a na bawl/gelh hia aihkei leh pawlpi/mipi toh pangkhawm a?
Dawnna : Ka laibu gelhte pen keima mimal aka gelh pawl aum a, midang toh pankhawmna zong a um hi, sutkhiatna (publishing) ahihleh pawlpi in a bawl zel ahi.

5. Article bangzah bang na gelh khe ta a?
Dawnna : Sawm leh nga bang ka na gelh a, a tamzaw sappau (english) a ka nagelh ahi.

6. Bangchibang Tanchinbu/Nitengsimthu te a thugelh na hia?
Dawnna : a) Local b) District c) State

7. Award leh Kipahman na muh khak te omleh hon gelh in.
Dawnna : i) "Man of the Decade Award" (1981-1991) given bythe Tungdim Phungpi Organisation and Tungdim Khangthah kiloikhom at their Joint Conference held at Molnom, 28-31 Jan. 1992.
ii) "Award of Merit" conferred by the world confederation of Don Bosco Past Pupils, on the occasion of The Third Asia-Australia Congress of Don Bosco Past Pupils held at Bombay, 21st-26th Nov. 1984- lauds for the service rendered to the society by his pivotal role in the Translation of the First holy Bible in Zou.
iii) "Certificate of Honour" was given the Zou Presbyterian Synod (Manipur Gam Presbytery) as the Chief Translator of the First Zou Holy Bible.

Thukhotaang Dotna:

1. Laigelh lam toh kisai in I nam pumpi bang dinmun a ding lel in na mu?
Dawnna : Laigelh lam toh kisai in i nampumpi dinmun niam mama nalai a jiehte ahileh
i) Common language/official language ki nei nailou
ii) Nampi khat i hileh ima lieuliau Lai (script) khat i nei i khantousah.

2. Bangchi’n i lailam dinmun uh khangtou thei ding in na gingta a? Banglam a panlaak kisam na sa?
Dawnna : Ei Zo ethnic group paute khantouna ding in anuoi ate poimaw ka sa hi.
i) A common platform for all our literature societies.
ii) To conduct literature seminars and workshops
iii) More students to study linguistics at PG level.

3. Lai nana gelhkhiat leh nana suahkhiat taakte apan in bang zilkhiat thak na nei? Mipite response bang hi’n na mu?
Dawnna : Ka na gelhkhiat laibute tawm ka sa seng/lua a, gelh behbeh ding ka lungtup ahi. Zo suante (Kuki-Cin) paute khantousahna dinga Common Literature Society khat bawl kiphamaw hi.

4. Mabaan ah bang tup na nei?
Dawnna : Apaita kum 100 val a Dr. G.Grierson in na bawl 'Linguistic Survery of India' a 'Kuki-Chin Languages' na kichi pen "Zo Languages" chia Zo suante pauteng lahkhawm a Common Dictionary khat bawl ding.

5. Khenkhat te’n i lapau/lavuui a mang kuankuante kepbit hoih ahi, a chi ua, khenkhatte’n lah tulai vai deuh a lapau/laivuui thuuk lawte a kilawm kei, a chizeel ua. Hiai tungtaang ah bang a na ngaihdaan?
Dawnna : Kei ngaidan in lapau/laham leh lavuui/laguol chite amanlouna dinga kepbit hoi kasa hi. Ei Zomite pen i lapau tampi akibanga, tuajieh in tamte keemhoilei ikipumkhatna un masawnzaw ding ka gingta hi.

B I B L I O G R A P H Y :

"Pasien Laisiengthou" (Apokrifa kichi Deuterocanonical laibute tel a kibawl), Chief Translator of the first Zou Holy Bible, 66+7=73 books Published by the Diocese of Imphal, Bishop's House, Impha, Printed at SIEA, 2-B Taylors Road, Madras- 60010, 5000 copies 1983 released.


i) With a team translated the Holy Bible in Zou from 1976 onwards and was released in 1983 (November)
ii) Hinkho Vah (in 3 parts or books)
iii) Zouham Zahdan (zou grammer and compositon for Cl IX and X) MIL Subject fo HSLC EXam. approved by BSEM.
iv) Pictorial Glossary in Zou, CIIL, Mysore, 2007. written in collaboration with editorial board
v) Chinthu Zaila (Zou Literature REader for Cl IX) published by ZLS 2001
vi) Zou Lai Kuona (Course Book for Cl.IX) 2001 published by ZLS.
vii) Chinthu Zaila (Literature Reader for Class XI and XII approved by Council of Higher Secondary Education Manipur, 2006.


i) 'Who are we?' Zoheisa Magazine 1985 Eng Sect page 8.

ii) 'The Socio-Cultural Life if the Zomis of Manipur' published in 'Culture, Mission and Contentualisation', book edited by L.Jeyakelan in 2000 pp.43-69.

iii) Life Sketch of Aloysius Ravalico SDB, Pioneer Catholic Missionary of Manipur appeared in Golden Memoirs(1957-2007) of Mary Immaculate Parish, Chingmeirong, Imphal p.42-46.

iv) 'The Advent of Catholic Christianity in South East of Manipu' incoporated/inserted in the 'History of the Catholic Church in Manipur' p.61-65.

v) 'The Mesages of Christmas' appeared in several newspapers and magazines in 1970's
etc. etc.



- Philip Thanglienmang DANICS

The wise shall inherit glory but shame shall be the promotion of fools”
Proverbs 3:35

I was rather surprised when Mr. Thansuonmung Suontah; Chairman Youth Department, ZCF Delhi rang me up requesting me to write an article, for the coming Decade of existence Youth department magazine which will be released on the occasion of 10th Anniversary(Decadal) Celebration of Youth Department’s existence; serving the fellowship and the youths of Zomi Christian Fellowship Delhi. It took me about a week to decide which topic to pen down for my younger brethren of ZCF Youth Department on the occasion of their Decadal existence in the capital of India.

One day while I was discussing some topics of our society with some of our young boys, it occurred to me that I should write on the topic ‘Youth and Career’ which i thought would be the most appropriate subject in this age of fast changing globalization of our society.

When I begin to write this topic, my thoughts goes back to the time when I was a village urchin, roaming freely and carefree in the rivulets and forests(jungles) of my native hills searching for spring season mushrooms of various hues and varieties, wild roots and wild fruits. Climbing the rainforest trees and scampering in the paddy fields trying to catch the tiny rats and mice or at times running after venomous snakes. I recalled the Chakpi river in full spate in the monsoon seasons washing away the river banks with loud bangs. Where, I used to swim the dangerous torrents of river currents while on angling trips to the length and breadth of the river Chakpi catching eels(snake fish). I recall the times when I used to go to the school reluctantly with my half-torn half-pants, one piece shirt and a pair of sleepers carrying a bag load of books. When difficult and tormenting subjects like English Hindi and Manipuri turn came during the day, we would bunk the class one by one on the pretext of going to the toilet to escape being thrashed with long canes of our teachers.

From then on, we would climb up the high hills upwards situated on the eastern side of my school, and climbing up on the midway the high hills where we set up a tree camp below canopy of trees; some which born edible fruits; which we christened them as Vitamin fruits. In the cool and breezy afternoon we used to basked away in the jungle camps enjoying the cool wind blowing or the bright sushines or braving the heavy rains till the above mentioned subjects passed over with time.

Once, six of our class mates with my naughty initiatives, we went down to a river called Konohli which is an abandoned river valley formed as an oxbow lake near the Chakpi river(Tapei lui). We swam in the river till the school was over. On reaching the school, our headmistress declared us; Blacksheep of the school. As retribution for our sins, we were asked to carry school books on our heads from the school to girls convent. It so, happened on that day, I did not bring my school bag(books) to school, the result was that I was given a big piece of oval stone to carry headlong which I carried reluctantly on my young head.

When I reached home, my father interrogated me as to why I misled my classmates and took them to the river, I had no concrete answer. He advised me never to mislead anyone from that day onwards. I thought that he would thrash me thoroughly because of my naughty pranks, but he did not lift up any cane or stick to strike me. It really touched my inner thoughts and mind. My young head began to explore many things silently then on.

My father told me about many of his comrades in the army whose children had gone on to become respectable people and officers. Gradually, my young minds began to think of possibilities of becoming like some of the children of his comrades. First of all, he told me that if you know English you will be able to become an officer. This piece of advice fired my young mind like the most powerful engine of my being. He put me to Manipuri and Hindi tuitions a physically challenged tutor Late Kokngang taught us. For Maths tuition he sent me to our village postmaster Mr. Anandi (Assamese) who married our my distant cousin and he became a part and parcel of our society. Then on, I began to take things more seriously. My father used to ask me then, ‘Mangkang, when you grow up what will you provide your wife and children?’ (‘Mangkang aw, na let ciengin na zi na tate bang in na vata diei?’ ciin ei dong let hi.). In those days, my father’s fields tenants were Nepalis, out of innocence, I replied that when I grow up the Nepalis will provide us food. Now, of course, I know that it is not so. That my father meant to ask me what would be my Career when i grow up. He was building my mental Career.

When, I used to behold our society around me the situation was quite distressing, poverty and illiteracy hovering like the eagles on high. I thought what was wrong with us, can’t we rise up with dignity ? Others can do it, why can’t I do ? What am I made of ? Definitely, not less inferior! to anyone around me. Everywhere, I used to hear unpleasant words of scornful remarks and despise about my society which of course, I would keep it to myself for now.

I prayed to my creator, ‘Oh, my creator, God, why did you make me to be despised and look down upon by my fellow brothers around me?’ Can’t I be also like them or more progressing than them?. Then, my creator spoke to me through my inner being that I could surely be more than the people you see around and interact with them. Then, I asked and prayed to my creator again, ‘Oh, my creator, how can I become more or equal to the people I see around me?’ He replied to me, ‘Son, be wise, always seek wisdom and knowledge, then I will give you glory and peace of mind’. He said to me, ‘You are poor, I know this fact very well, but seek me seek my wisdom and my knowledge, you shall be provided’.

He said to me, ‘ My son, you have to follow my advice of 1-2-3 formula, if you want to become someone in the society’. Then, I asked my creator, ‘ My good creator, what is this formula of 1-2-3 ? Can you please explain in detail?’. Then, my creator told me as given below:

‘My son, Formula 1-2-3 can be explained like this, when you get up in the morning from your bed you must give me No.1 preference over others by remembering me that I am your creator and you must surrender yourself to me first(No.1) before you begin your day. In the second place, think of Jesus my only begotten son who died for you and in the third place think of the Holy Spirit who lives in you. Your mind should meditate on the Holy Trinity everyday. This is the First Formula 1-2-3. After that, give No. 1 importance to your father and mother, secondly give importance to your teachers and thirdly give importance to your duties. This is the Second Formula 1-2-3.

While you tread the path of Youth from childhood to puberty, then to teenage and to adulthood, my son do not loose sight of your Career by indulging in your Youthful Dreams and Desires. You must balance well these two powerful forces lest you be carried away in unidirectional route. After all these tempestuous sailing through your Youthful Passion and Dreams, You will across more important events of your life say for example Class X level which I would again classify as No.1 of the Third Formula 1-2-3. Balance your Youthful Passion with your Youthful Career lest you fall into dark pitch of no return for glory of life and peace of mind. There will be stormy seas and rough roads ahead of you but you must proceed on, to cross the hurdles on your way. When you cross this No. 1 you will come to the next number.

As you grow further and further into teenage wanderings, you come to Class XI which I say this stage is No.2 of our Second Formula 1-2-3. Here, also you shall again have to balance your Youthful Passions and Dreams with Your future Career lest you become a mediocre of life with no honour or glory. There is no pain no gain as the age old adage says it so. Mount Everest was not climbed with ease by Sir Tenzing Norkay and Sir Edmund Hillary. Roman was not built in a day.

Come to Class XII, the final No. 3 of our Third Formula 1-2-3 will be the most crucial event of your Youthful Passions and Youthful Career both of them have to be looked after well, also well-balanced for your youthful Prosperity of your future earthly life with your near and dear ones. This stage of our Fomula is like the U.S Space Programs where the Space Shuttles are carefully designed and manufactured to utmost precisions in order to shoot into the unknown heavens. Of course, some are successful others end up in failures like the one which shot up astronaut Kalpana Chawla and other 6(six) astronauts.

You must gear up your Youthful Passions and Youthful Career cautiously and seriously otherwise your Youthful Career Flight path might go haywire into abysmal depth of no return into the deep oceans of chaotic world like the sunken Spacecraft or Ship.

Your Youthful Passions must and must be well-regulated and disciplined and channelized for your future Youthful Career. All the might and power of your of Youthful Existence should be directed towards your time bound and time limiting Youthful Career hunt on this earthly sojourn. Always, remembering what your creator explained to you in the beginning of the Formula 1-2-3 interpretations.

“For I was my father’s son, tender and only beloved in the sight of my mother. He taught me also, and said unto me, let thine heart retain my words; keep my commandments and live. Get wisdom, get understanding forget it not…” Proverb 4: 3-5

“Oh, Youth where are thou now ? Yes, thou are already 3 decades behind me but Youth thou hast chastised me and taught me to live the rest of my elderly life”.

As Psalm 37:11 says ‘The meek shall inherit the earth and shall delight themselves in the abundance of peace’. And Psalm 37: 29 says; ‘The righteous shall inherit the land, and dwell therein forever’.

God is the Creator, Giver and Taker of all things. Whatever you see all around you are his and he can surely bestow upon you only trust in Him and yourself, O, Youthful man and woman open your eyes and ears do not disbelieve the truth of my sayings.

Lastly, let us always remember the saying of Our Lord Jesus, ‘Ask it shall be given unto you, knock it shall be opened unto you’.


Constable lakna dia PET leh DET result suak

IMPHAL, Sept 23: Manipur Police Department nuai a Constable (Female/Civil) lakna di’n zan in 2nd MR ground ah Physical Efficiency Test (PET) neih in om a, tua ah Churachandpur district apat mi 62 paisuak uhi. Himahleh, hun a kidaihlouh ziak in PET a tel dia kuan Churachandpur mi 74-te’n PET zou manlou ua, amau September 26, zing dak 8 in a mun ngei mah ah Tamenglong district mite toh PET nei khawm ding uhi.

Huai banah, Constable (Driver/Despatch Rider) lakna di’n leng zan in 2nd IRB Khuman Lampak ah Driving Efficiency Test (DET) neih in om a, tua ah Churachandpur mi 109 lohching uhi.

Constable (Female/Civil) leh Constable (Driver/Despatch Rider) lakna dia PET leh DET a Churachandpur district apat lohchinna ngahte min pek 4na ah hon kitaklang hi.

Constable (Female/Civil) lakna dia CCpur apat PET zoute

Kimboi Zou, Chiinlianching, Chinghaokim, Nengtinlhing, S. Chingngaihlun, Ngaihoihnuam, Lianngainem, Chong Mary, Thangngaihlun, Lianbiaklun, Ginmuanching, Chingnemvung, Veineikim Baite, Nianglianmawi, Mansuanching, Serto Sophia Kom, Siamlunching, S. Chachan Vaiphei, Mime Hmangaih zuali, Lhingjoujam Haokip, Ngaineichong, Jenny Dimneilam, Ngaizelchin, Grace Biakmoi, S. Boney Vungthianhoih, Nemneilhing Haokip, Hoinu Mangte, Mary Ngaizalam, Lamneichong Kipgen, Lucy Lunching, Lamkhohoi Haokip, Nengneichong Haokip, Ngaineihlian, S. Carolyn Vakneihoih, Nemkhanchiin, Siami Vaiphei, Neiboi Doungel, Alice Lalmuongpui, Lhingneilam Haokip, S. Manngaihching, Haobam Jeemy Devi, T. Cicilia Niangboi, Nengneihoi Touthang, Gaul Milun, Ruby Tamang, Lal Zuiliani, Zaching Shoute, Dammuanching, Lheikhohat Guite, L. Vungliankim Simte, Vahneo Lupho, Awisiamnuam, Niangkhanmang, Chinneinuom, Tinneilhing, Tinjavah, Lalhlimlawm Paite, Kh. Vahneiting Khongsai, Hoihnu Guite, Luanngaihnuam, Lamneihoi leh Khumthinching ahi.

Constable (Driver/Despatch Rider) lakna dia CCpur apat DET zoute

Remsanglien, Khailinlal, T. Lalthanmawia, Letkhongam Haolai, Kaikhohao Haolai, Darsangluoi, Mickey Ramdinthar, Thangkholun Haokip, K. Siamlian, S. Khaikhanlam Zou, K. Lianzou, Khupkhanlam, D. Thangkholal Haokip, Langsuanpau, Ch. Henkholal Khongsai, Songkhomang Changsan, V. Khupthansang, Seitinthang Hangsing, Hempu Kom, Emanuel L. Zote, Lalhoulhim, Lalminlun Gangte, John Lalrinthara, Liansangvung, Khuma Vaiphei, Thangmuankhup, D.D. Vanlalhrat, Thongkholam, Chongtha Premkumar Singh, Shomang Haokip, G. Paolal Kipgen, Kamkholian Haokip, David Onkholam, Paothang Haokip, Thangremkhum, Lallienkunga, Lonzoremsanga, D. Thangbiaksang, Khaikhanmuan, Pauvungkhai, Lalrosang, H. Muana, Paotinthan Haokip, Chinhaulian Samte, Thangoumang, Lamkhanlian, D. Chinlianmang, Tongminlen, Janglianthang Haokip, Stephen Thangkhanmuan, Lianbiakthang, Lenminthang Haokip, S. Seikhojang Haokip, S. Hemkhosei Haokip, Suangsiankham Buansing, Kamminlun Neitham, T. Ginzakham, Larry Lalnunpui, Thongkholun Baite, Lianlemsang, Thangsei Haokip, T. lalmasuan, Lalpu Paite, Khamchinlal Guite, T. Khaikholian Zou, Thangkholet, K.S. Lyanzaw Zou, Thangminlun Lhungdim, Satkhomang, Akhup Kom, Lalmuanthang, Ginlemguat, P. Doukhanlal, Thang Daniel, Haopu Haokip, Amang Haokip, T. Ginkhanlam Zou, Haokholun Haokip, Md. Dewan Shah, Minlien Singson, Doukholam Haokip, Sonminlun Ralte, H. Lalramhluna, T. Lettinmang Haokip, Pauboi Gangte, Dousei Haokip, L. Khamchinkhup, Zammuanlal, Tg. Lalkhotinthang Gangte, Dailousiam Tungdim, Genlalsiam, Paokholun, Paulalthoum, Kapkhanmang, G. Lianzamuan, S. Chinzakhum, T. Mangcha Haokip, Lamthianson, Ngullianmoi Vaiphei, S. Haopu Haokip, Thangkhojang, Zamsonlian. T. Doulalngak, D. Thangsiam, Lisuanchingmang, T. Lettinthang, Lunkholen Haokip, Lienneisang leh Lal Hawnglien ahi.

Source: The Lamka Post September 24, 2008

Bribery alleged in Ccpur women police service recruitment

Lamka, Sep 23: Strong allegations of bribery which is depriving meritorious candidates of selection in the women’s police recruitment at the 2nd MR campus has surfaced amongst those vying for the jobs.

Not even the first phase of the fixed recruitment for state women police are over but scribes of the state have enough to write about on the faulty practices and corruption at high places.

The complaints said most qualified and deserved candidates here could not even enter the campus without paying Rs. 8000 to Rs. 10000 to appear for the physical efficiency test for entry as women constable.

The current recruitment rally is supposedly closely monitored by battalion authorities but there are so many role players like a certain “madam” whom all know through closed door dealing and one woman police of the Imphal east police.

The poor with no money to pay off are left behind even as they have high potential and have qualified in all the tests (PET).

According to Biak, who is a Class xi student and trying for the post in all items of test like shot put, long jump, high jump, 100 mt race and others she qualified in the excellent category.

But the big question came afterwards when she was asked to pay Rs. 15000 without which she would not be included in the selected list, she said to IFP adding other unqualified candidates paid money to the two women at the spot.

Which is why they were selected and she was not, though she deserved to be, she said.

Another girl candidate named Lun who was very angry when IFP spoke to her, said yesterday upto 150 serial numbers went very smoothly and afterwards they were made to enter in large numbers out of which only some were chosen and picked for they had paid money to the concerned officials.

She further said that she was asked to pay money but she did not have anything to give, and as a result she did not get a chance to appear for the efficiency test.

A girl named Chingboi said that she finished all tests with a good record but was not selected, while some others who could not even lift the shot put nor run the 100 mt race were selected.

There were more than 600 candidates from Churachandpur but very few were selected. This was not due to paucity of suitable candidates but because the head women police were involved in making secret dealings in collusion with some officials.

Taking bribes is not uncommon in the state but at the stage of PET it is too early. Many qualified but poor people like herself were sidelined, said Niangboi, who was one of the victims.

Many other candidates of the district also had similar tales to tell.

Source: The Imphal Free Press

Politics of ethnicity and armed violence in Manipur

- Lokendra Arambam

Northeast India in the past hundred years has seen major shifts in its ethnic landscape and polity. Post-independent India in the region has moved from ethnic harmony and organic geo-political body to fractured polity and antagonistic ethnic identity claims largely created by the Indian State's struggle to retain its territorial integrity.

The challenge before the ethnogenes is to device ways of responding to both the militaristic framework as well as the newly devised "development" mantra of the Indian State.


In the month of June this year, at Moreh, about 120 miles to the Southeast of Imphal at the international border adjoining Myanmar, marked yet another rupture in the chequered history of pluralism in Manipur. For the first time, two ethnic communities - the Meetei and Kuki - who shared an age-old history of friendship and amity were locked in armed violence.

Eleven people were killed during those events. Moreh, incidentally, became a centre of human activity since international trade and commerce had been formally opened between the Govt of India (GoI) and Myanmar in 1994-95. This small hill township has a diverse population including Tamils, Malayalees along with Manipur's ethnic indigenes, notably Nagas, Kukis and Meeteis.

There had been political movement based on ethno-national ideologies. For example, the Nagas claimed the district of Tengnoupal, wherein Moreh was a major economic and political centre, as the ancestral domain of the Nagas.

On the other side of the ideological spectrum, the Kuki ethnic communities, ranging from various clans of the indigenous variety to kith and kin from across the border in Myanmar, had been actively pursuing the political goal of Zalen-gam, the abode of the Kukis which includes Moreh. A significant number of Meetei settled in Moreh completes the overall ethnic balance of this border town.

The incident at Moreh which nearly sparked off a communal bloodbath between the Meetei and Kuki communities has been assuaged temporarily through the combined efforts of various civil societies and the Government. But the enmity between two militant outfits, the UNLF (United National Liberation Front) and the KNA/KNO (Kuki National Army/Kuki National Organization), which lies at the root of the incident continues to simmer in the backdrop.

The press releases of the two militant outfits remind us of conflictual perceptions on issues of land and territory. The KNO believes that the unfortunate events of June 9, 2007 at Moreh, in which 11 people died, were a direct consequence of UNLF's "intrusive presence in Kuki territory," and urged "the UNLF to confine their revolutionary activities, ideologically and physically, to the valley called Manipur, which had been their abode from time immemorial."

The UNLF, on the other hand, charged the KNA of targeting the Meetei people indiscriminately with the sole agenda of whipping up communal tension in Moreh. The UNLF also reiterated that it has nothing against the Kukis but it will deal with the KNA/KNO firmly for allowing itself to be used as a weapon by the Indian Army against the liberation struggle and against the UNLF.

Incidentally, the Naga civil society groups who support the implicit claims of Naga ancestral domain which includes Moreh proffered friendship to the Kuki community. Incidentally, the Nagas and Kukis were involved in a noholds-barred mutual ethnic cleansing campaign in 1992-93, which began from the struggle to control Moreh and its economic under-belly.


Since the late 1960s, the Naga ethno-national movement had been propagating integration of contiguous portions of Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh into Greater Nagalim. They also had been insinuating that the Meetei independence struggle against the Indian Union is that of and for the valley (consisting of some 700 square miles) alone.

The KNA/KNO also claims that the Meetei independence struggle is of the Meeteis alone for the valley. The Meetei non-State actors in the valley, however, have a spatial imagination of their independence encompassing the organic topography of the hills and the valley along with ethnic populations as in pre-colonial times which gave formal shape and features to the polity of Manipur.

Ethnic insurgencies in the Northeast in the course of their prolonged struggle against the powerful Indian State seem to be losing their original character of ethnic unity and harmony. Ethnicity, as an element of group affiliation and "subjective, symbolic and emblematic use of their own cultures in order to differentiate themselves from other groups," had been accentuated during the course of the struggle.

Amongst the major ethnic communities of Meetei, Naga and Kuki, only the Meetei remain as armed contestants to the Indian State, when the other communities of Naga and Kuki are in varying levels of ceasefire and political understanding with Government of India.

It is hard to say whether the heightening tensions and sharper accentuation of social boundaries between/among these communities are caused by the internal dynamic of struggle for power and resources in conflictual growth processes, or these relationships are being manipulated by exogenous factors like the counter-insurgent forces, or that these symptoms are the surface manifestation of internal intrigue and behindthe-scene maneuvers of elite stakeholders in the identity project. At the present moment, the attitude of the highlander civil societies sympathetic to their respective armed groups no longer reflects the pluralities of the pre-colonial order.

The issue of distance mentalities amidst civil society groups and hardening perceptions of the divide between the "we-self' and the "other" are portents of latent social conflict. The formulation of separate entities and the spatial dichotomisation of the imaginative geographies between the hills and plains in terms of ethnicity and ethnicisation of social relations and networks are deeper issues afflicting the plural order in the era of insurgency.

The politics of insurgency and counter-insurgency, and variegated responses by the awakened ethnicities in the changing dynamics of life, and the development of selfconsciousness and subjectivity in ethnic formations in the emerging discourse on land and territoriality are matters of deep import.

How does the issue of land and territoriality then inflect the changing dimensions of ethnic strife?
Or are these proclamations and media handouts reflections of the self-appropriation of peoples voice in the subaltern margins of visibility by strident political elites in the stream of insurgent history?
What is the reality behind insurgency and counter-insurgency which form conflicting discourses?

A brief history of contemporary insurgency would throw light on the patterns of political and social violence afflicting ethnic relations in the state. We are all aware that the assertion of Naga nationhood has "legitimate" claims to territorialisation of substantial portions of Northeast India's geography through claims of land-people relationship and concepts of the ancestral domain.

Territoriality is not a simple occupation of a sizable piece of the earth's surface. Territoriality, according to Robert D Sack, "is the attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence or control people, phenomena and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over geographic area.... It is not an instinct or drive, but rather a complex strategy... and the device through which people construct and maintain spatial organisation."

The Nagalim concept also features ardent pursuance of a geographic boundary which is linear where vertical interfaces between "state sovereignty" intersect the surface of the earth. As vertical interfaces, boundaries have no horizontal extent.

This modem concept of territorialisation therefore is being processed as against the non-boundedness of the human geography of precolonial times. The old order is sought to be transformed since Mr. Th. Muivah, who happened to be a Tangkhul Naga from Manipur, is regarded as the main protagonist of the political project of Nagalim.

In the words of Winnichakul, territoriality involves three basic human behaviours - a form of classification by area, a form of communication by boundary and an attempt at "enforcing." The third factor was what forced the use of aggressive spate of hate Meetei campaigns and various democratic agitations, economic blockades and all other forms to effect enforcement.

The event of June 18, 2001 where eighteen valley people lost their lives was a result of such profound measures to officialise the enforcement. As the NSCN (1M) stated over and over again that it does not believe in Manipur's integrity, that the present Manipur State is a temporary phenomenon, and that the NSCN (1M) is "not greedy about land and will never take even an inch of Meetei's territory, nor will it part with what is theirs."

On the other hand, the Meetei national movement that surfaced in the valley of Manipur professed relations of respect and mutual support to the Naga insurgency in the late seventies and early eighties. When the NNC was in deep throes of mutual recrimination and violence as a result of the Shillong Accord, the Meetei insurgent outfits were giving shelter and sustenance to many underground Naga cadres in Meetei homes in suburban Imphal.

It was learnt that in the tumultuous periods of division and split amongst the NSCN cadres in 1988, Meetei insurgent leaders were at pains to effect compromise amongst the Naga leaders. The chapter of ethnic unity and collective efforts against the Indian state earlier is now dead and gone.

Ethnicity and ethnic bias in the wielding of power and influence in the so-called democratic institutions like the legislature seem to have a diluted presence, though ethnicity was the main plank for political mobilization by the hill tribes.

The Meeteis in the plains, who had experienced deep traditions of polity governance and maintenance of community equilibrium in their erstwhile history, had been ruthlessly exposed to the gradual crumbling of their national life through rapid ethnicization in the overall counter-insurgency designs.

In the course of the armed conflict between instruments of Indian state and non-state Meetei actors, we have witnessed a critical stage of armed strike by the valley insurgents in the late seventies and the resultant counter-insurgency operations by the Indian state with intensive intrusions into the domestic lives of the citizens.

The public sphere in Manipur was reeling in the processes of coping with violence, disappearances of sons and relations and raping of women by the military. Incidents of violations of dignity of women in the hills were rapidly responded to by civil society in the plains.

Though the Meetei population was rather slow in owning up the narratives of collective suffering in the hands of the "oppressive" Indian state, mutual respect and intensive relationships were forged which countered ethnic divide. During the eighties, the violent engagements of armed conflict were rather confined to major geographical locations in the villages of the plains where the Indian military had a distinctive advantage.

Even though the urban insurgency started by the PLA (People's Liberation Army) was one of the finest in Asia - second only to that of Saigon (presently Ho Chi Minh City), as observed by Yambem Laba - the spatial organization of military engagements was however effectively controlled by the superior military power of the Indian state.

It was only when the surrounding hills became an active site of military confrontation between the Meetei non-state actors and the Indian army in the nineties; urgent policy shifts became essential in counter-insurgency operations. Ethnicity became an ardent ploy as the best and effective means of using the hill populations against the Meetei non-state actors who had substantial control of major spaces in the hill terrain.

The art of mountain warfare cultivated by the Meetei nationalists could be countered by strategic, methodical approaches for military presence in the hills and unprecedented civic action programmes to "convert" the local populations. The Assam Rifles became a friend of the hill people in the post-nineties when the mother of all insurgencies, the NSCN (1M), agreed to sit on the negotiating table in 1997 and enter into political dialogue with the Centre.

The prolongation of armed resistance by the Meetei armed opposition groups could be countered by meticulous weaning of tribal groups and communities from the logic of ethnic unity. For, contemporary developmental interventions by systems of predation cultivated by politicians, bureaucrats, police and tribal elites lent itself to manipulation as an overall picture of discrimination and exploitation of the marginal hill regions.

The twenty-first century saw the emergence of India as a strong Asiatic power vis-a-vis China. And the Look-East Policy which was propelled by the logic of globalization would have induced a culture of de-territorialization in the civic processes of intense economic interaction.

But realistic statecraft emphasized the permanent "occupation" of the development frontier by the defence establishments in view of the fragile national security scenario. For, significant populations of Mongoloid racial categories were still un-assimilated into the pan-Indian nationhood and active presence of armed opposition groups in the difficult mountain terrain should have to be permanently neutralized.

This could only be achieved through meticulous cultivation of ethnic jealousies, prejudices and primordial passions through a system of calculated interventions by predatory capitalism and pitting of ethnic leaderships in the partaking of pleasure and profit from the relationship with the Indian state.

Those who have abjured the principle of armed violence could now be projected as genuine leaders of the people. And people like Zoramthanga, the Chief Minister of Mizoram, and Thuingaleng Muivah, the protagonist of Nagalim, are now icons of peace-loving people of the Northeast!

Zale'n-Gam or Kuki Homeland

The issue of the Kuki Zale'n-gam movement, however, draws less attention in the Indian media than that of Nagalim. Because of intrinsic migratory habits of the slash-and-burn cultivators of yore, these cognate Kuki-Chin communities straddled across various regional habitats in Myanmar, Manipur, North Cachar Hills (Assam), Mizoram, Tripura, Bangladesh, etc.

A stable resource base which would facilitate development of a modern political movement was therefore lacking amongst these tribes. The concept of Zale'n-gam or the Kuki nation also seem to have had certain anomalies regarding united political aspirations amongst the Kuki clans and other cognate tribes.

The Chin tribes in Myanmar envisaged freedom from the political domination of the Myanmarese, while their brethren in India sought a "Homeland" or Kuki state within the Indian Union. Though not much information is available about their political activities in the neighbouring Chin Hills of Myanmar, the national imageries of these people in India were developed from the intense experiences of sacrifices and defeat at the hands of the British imperial forces in the Anglo-Kuki war of 19l7-l9.

The sacrifices and exemplary activities of chieftains like Chenjapao Doungel, Lhukhomang Haokip, Tintong Haokip, Enjakhup Kholhou and Khotingthang Sitlhou in the above war provided inspiring memories for the development of narratives of the Kuki independence struggle.

In fact, tales of their experiences of migration and settlement amidst other communities, and confrontations with the British imperial forces since the middle of the nineteenth century, as well as the stories of their participation in the Indian National Army of Netaji Subhas Chan-dra Bose during the World War II offered vivid testimony to the freedom loving spirit of the Kuki people.

The confrontation with the Naga "national" movement and tragic experiences of the "ethnic-cleansing" in 1992-93 made the Kukis in Manipur dependent on the Indian political and military establishment for succour and help. This violent engagement within ethnic communities of Manipur led to progressive militarization of ethnic relations and development of ultra-militant ambitions amongst younger generations.

Overall, armed movements in the Northeast were also fuelled by the Indian state, which extended support of arms and money to mutually contentious groups for defence of the ethnic selves from violent aggressions from the ethnic "other." The recent rise and spread of the Kuki National Army, hitherto confined to Myanmar, in Manipur and other neighbouring regions was an outcome of militarization of ethnicity in the Northeast, where the Indian state played a vital role.

Kuki-Chin aspirations for identities, though varied and diverse due to clan and group loyalties, were however strident since the end of the World War II as the 1950s ushered in a completely changed environment for ethnic self-consciousness, assertion and mobilization, where propagation of Homeland with armed resources was an inevitable result.

Not all political movements amongst the Kukis were associated with armed violence. In fact, democratic aspirations and practice was the path followed by the tribal elites during 1960s. In a momentous meeting at Thingkhanphai in Churachandpur district during January 19-22,1960, the elders of the erstwhile Kuki National Assembly (established in 1946), raised the issue of Kuki Homeland in Manipur.

Thereafter, Kuki Chiefs and elders submitted a memorandum to the then Prime Ministerm Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, on 24 March 1960. The memorandum pleaded for immediate establishment of Kuki State, and unification of all contiguous areas now under the habitation of the Kukis in India under the proposed Kuki State.

This democratic aspiration for a Homeland, consisting of spaces in Manipur's hill districts of Churachandpur, Senapati, Ukhrul and Tamenglong, were however mired in controversies, as the Kuki habitations were spread through mixed settlements with other communities, and the Nagas themselves nursed primordial grievances against them, since they regarded the Kukis as outsiders and migrants who were deliberately settled by the British authorities and Meetei rulers since the nineteenth century.

The desire for the Kuki people to raise the Sadar Hills in the Northern part of Manipur as a revenue district was strongly objected to by the Nagas, who claimed these areas as part of their ancestral domain. The Sadar Hills in the Senapati district continued to haunt ethnic relations for quite long, and the Naga national movement could however appropriate these areas as part of their future southern Nagalim.

Development frontier to disturbed area and economic bridgehead

To India, the Northeast as a region was a Development Frontier in the Nehruvian imagery. By the time his daughter Indira Gandhi came to power, the Northeast became a Disturbed Area, and by the time of Prime Ministers late Narasimha Rao to Manmohan Singh, the Northeast became an Economic Bridgehead, where predatory capitalism would have a field day.

The Look East Policy and drive towards global economic integration via the Northeast would be processed under the auspices of the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Japanese Bank ofInternational Co-operation, etc.

The influence of speculative intrusion of financial capital in international economy which inhibits growth by creating an environment of low wages, low growth, and strangulation of simple innocent work forces had a disastrous impact in a cocrupt society like Manipur, where there were little opportunities for productive investment and honest returns.

The system of predation in which corrupt business, political, police and bureaucratic classes, or government officials entered into a wanton race for grabbing of plots/businesses in Imphal, Jiri or Moreh towns, parking of unaccounted wealth in the form of assets and/or bank accounts in Indian cities and elsewhere by the nouveau-riche politicians, contractors or other enriched classes, are all part of a general spectrum of cocruption.

The race for periodic control over Government purses therefore became a driver of the electoral processes for Government formation. All these activities were interlaced with rising insurgent violence as well, with its increasing propensity to devour its own children. Manipur had not witnessed a sane public life. Heavily politicised ethnic relations in the era of insurgency therefore are not perhaps the result of endogenous conflictual growth of vertical social boundaries alone, but rather an end product of intensification of networks of exogenous relationships able to create this effect.

Meeteis occupying major portions in the valley are now under a "siege" from aroused ambitions of ethnic assertion and territorialising ethno-national formations all around the once natural, and organic physiographic landscapes. This transformation of organic geographic spaces of hill and plains as alienated political entities is the product of intense dynamics of Manipur's post-merger history.

New historical responsibilify for the Meetei

How does the Meetei community as a whole see and interpret this "reality"? This community has its origins from intense interactions in blood and kin relationships with the surrounding ethnoses in its primal life.

The community itself has adapted faster to the vagaries of the acumen to form an organised political order, utilised its human and material resources to develop an original Asiatic civilisation, with collective memory of a once proud martial nation with a pluralistic social order.

The hills and plains were organic, vital limbs in the geo-body of the nation. Its boundaries in the pre-colonial periods as the State "Meckley" in the early nineteenth century reached as far as the banks of Brahmaputra in the North, the Kabaw valley in the East, and the Chandrapore Thana in Cachar in the West.

The concept of boundaries understood by the ethnogens was of an interaction of peoples, cultures and spaces, without interference in domestic life. Mutual economic and social relationship through an indigenous Ngai (bond) system prevailed.

All these quotidian complexes had altered drastically during "the hundred years of un freedom" experienced by colonised Manipur. Now, those who are struggling for the "restoration of Manipur's Independence" are as equally divided as other ethnogens of the State.

They seem as overwhelmed by predatory capital as the democratic representatives ofIndia's political order. Their dealings with society do not indicate any affinity with classical revolutionary movements of either the Chinese or the Vietnamese.

Their medieval passions and prejudices as are observed in their subterranean dealings with officials, institutional representatives or others in the social milieu reflect personal manifestations of desperation and/or wantonness in a hostile environment of corruption, distrust, intimidation and coercion.

Only the stubborn resistance of their armed cadres, exemplary engagements and sterling sacrifices of their comrades in the tense struggle with the Indian military and paramilitary forces seem to hold the attention of the people.

This aspect of prolonged resistance, the perpetuation of political conflict, the intense hit and run engagements in the valley, and stubborn confrontation with India's military might in the Indo-Myanmar borderlands had been suppressed in the contemporary discourse of political conflict. Nor do they seem to inform the structures and dynamic of the ethnic societies' painful ascent to modernity.

The overall militarisation of the Northeast as part of the objective of crushing Manipur's armed opposition groups since 2003-04 (subsequent to the Bhutan operation against ULFAinAssam) and increase of resistant violence by non-State actors, progressive increase in suffering of the civilian population, women and children had so far failed to rivet attention in the public sphere.

Yet the qualitative and quantitative enhancement of the Vairengte style counterinsurgency schools which had trained more than three and half lakh counterinsurgent forces over the last thirty years, establishment of such schools in Diphu in North Cachar Hills of Assam, Somsai in Ukhrul district and lwalamukhi in Senapati district, unheralded presence of military camps in schools, colleges in rural areas and foothills, occupation of churches or complexes of sacred deities, deployment of security forces at the ratio of 1:16 over the Manipur population etc. are indicators to the magnitude of the armed confrontations in the State.

Over the last three or four years, the military engagements of the Indian security forces with the Meetei non-State armed opposition groups had revealed a pattern of progressive linkages between armed conflict and politics of ethnicity. Since the end of 2003, the thrust to secure the Manipur hills to restore civil administration and exercise area domination over the western ranges of the Manipur state, there were slow, periodic, inch-by-inch, yard-by yard occupation of strategic mountain villages, flushing out of Meetei insurgent outfits who had earlier entrenched themselves in the rugged mountain terrains, mingling with the "neglected" and "marginalised" hill people.

Earlier stories of mutual support between the ethnic populations of the hills and the valley, stories of help in arms and equipment, and training of ethnic brothers by valley insurgents, stories of development interventions by militant cadres in areas where state presence were negligible - all these were suddenly transformed into chapters of spite and hate campaigns over the valley people by the hill civil society organisations.

The turmoil in the lives of ethnic populations caused by these unfortunate incidents of armed conflict between the instruments of state and non-State actors were suddenly catapulted into chaotic disequilibrium and massive uprooting of life's rhythm.

Stories of displacement, collective exodus into neighbouring hill townships and villages, incidents of physical harm and de-capacitation in landmine explosion, charges of rape and criminal assaults over the bodies of tribal women - all these concomitant agonies were brought into the public sphere in a confusing amalgam of doubt, distrust and heightening ethnic differences over perceptions on truth and reality.

The earlier balance between ethnic brotherhood were substantially damaged as a result of the military engagement of the Indian security forces with the Manipur nationalists in the rugged hill terrains of Manipur.

For the Indian State, the operations against the Manipur militants in Operation All Clear (2004), Operation Tornado (2005), Operation Dragnet (2006), etc. were meant to clear the western ranges of the Manipur Hills for restoration of civil administration as well as the destruction of "Meetei hegemony over the hill people." The highland ethnic psyche was thus aroused to see the lowlander valley people as oppressive others.

The valley Meetei as indigenous community therefore stands at a critical thresh-hold of the state's modern history. Though there are quotidinian complexes of grass root relationship, and natural historical equilibrium amidst these ethnic societies, the heavy politicisation of ethnicity and ethnic differences signal unease, anxiety and instabilities which portend ruptures, fissures and unimagined arousals over its contemporary status as a distinct civilisational entity inherited from the past.

The uncertain future of ethnic negotiations, which modem India continues to play with, pervades the premodern imaginations of the indigenes of the State. The developmental interventions of sheer global economic processes, ruthless violence over the natural geographies - on roads, rivers, waters, forests, etc - portend a system of life where territoriality and exclusivity of ownership of the earth's surface through ethnic rights may even be forced to wither away.

The NorthEast is now inevitably drawn into a vortex of intense geo-economic and geo-strategic compulsions of the Indian state which ethnic indigenes should either challenge with newer insights of trans-ethnic NorthEastern nationalism or consociational imagination of the native peoples capable of over-riding the marginalizing tendencies of "racial others" ofIndia'sAsian ambitions.

The placid, pre-modem, tribalistic self-centredness which had withstood the forces of change shall not stand the test of times.

• Lokendra Arambam (Courtesy: Eastern Quarterly) wrote this article for The Sangai Express. He is a historian, critic, theatre director and social activist. A former Visiting Professorial Fellow at the School of Arts & Aesthetics, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi. He is currently Visiting Faculty at the Department of History, Manipur University (MU), Imphal. He served as Director, Audio-Visual Research Centre, MU.


CCpur College students urge

IMPHAL, Sep 23: Demanding restoration of Mizo (MIL) in Churachandpur College by September 28, students’ union of the college has warned that it will be compelled to close the college till their demand is met.

In an ultimatum submitted to the Chief Minister, the students’ union observed that following the Government order de-linking Mizo from the college, students offering Mizo (MIL) have been put in a dilemma.

Asserting that there are a good number of Mizo students in the College, it alleged that the Government order was discriminatory against the Mizos.

Cautioning that they will be constrained to close the college indefinitely in case their demand is not met by September 28, the students’ union asserted that the Government should be held responsible for any consequence thereof.

Source: The Sangai Express

Tuesday, September 23, 2008

ZSP's 2nd Kalaisai Sports Meet 2008

Zou Sangnaupang Pawlpi Delhi Branch
The 2nd Kalaisai Sports Meet 2008

Amun: Pologround, North Delhi
Ahun: 23rd September 2008

Brief Report: Jinglam nai 8 in Gurgaon apat Bus dim mitmet in in Sangnaupangte hing kuon doh ua, Munirka ah nai 9 masang deu in hing tungtou uhi. Munirka apat ki zawtou nainai in Polo Ground ah nai 10 in ki tungkim a, kimawlna pat pai ahita hi. Futbol, Volleyball, tug-of-war, 100m race leh adang dang group wise in kimawlna huoi setah kinei hi. Individual a te khat zong bawl man a um nawn tasih hi. Hinanleh group a tel kha sim chiet akihiman in nuom akisa chiet hi. Nita lang nai 7 leh chivel in kimawl na kizou pan bep hi.

Kimawlna guoltung tuongte ahileh October 7 2008 chieng in Freshers' Social Meet chieng in ki puongkhe pan ding hi.

Zokhankhual (Red) Munirka + Vasant Vihar + JNU+ Palam, Bel Sarai.
Captain : Tv. Doukhanmang & Nh. Chinmuanhoi

Kapkhovung (Gurgaon -White) Captain: Kamkhankap & Nh. Anjela Zou; Area Secretary : Pu Goulun

Thanghou & Liandou (Black) North Delhi leh Noida, Gaziabad
Captain : Tv. Lianzagou Nh. Vungmuonching Noida

Phudil leh Nantal (Blue) Outer Munirka tengteng:- Mahipalpur, Lado Sarai, Katwaria Sarai, Saket, Kotla, Sarai Juliana, Maharani Bagh, Gautam Nagar, Chirag, South extension, Kotla, Mohamadpur+ Safdurjung Enclave.

Captain : Zuanneithang & Nh. Grace Lhingneikim.

United ZSP Leengsawt Club Uniform Banyan(liangkhai).
Captain: Tv. Lunmang

Papi & Nupi Soccers Captain: Pa Ginlun, Asst. Captain: Pi Irene Tungnung


Pasal Bawlung

1st Round : Kapkhovung v/s Zokhankhuol
2nd Round : Thanghou & Liandou v/s Phudil & Nantal
3rd Round : United Lengsawt Club v/s Papi Eleven

Numei Bawlung

1st Round : Zokhankhuol v/s Phudil Nanlal
2nd Round : Thanghou Liandou v/s Kapkhovung

Pasal Volleyball

1st Round : Zokhankhuol v/s Thanghou Liandou
2nd Round : Phudil Nantal v/s Kapkhovung
3rd Round : United Lengsawt Club v/s Papi Eleven

Numei Volleyball

1st Round : Phudil Nantal v/s Kapkhovung
2nd Round : Thanghou Liandou v/s Zokhankhuol

Pasal Tug-of-War

1st Round : United Lengsawt Club v/s Kapkhovung
2nd Round : Zokhankhuol v/s Phudil Nantal
3rd Round : Thanghou Liandou v/s Papi Eleven

Numei Tug-of-War

1st Round : Zokhankhuol v/s Phudil Nantal
2nd Round : Thanghou Liandou v/s Kapkhovung


1. 100 meter Race
2. Suhtai heeh
3. Ngautui dawn
4. Tawkeu tai
5. SMS kidemna
6. Muutpuo muut
7. Ahtal kitu
8. Mitkaan Tawm saat
10. Tuidip
11. Marathon Race (Ind)
12. Marathon Race(Relay)


Helping others is helping ourselves. Gurgaon apat transportation um ding. Akipat khiet hun ding.

08.00 AM: Gurgaon
08.50 AM: Munirka


1. Belsarai, Mohamadpur, Vasant Vihar, Mahipalpur, Jamia Lamte ten Munirka a el chiet ding.
2. Mi 1 ah Rs. 30 (up/down) chiet dong hi ding.
3. Veng dang teng in mani lampaina ding ki ngaisut chiet ding ahi.

Zomi Students' Federation, Delhi Cell Condemns


19th September 2008

The Zomi Students’ Federation, Delhi Cell condemns in the strongest possible terms the attack on the residence of Pu. T. Hangkhanpau, President, United Zou Organization, General Headquarters on the 14th September 2008. The Federates of the Zomi Students Federation, Delhi Cell is of the opinion that such unmindful targeting of community leaders is against the interest of peaceful co-existence.

The Zomi Students’ Federation, Delhi Cell would also like to draw the attention of the administration to the sense of insecurity in the District where such brazen attack on the residence of people’s representatives leaves us but nothing to say about the plight of the common man.

We earnestly urge upon the individual/organizations to desist from such acts in the future in the larger interest of the present and future generations to come. Further, we welcome the bold steps taken by various tribe leaders in condemning the attacks.

Zomi Students’ Federation
Delhi Cell

Zomi Students’ Federation
Delhi Cell

Young Mizos return home after peace talks

Aizawl, Sep 22: Representatives of the Central Young Mizo Association (CYMA), the biggest non-governmental organization in Mizoram, returned in Aizawl after holding talks with the Hmar People’s Co-nvention (Democratic) and the Zomi Revolution Army (ZRA) in Churachandpur district of Manipur on Sunday.

The Central Young Mizo Association leaders during their meetings with the two militant groups in Chura-chandpur district in two separate occasions, had requested both the outfits not to involve in the upcoming Mizoram Assembly elect-ion which is just some two months away. The CYMA leaders also reportedly requested the HPC-D and Zomi Revolutionary Army not to maintain any nexus with the political parties in Mizoram during the election time.

The HPC-D and the Zomi Revolutionary Army were reported to have obliged to the request of the Central Young Mizo Association. [TSE]

Meitei Christians

IMPHAL, Sep 22: All India Christian Council and Tho-ubal Meitei Christian Mino- rity Forum staged a peace and solidarity rally at Thou-bal Mela Ground today. A memorandum was submitted to Prime Minister thro- ugh the office of Thoubal DC demanding equal implementation of Central Gove- rnment’s 15-point minority schemes to all the minorities of the State. The rally demanded to stop violence against Christians in Orissa, Karnataka, MPand Delhi. The rally also pressed to list Hindutva outfits like VHP, RSS and Bajrang Dal as outlawed groups. [TSE]

6th Pay Commission, Comm set up to study financial impact

The Sangai Express

IMPHAL, Sep 22 : To find out the likely financial impact on the State when the 6th Pay Commission is implemented the Cabinet which met today has decided to set up a committee with the Chief Secretary as the Chairman.

The Cabinet however could not take a definite decision on increasing the rate of passenger fares.

Presided by the Chief Minister the Cabinet discussed the likely expen- diture that will be incurred once the 6th Pay Commission is adopted and decided to form a Committee to study the exact amount that will be needed with the Chief Secretary as the Chairman.

The Principal Secretary, Finance will be the conve-nor of the Committee while the other members include the Principal Secretary Home, Commissioner Hi-gher Education, Commi- ssioner School Education, Commissioner Works, Law Secretary and DP Secretary.

The Cabinet has instructed the Committee to submit their report within three months.

With bus owners demanding a hike in the rate of passenger fares, following the increase in the price of fuel, the Cabinet discussed the issue, but did not take a definite decision.

Though the Cabinet has more or less agreed that the fare should be hiked, it was felt that the matter should be discussed more minutely considering the impact it will have on the public.

It was decided that the matter would be discussed in great detail in the next Cabinet meeting.

The Cabinet also discussed the feasibility of holding a common final examination for Class VIII students and decided that the BSEM will prepare the question for the Class VIII final examination, which all the schools under the BSEM should adhere to.

It was agreed that the common final examination should be introduced from 2009. The common final examination will serve some purposes, said a senior Cabinet Minister and explained that such an arrangement will reveal whether all the private schools are sticking to the syllabus spelt out by the Government or not. This will make the model of a common syllabus meaningful.

The Cabinet also agreed that the Ordinance which has been prepared following the inputs from the Hill Areas Committee and the Select Committee for the ADCs will be introduced in the coming Assembly session as a Bill to be passed.

A Bill to adopt the Scavenging and Dry Latrine (Prohibition Bill of 1993) will also be introduced during the Assembly session. The Act is a Central Act and once it is implemented it will help in checking scavenging.

Ball set rolling for JNIMS in Manipur

The Sangai Express

IMPHAL, Sep 22 : Taking perhaps the first step towards its realisation, the Consultant for the Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences, Host Max, India Ltd, Mumbai has today submitted the Detailed Project Report for the said institution to the State Government and the same will be forwarded to the Planning Commission tomorrow.

Host Max was selected through a tender.

The cost of the whole project is pegged at Rs 170 crores and a team from the Consultant which arrived at Manipur today gave a high power presentation complete with slides and pictures of the proposed institute before the Government, after the Cabinet meeting which concluded in the evening.

This is the third visit by representatives from the Consultant.

Apart from a medical college, the institute will have a new hospital, quarters for the Professors, nurses, hostels for boys and girls and living quarters for other employees.

The land needed for the complex is pegged at 45 acres and the shopping complex of the PDA which has been constructed adjacent to JN Hospital at Porompat will be acquired and the land taken over for the institute.

Other private land are also likely to be acquired.

Out of the 45 acres of land, one third will be used for the concrete buildings to come up while the rest will be left for future expansion including a swimming pool.

Work for building the infrastructure of the institution will be held in three phases and the first phase is likely to start from August next year.

The institute will be constructed under funding from the Special Plan Assistance of the Centre.

The failure of the Consultant (Health Depart- ment) to submit the Detailed Project Report earlier had been an uncomfortable affair as all other Government Departments had submitted the same for all projects to be taken up under the Special Plan Assistance.

Chief Secretary Rakesh had a few days back convened a meeting of all officers concerned to discuss the DPRs of their respective projects and the State Health Department was instructed to hurry up with the DPR for the institute.

Monday, September 22, 2008

Mizoram: YMA urges insurgent groups to stay away from Assembly polls

Aizawl, Sept 22: Leaders of the central committee of the Young Mizo Association (YMA) held talks with two Manipur-based insurgent groups - Hmar People's Conference (democrats) and Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA) asking them not to interfere in the coming elections to the 40-member Mizoram legislature.

YMA Vice President Lalchungnunga, General Secretary Lalruatkima and Finance Secretary R. Lalngheta held parleys with the HPC(D) and ZRA leaders at Churachandpur in Manipur on Saturday, top YMA sources said today.

The sources said that the two rebel groups told the YMA leaders that they would not support any political party during the elections despite some parties seeking their help.

The YMA leadership may also hold talks with the Hmar National Army (HNA) soon to ensure that peace in the state was not disrupted and free, fair and peaceful polls held during the last part of the year, the sources said.

Earlier, the Mizoram People's Forum (MPF), sponsored by Mizoram Presbyterian Church of which the YMA is also represented, held talks with the NSCN (I-M) leadership outside the state on September 15 last, the sources said.

The MPF reportedly urged the NSCN to ensure that no insurgent group from across the border interfere in Mizoram when the state goes to the polls.


Aspects of Mizo Literature

- Dr.R.Thangvunga

This paper was presented under the title ‘Mizo literature in relation to other literature’ at the Poets’ Meet cum seminar on Mizo literature in Aizawl between the 3rd – 7th October, 2001. I am indebted to Dr. R. Thangvunga for generously allowing me to publish his essay online.

It may be assumed without fear of much controversy that the literature of the Mizos sprang up independently of the myriad native literature flourishing in this culturally rich nation, an assumption justified by the fact that Mizos are of Tibeto-Burman stock having little or no socio-cultural affinity with either the Aryan or Davidian races or the Austrics who form the bulk of the Indian populace. The long migration of the Mizo people from the T’ao valley in China to their present habitat had matured their cultural and religious life sufficiently for distinction from their neighbours. The long years of isolation from other more civilized people had a preservative effect. The pristine simplicity and na├»ve innocence of the people is in sharp contrast with the sophisticated and complex attitudes of the more progressive people around them from whose poisonous contact Providence seems to have kept them for a special purpose. This age of innocence is the early period of Mizo literature, a vast oral tradition and valuable heritage which a miracle of gospel event has captured in indelible pages of literary history. It is impossible, in the narrow confine of this introductory essay, to open up the panorama of the virgin songs of a people who are, perhaps, after Wordsworth’s own heart. It is a tempting thought that the earlier pre-Christianized literature possesses more human spirit than the Christianized literature which offered a sheepish hope of an underserved heaven in exchange for the more heroic idea of an earned Pialral (incidentally corresponding to the heroes’ Valhalla or Elysium of similar warlike people elsewhere).

If we assume the soul of all literature to be the whole-blooded expression of man’s heroic response to an environment hostile to his dreams and ideals, one may bravely
assert a pagan literature as superior to a literature of higher inspiration; for heroism remains the highest standard of human worth, and literature “the thought of thinking souls.” G.Wilson Knight observed: “A strong faith tends to render tragedy impossible.” The truth of this statement seems to be only too apparent. This humanistic position, owing allegiance to the empirical or Aristotelian precept, justified itself against the intractable and pontifical ideology of the medieval Church as a pristine force of enlightenment working through th powerful pen of a Milton or a penitent Donne. Christianity and its attendant Faith in the the heroic expiatory sacrifice of Christ had been a popular literary subject of the Renaissance, as exemplified by Spenser’s The Fairie Queene. The spiritual struggles of a believer have never been minimized as an easy pilgrimage and Bunyan’s Pilgrim was not found among the Canterbury pilgrims.

It therefore is essentially inadequate to assume that “a strong faith” is incapable of cathartic experience; for the road to faith is never easy, and many shun it. Religious literature is replete with spiritual conflicts of epic grandeur that the adventures of flesh and bones can never match. It is true, physical pain is usually subordinated when the spirit is elevated in the transcendental experience of a more enduring truth for which the sacrifice is being made. But it is true also that the inner struggle to accept physical pain for a principle, the price of the choice has not been a pleasure either. It is on these twin streams of critical viewpoint that the following lines attempt to highlight a few samples of Mizo literature for your evaluation on a more universal platform. To facilitate such an exercise, we have to rely heavily on available versions of the canon and critical works on the same in English. The following works are indispensable:

1. Tribal Folktales of Assam (Hills) by S.N. Barkakati, containing 69 pieces of Mizo folktales.
2. Folklore I – Folktales of Mizoram by Dr Laltluangliana Khiangte, 1997.
3. Anthology of Mizo Literature by Dr Laltluangliana Khiangte, 2001.
4. Mizo Literature by Dr R.L. Thanmawia, 1998.
5. The Lusei Kuki Clans by Lt. Col. J. Shakespeare, 1988.

A comparative study of Mizo literature with those of others, so desirable and imperative, is beyond the scope of this paper and of my abilities. Any accidental light emerging from random analysis of literary samples below which may reveal certain affinities with the literature of other peoples, kindred spirits showing the elements of common human nature, will more than afford the satisfaction looked for in having accepted this task of making intelligible our native voice.

THE PEOPLE: It is not the place here to decide on a creditable history of the Mizos from available research. Subsequent researches seem to have no better recourse than the pioneer British administrators but available oral folklore and tradition as their source materials. Reference pointing to Mizos in their generic name ‘Kuki’ was made as early as 1512 A.D. by Col. Lewin in his ‘Progressive Colloquial Exercises’ showing that it referred to the dwellers of the so-called Lushai Hills irrespective of clan names.

Mizos lived in a community of 50 – 300 houses with a hereditary chieftain who rules by counsel of advisers called “Upa”(s). Livelihood being dependent on agriculture and hunting for meat, shifting from hill to hill every decade or so, security and development were not known by the Mizos. Surprise raids being the method of war, every young man, even married ones, was on constant alert, and slept in the ‘Zawlbuk’, a kind of club for communal discipline.

Like most tribal communities, Mizos synchronized their agricultural calendar with a number of festivals and religious observances which punctuated their hard life with entertainment, relieving the burden of their hard labour and martial apprehensions. Otherwise, their life was physically, emotionally and spiritually exhausting, a vicious cycle of existence under the shadow of superstitious and moral fears from beast, man and evil spirits.

Contrary to conventional practice of dubbing the religious life of the Mizos as Animistic¹, a comprehensive examination of their religious activities leads me to regard them as being primarily deistic². For they believed in a God of goodwill who is responsible for the creation and preservation of all things, one who is not perturbed by the events of the human world, apart from his having ordained the temporal and spiritual systems which all creation may observe willy-nilly. The moral precepts and taboos bearing on human actions were imputed not so much to God as to a system not unlike the Greek idea of Nemesis, and possessing as impeccable and implacable memory and purpose as the latter. The main rituals of the community were directed to this God. Sacrifices made to appease various evil spirits who caused illness would not constitute a religion because it was not a form of worship, but a kind of anathema or exorcism – items of religious practice.

THE LANGUAGE: The language or languages spoken by the Mizos belong to the Tibeto-Assam branch of the Tibeto-Burman family. The major clans speak different dialects but having strong and direct links to one another. In time the Duhlian dialect of the politically dominant Lusei clan became the lingua franca of the majority of communities under the umbrella of the Mizo nationality. This dialect received a further boost when Christian missionaries arrived in 1894, namely, Rev. F.W. Savidge and Rev. J.H. Lorrain, who reduced the language into writing, using a simple and effective phonetic Hunterian system of Roman script. An earlier attempt to use the Devanagiri script had been made but met with poor results. Though, as Pu Buanga himself confessed, there is something to be desired for a fuller and more developed system of writing, their endeavour has remained totally successful to this day. The language has a phonetic nature like many other Indian languages which, in a script other than the missionaries had rendered it to, would have an array of phonetic characters beyond the ability of the then Mizos to master, with the effect that the present status would never have been attained.

THE LITERATURE: What has come to be admitted as Mizo literature, the older portion of which was in the oral tradition, is a medly of deiifernt dialects unintelligible to modern students. Profuse notes on vocabulary and cultural history cannot be dispensed with. Classification is another problem. Different approaches are possible: chronological, generic, thematic, stylistic or functional. The older, pre-Christian literature is more diverse in nature than the literature after conversion to Christianity. In common with other tribal communities of the country, the very life of society was throbbing with the rhythm of folk literature. The telling of legends and stories, enthusiastic singing of fresh (un-weather-beaten) songs celebrating the latest victory and exploits, riddles and moral fables, reverberating with the sound of guns, and the merry, merry festival days of singing and dancing days and nights, were the central focus of their social life. No joy, no sorrows, no victory, no success in hunting was not but a communal affair. It was all for one, one for all kind of existence the modern world has almost forgotten. Even if Mizo literature does not make itself known for a new and fresh philosophy for man, no one can deny its place at the center of the people’s life for generations as repertory of their inner lives recorded in endless streams of songs. What nation is there who has not a poet for every individual or public occasion? The Mizos are second to none in their love for a song to sing their thoughts!

Folk literature offers tempting historical and anthropological research. Mizo folk literature is no exception: perhaps more tempting in the need for a historical certainty of roots. Beyond that there are legends and myths echoing down the ages pointing to a common knowledge of cataclysmic events like creation, universal flood, universal darkness and cold, dispersion of races and languages, as well as giants and angels, superhumans, giant snakes and birds, dragons, ghosts and hobgoblins, magic and witchcraft, etc. Here are samples of such folklore:

1. The myth of Chhinlung, a cave or stone wall, whence people issued (imputed to be of Mizo origin).
2. The myth of Thim zing, a great darkness enveloping the world, when people were transformed into animals.
3. The myths of Pialral (Elysium), Mitthi khua (Hades), Lunglohtui & Rih Lake (Styx), Pawla (Acheron), all corresponding to belief in after-life.
4. The legend of Palova ( No father) adventuring in quest of his unknown father.
5. The legend of Ngaiteii and her father’s spirit causing a flood to claim her.
6. The legend of Mualzavata, superman.
7. The legend of Chhura with its comic cornucopia.
8. The legend of seven brothers, the youngest Tlumtea, paying court to the lady of the sky. (An allegory of the ideal character for a young man)
9. The legend of Lalruanga the magician.
10. The legend of Chawngchilhi and the Serpent.
11. The story of Liandova and Tuaisiala, orphans triumphant by virtue.
12. The romances of Chala and Thangi, of Duhmanga and Dardini, of Raldawna and Tumchhingi, masterpieces of plot and realism.

Apart from this narrative heritage, it seems appropriate to treat the poetic heritage of the early times as a continuous stream of literary activity.

POETRY: The main characteristic of Mizo poetry is the couplet and triplet stanza forms, with the tune being a kind of formal distinction. Another poet (who is not a singer-poet) may add to the existing poem any number of stanzas. The earliest extant poems correspond to nursery rhymes, a number of them actually used by children at play, chanting them with accompanying actions in play. e.g.
Pang aw inzial inzial, pangpui aw inzial
(Children joining hands would roll into a bundle, and at the line…)
Pang aw inphelh inphelh, pangpui aw inphelh inphelh
(they would unroll again).

Another is accompanied by the music of a number of bamboo tubes of different length being blown upon, each giving the correct pitch. The bamboo may be substituted by small gongs.
Chhimbu leh peng peng intu
A lu lam kawng lu lam kawng.

Liando te unau unau,
Dar ze nge in tum in tum?

It is a common feature of primitive society to possess war-cries and hunting-cries. Mizos had several such cries in the form of proud declarations of victory over a conquered foe whose head was a proud trophy. Such is Bawh hla:
Kei chu e, ka sentet an sa leh doral ka pianpui e,
Ka do e, rimnampa e, thlangchem e, aikim min ti u law.
(Born was I with game and foe,
I kill whom I fought, the smelly one, ‘kill all’ I am.)

And after a successful hunt, Hlado is declared:
Mi an e hrang chi awm e, saah hrang chi awm na ngei a,
Tiau dung e, ka zui changing, kawlkei e, than hawl ka vak liau e.
(Of men heroes there be, of beats wild ones there be,
Along Tiau, on the trail of the tiger, fame follows me)

Tribal communities are rich in festival song and dances. Some such songs are nicely accompanied by appropriate actions or mimes. The Assamese and Garo dances exhibit such virtuosity. Others show the agricultural life-cycle of the community in action. Mizos appear to have had their cultural life abbreviated from attaining artistic elegance of such nature, or that their occupation was too rough and insecure to indulge in the more peaceful art of eurythmics. The most popular dance was Chai performed on really big occasions by young men and women locking arms and shoulders in a big circle, swaying and shifting, singing the song of the day, eg Lalvunga zai:
Lalvunga’n ka lian a ti Farzawl a luah,
A luah sual e changsial sawmthum an la e.
(Lalvunga proudly occupied Farzawl,
A grave mistake, thirty mithuns taken away.)

Songs of victory are heavily tinged with sarcasm and lampoons. Even the plight of a prince became a song:
Ka sen in e, ngunkual ka bun e,
Zoah siahthing Manga’n ka bun e.
(When I was a babe, a brass bangle I wore,
A redwood becomes Manga’s stock.)

There was absolutely no limit to the number of themes for there was a song for everything. Here is a song on the swings:
We made a swing here and everywhere,
Brave is he who slashed it down.
I spied below the plum tree,
The handsome prince Phunchawnga.

We may have seen now that the couplet form was very popular. A triplet became popular with star-crossed romance, the maid usually singing her heart out:
Pining for you the sweet birds’ song I reply,
E’en the soundless night
Refuse my eyelids rest. (Darlenglehi)

A bereaved mother pines for her dead:
Death comes along every hill,
Stopp’d by our ill-fated home,
Dragged my sweet one by the arm. (Darpawngi)

Once a poet/poetess had instituted a new form, it was hailed on every hill, the chiefs enthusiasthically patronizing it. Any number of stanzas on any theme could be superadded.Perhaps the most important factor for the popularity of poets and their songs was that they were sung vocally, and it was a social obligation to keep up with the Joneses of another village.

A late development that became very popular was adaptation of sacred tunes for secular songs. A number of Christian hymnals had been translated, and native worship and praise with local tunes had been ushered in by waves of spiritual revivals. Education and broader outlooks tended to encourage a carefree life. Earlier the still unconverted enjoyed parodying Christian hymns with sarcastic mockery of the converts’ abstinence.Typical themes of literature like love, death, time, and other life exigencies appear in Mizo poetry but in a very brief, unsustained manner. The finality of the triplet seems to exert a strong pause on the thought pattern of a poem so that even a single stanza often contains the wholness of a poem. As such, despite their oral character, the problem of fragments is hardly felt.

Christianity lifted Mizo poetry to a new height of thought and style. The missionaries who came to evangelize the Mizos happened to be good linguists, and their pioneering works on the language and literature helped to put these on a sound footing. Missionaries and their aides began with the translations of English hymnals, and the new converts lost no time in taking the cue. A succession of spiritual revivals produced great religious poets of such powerful visions that would make Milton envious. The vivid and powerful imagery of their poems greatly boosted the faith of believers with beatific visions of the Promised land and the River of Life in the Golden City.

Life on earth was no paradise for the early Mizos. Toil and fear, social inequality under autocratic chiefs, high mortality, taboos and omens took their toll on their minds, weakening them spiritually. It is not to be wondered if the bias of Mizo spiritual songs leans towards the beatific vision, and made little of mortal life. A new convert came to a village apparently for a routine visit, but to witness purposely. Knowing him, the chief denied entry. He could not go through the tiger-infested way back home. While waiting wistfully for the sun to set and darkness to allow him to steal into the village for food and safety, this song came to him:
Ni tla ngai lo Zion khawpui,
Ngaiin ka rum, ka tap chhun nitinin,
Puan ropui sinin an leng tlansate,
Ka tan hmun a awm ve, chu ramah chuan. [Rev. Lianruma]
(Zion city, no setting sun,
With sighs and tears all day long I pine,
In royal robes the redeemed they walk,
A place there is for me in that bright land)

The weight of the poem falls on the acute realization of his plight and suffering, the good fight he was putting up on his way to that final place where he was sure of a welcome. But not all believers are faithful
An nghilh rei lua thing krawsa I tuarna,
An thinlung sual thim rawn chhun eng leh la,
Kian tir ang che, an lawman lei pangpar,
I hruai theihna tur. [Siamliana]
(Too long have they forgotten thy death on the cross,
Illumine their hearts full of sin,
Remove their joys the world’s flowers,
That thou can lead them on.

With such maturity of spiritual concern, Mizo poetry has come of age.

Higher education and readings in great literature fostered a new dream. A new stream of poetry flowed from the minds of educated young men who felt a new calling, altruistic enthusiastists who desired to build their new Jerusalem in these pleasant hills of Mizoram. Their poetry oozes the love of their native hills, rejoicing in the peace and harmony of its nature. Euphoria of discovering a new patriotism is the key of Rokunga’s songs:
Kan zo tlang ram nuam hi chhawrpial run i iang e,
Hal lo ten lungrual a kan lenna,
(Our pleasant hills are like a mansion in the sky,
Where in peace and harmony we live.)

A significant characteristic of this new poetry is the conspicuous reduction of the usual “poetic diction” which, not very unlike the Wordsworthian controversy, has come to be used as a matter of rule, making it somewhat unwieldy. Perhaps in the songs of Rokunga is Wordsworth’s ideal most fulfilled. For there the medium is almost transparent, and invisible, and the poet can speak directly to the heart.

Comparatively, there is something to be desired in Mizo poetry. Superficiality, easily excused as simplicity and spontaneity, is the most obvious. Long isolation had developed an almost impermeable defensive crust in the mentality of the Mizos, rendering them unsophisticated in life and thought. Even the most poignant expression of a wounded heart, such as

Ka chun leh zua suihlung in mawl lua e,
Kan sumtualah Thangdang thlunglu hawihte’n in tar le! [Laltheri zai]
(How unfeeling can you be, parents mine,
To dress our courtyard with the head of my Thangdang!)

spends itself in the too too obviousness of the situation. But in contrast,

Rauthla lengin kan run khuai ang a vel,
Chhunrawl ring lo, ka nu, sawmfang a belin hlui rawh [Laltherei zai]
(A spirit like a bee circles our house
A starved soul, mother, give it the pot of rice)

gives the feeling soul something to feed on. [It was common belief that spirits of the dead, before departing for Mitthi khua, frequent the house in the form of the carpenter bee or a butterfly.] Such allusions are not exceptional as the literature has a rich culture and history to draw upon.

DRAMA: Drama in Mizoram, as in England, began in religious entertainment. Till today, the use of drama is limited to charity shows with social or moral lessons. In this age of home media, there is no expecting people to go to a theatre. However we have a few plays on the lives of historical figues, prominently Pasaltha Khuangchera, Lalnu Ropuiliani and Darlalpuii by Dr. Laltluangliana Khiangte. Mizo colloquial speech, to be realistic, is not the best medium for the quick, witty dialogue of standard drama, especially as used by the characters in these plays. Still the language serves well for the goal of the story and the plots are well managed.

FICTION: Mizos then and now are inverterate lovers of stories, perhaps to the extent detrimental to a profitable life. Handwritten copies of translated novels were often read in groups by young people. World War II facilitated local composition on love themes. The few novels bearing on life in society, however, bear testimony to the writers’ understanding of life and their narrative skills. Of these, the novels of Lalzuithanga Thlahrang and Phira leh Ngurthanpari deserve mention, the former for its skillful plot, and the latter for sustained interest despite its loose plot. One is wistful, however, for a novel sharp enough to slice through layers of frozen moral pretensions and guarded reticence, for a character to explode the unconscious.

Books consulted:

1. Mizo Hun Hlui Hlate, B. Thangliana, Aizawl, 1998.
2. Mizo Kristian Hla thar Bu, Synod Publication, Aizawl, 13th ed., 1988.
3. Mizo Poetry, R.L.Thanmawia, Aizawl, 1988.
4. History of Mizo in Burma, B. Thangliana, Aizawl, 1978.
5. The Lushei Kuki Clans, J. Shakespear, Aizawl, reprint, 1988.
6. Tribal Folktales of Assam, S.N. Barkakati, Guwahati, 1970.
7. Comparative Indian Literature, Vol. I, (Ed.) K.M. George, Macmillan, 1984.

¹ Animism: a belief that within every object dwells an individual spirit capable of governing its existence. Natural objects and phonema are regarded as possessing life, conscience and spirit (soul).

² A system of natural religion which recognizes one God but not a divinely revealed religion.

Dr.R.Thangvunga works in the Mizo dept. of Mizoram University. He had earlier been a Reader in the English dept. of Govt. Aizawl College for several years.