Saturday, August 02, 2008

Siepi Nu, Dr Mary Hau Lun Cing in Tam Leitung Nuasie Ta!

Rev. Dr. Mary Hau Lun Cing Taithul pen Tedim ateng (Bo Kam Cin Hang-Pi Nieng Khan Man)'te tanu ta pen ahia (Rev Dr Hau Lien Kham) angkawi ahihi, tulaitah in Grace Assembly of God pawlpi ah senior pastor sem ahia, a shi in, Lie Cing Lam Dim Kham (M.A musics, musics proffessor, Phillippine), Nu Man San Lun Kham (Master of Law; J.D candidate, USA), Nu Cing Lam Ciin Kham (M.Div Phillippine, OM minitry, Burma) te nuasie hi.

A shiluonghawm pen Aug01, 2008 sunlam 1:00PM in U Naw Memorial Church (Lanmadaw) ah kinei ding a, tuazaw ciengin Yewei han ah kivui ding ahihi, a laiguizom suapi teng pen Rev Dr Kham Khen Mang (Assistant Pastor, Bethel AG, Tedim), Nu Lun Go Ciin, Rev Khup Lien Suum (Pastor, Bethsaida AG,Kalaymyo), Tg Thang Suon Khai'te ahihi.

Zo numei lah ah tuhpaal nga masa pawl ahia, kum tampi sung Sangsie zong sem in a pasal deina dungzui in laisiengtho sang kato suah a, Zo numei lah ah, pilna lam ah a sangpen pawl a hia, B.Sc., Dip.Ed, M.Div, Ed.D(cand) ahihi.

AD-2000 ZO MAGAZINE (ZBA) ah zong numei'te tawh kisai lai ang at aa, numei'te zui ding tawh kisai article khat zong PUZO News a dingin ei pie a, ahun lemtang nailo a hizieh in ang kisuosah nailo ahihi.

Kiphinlouh-theihlouh dinmun ah sorkar in mipi khoih

Editorial, The Lamka Post | August 02, 2008

Singtangmite leh a diak a sinlai naupangte khualna in All Tribal Students'
Union Manipur (ATSUM) in pan ana la gige sek hi. Huaiziak mah in Manipur
University a SC/ST reservation tungtang leh Manipur singtangmite a dia
university tuam lieuliau bawlkhiak ding sorkar kiang ah ngen uhi. Huai
banah, Manipur hill district 4 a skulpu kidaihlouh thu naktak in tangkoupih
ua, contract basis a teacher lak a omte contract hun behlapsak ding leng
naktak in phu uhi. Sorkar toh leng hiaite toh kisai in kitheihsiamna leh
kilemna nei mahle uh a sepsuah ding lampang sorkar in a limsaklouh ziak in
nohna leng bangzahvei hiam leh Economic Blockade tanpha bawlta uhi. Huai
nung nangawn a sorkar lampang apat kalsuanna muh ding a omlouh ziak in ATSUM
in khauhzawsem a sorkar nohna ding in July 10, 2008 a helna pat nawn sawm in
July 1 in thupuan hon bawl uhi. Helna pen NH-39 leh NH 53 a economic
blockade bawl ding leh hill district teng a govt. establishment leh ZEO-te
boycott in zui ding hi'n puang uhi. Huai banah, ATSUM toh sorkar in kihouna
a neihlai ua Manipur sik-le-tang a ding Education Minister L. Jayantakumar,
PHE/IPR/Tourism Minister T.N. Haokip leh TD/Hills/Vety & AH Minister DD
Thaisii leng ATSUM in boycott ahihdan uh puang hi. Hichituk a ATSUM in pan a
lak nung in a ngetnate uh pichin nak sang in kiphinna ding behlalptu di'n
sorkar in school 171-te huhna piak tawpsan ding in thupukna hon bawl zomah

A ngetnate uh sukpichin ahihlouh ziak in hill district-te a student
leader-te toh kithumuh in tu'n ATSUM in nakzawsem in pan hon la hi. Zan a
ATSUM in thusuah a bawl dan dungzui un August, 2008 sung daih ding kiphinna
chituamtuam, a nem deuh a kipan a khauh hiaihiai ding in programme guang
uhi. A sawm dan un August 4-9 sung teng Class IX - University student-te'n
badge vom belh ding leh ZEO-te khak ding. August 10 zankim apat August 14
tan, dakkal 96 sung Manipur pumpi bandh ding. August 15 chiang a Indian
Independence Day lopna a tribal student-te kihellouh ding, lah sukbuai
tuanlouh ding. August 18 apat 23 sung singtang bial a private leh govt.
school tengteng khak vek ding leh singtang bial a govt. office tengteng
kimvel a nasemtheilou dia koih a kiphinna (picketing) neih ding. Hiai tan a
sinsaktu kiningching leh school a dia poimoh tuamtuamte guan ahihkei a leh
August 25 apat hunchiam omlou a singtang bial a govt. school tengteng khak
vek ding. Hiai bang a kiphinna tuamtaum neih ahihzoh tan a leng sorkar in
ATSUM ngetnate a pichinsak kei lai a leh August 30 chiang a Manipur Tribal
Students of Delhi in Delhi a 'protest rally' neih ding ATSUM in sawm hi.

Phualpi sorkar hi'n state sorkar khat peuhpeuh hitaleh, a mipite'n zaidamtak
a lehkha khiak tungtawn khong a nget-le-sak a neih chiang un
'kingengkhaisak' uh hia ahihkeileh bang chi uh hiam ah, ngaihsaklou mawk
uhi. A huchih chiang in mipite a ding in leng sorkar in a tungtang uh a
ngaihkhiak teiteina dia ut leh utlouh thu hilou a, thawm ngaih theitawp a
kiphin poimoh khat suak mah ahi. Himahleh, tua ATSUM program guante a
paisuak a leh bel, bandh bawllou a kiphinnate hi'n bandh hitaleh, huai
banah, bandh in school, college, medical, PHE, electricity leh sahkhua
programme-te huaplou ding hilehleng mipite a di'n nawngkaina nasatak tun
ding hi. Lamka a mipi 10000 in lamlian i zuih noihnoih sang ua mi 500 vel in
Delhi a lamlian a zuih uh phatuamzaw dia gintakhuai a, ATSUM in a tawpna dia
a koih pen masasak leh mipi a dia nawngkaina tamtak pumpelh ding ihihna uah
bang a chi dia chih bang ngaihtuahna ah piang hi. Lohsam kha leng maban a
kalsuan ding dan bei pian mawk ding chih ngaihtuahna ATSUM heutute'n nei uh
hiding in gintakhuai hi. Himahleh, tua ATSUM in program a guan dan un leng
lohchinna a hon tun ngeingei ding chih theih hituanlou hi. Bang teng hileh,
Manipur sorkar tung a kiphin nuamte a di'n August kha sung ahihleh hun
kibichilh mahmah hiphot peuhmah hi.



Manipur a buaina tuamtuamte ziakin bandh, general strike, economic blockade
kichi om mun mahmah a, a chimtakhuai kia hilou in minautang hindan ngeina
naktak a a sukbuai banah a tangpi thu in supna nasatak hon tun hi. Ei
Churachandpur district mipite ahihleh i tei mahmah ua, khualzin vakvel
kitatsatlou in i om den uhi. Imphal toh Lamka kikal a bandh a om zek chiang
in, thil poimoh tamtak a kikhelsek a,mawlchik a gen in, rel leh lenna ticket
lasate'n sum seng thawn uhi. A diak in Bishenpur hiam ahihkeileh Moirang
hiam a 'Lamka Mawltual chia' huam sung lel ding khong a bandh a om chiang
inleng suangkulh lianpi sung a khumkhawm mah i kibang uhi. Thiltung khatpeuh
ziak a kibawlkhia JAC teng gentaklouh, 'JAC Against the Brutal Killing of H
Somendro Singh and M Somen Singh' kichi ziak maimai in leng ni 4 sung bang
Imphal toh i kikawmtuahna uh nawngkai a, khumbichilh in i om uhi. Apaisa
Pathianni July 27, 2008 a Imphal a exam ding tamtak exam theilou in om ua, i
maban ding uh naktak a khaksak in om uhi.

Huai ziakin, bangchibang in panla leng hiai bandh apan mipite suakta thei
ding? Imphal toh kikawmtuahna dia Moirang leh Bishenpur tawnlou lamlian,
bypass poimoh hia? ahihkeileh bandh a om teng a khualzinte makaih ding
security escort kimansa gige poimohzaw hiam? Sorkar kiang a nget-le-sak neih
ding hihleh Assn. bawl beh zel ding hia? ahihkeileh, pawlpi omsate lak a
koipen bang in panla leh hoih ding hiam? Tedim Road mipite hinna gui ahi
chih thei kawm in ngaihdan hon kum in.

Ngaihdan tuamtuam i neihte uh sungkhawm leng haksatna i tuahte uh dou ding
dan a hong pian lamen i hihna ah na ngaihdan uh hon kum khawm ding in kon
ngen hi. Hiai toh kisai ngaihdan na neihte uh message tungtawn in mobile #
9856363681/9862159009/9856594139 ah leh email:

Sd/- Editor


Bullet-proof engines flagged off - Applause, crackers mark resumption of south Assam train service

Silchar, July 31: Nearly 75 days ago, locomotive driver N.N. Bora lost his life to rebel bullets as he was driving a special patrol train between Mupa and Kalachand stations in the militancy-ridden North Cachar Hills district.

Stalled ever since, trains began running only today, pulled by bullet-proof engines. Two-and-a-half months ago, they could have saved Bora’s life.

Tumultuous applause broke out across the Badarpur railway junction, 28km from this town, as the first two scheduled trains along the 104-year-old hill section in the Barail hills were flagged off from the junction in Karimganj district and Lumding station at 10am today.

The train journeys along this 185-km-long serpentine metre gauge track, famous for its scenic beauty, was stalled from May 15 after the attack on the railway staff by the Dima Halam Daogah (Jewel).

The railway staff struck work after the attack and left their postings at 27 railway stations and establishments along this vital section which is linked to the metre gauge lines of Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura.

A total of six trains were flagged off from Lumding, Lower Haflong, Badarpur and Silchar terminus stations between 9.20am and 3.30pm.

Some of the people gathered at the stations burst crackers to express their happiness about the resumption of the passenger trains.

The morning train, which slowly started its journey from Badarpur junction, had about 200 passengers in 10 coaches.

There was as many as 19 security personnel drawn from the army, Assam police and the Railway Protection Security Force to escort the train from Badarpur.

Nupur Malakar was the driver of the train which steamed off this morning from Badarpur station.

However, the operating staff, including the drivers and guards, refused to wear the bullet-proof jackets, weighing nearly 15.5kg, saying they were cumbersome.

At least eight bullet-proof trains are now stationed at Badarpur railway station.


Slaying of non-local sparks protest in CCpur

Lamka, Aug 1: The slaying of a non-Manipuri business man at Tuibuang Bazar here last night attracted a wide range of protest as all business establishments owned by the community downed their shutters for the day even as the body was placed before the local police station for a moment.

A businessman identi-fied as Aver Kumar Shah, according to police sources was found murdered inside his rented house at Tuibuong bazaar at about 8. 30 last night, with his throat slit and his mouth bearing cut/tortured marks. His body was retrieved from the scene at about 9 pm and deposited at the district hospital morgue.

The circumstances in which Shah was killed remain blurred but the police have taken into custody his three house- mates, including a 14 year-old-boy.

Reports collected over the day were at odds; however reliable sources said the three alleged inmates or suspects have claimed that a man entered their house at about 8 pm when they were watching television.

As they inquired for the Aver Kumar Shah, Shah had identified himself and as requested the three of them moved to the next room which was immediately bolted from the other side.

After about half an hour and after allegedly hearing them over asking him for a brief case the three house-mates discovered that their friend was murdered.

There were many loopholes on the lines obtained from the sources, however the non-local community has taken a strong exception against the manner in which the police has placed the housemates under their custody.

At about 2pm today, after post mortem was conducted the body was placed at Tiddim Road in-front of the police station for about half-an-hour, allegedly on the ground that his body would not be cremated without the arrested suspects, most of who were related to the victim.

Police resorted to a lathi-charge to disperse the crowd and give way to traffic and after negotiations the body was taken for cremation as the police agreed to accompany the 14 year-old-boy identified as Money Kumar to the cremation.

The other duo was identified as Pramod Kumar Gupta, 18 of Barsha district of Bihar and Devender Kumar, 20 of Sarcha-nd district also in Bihar. Police has claimed that investiga- tion is on and that the suspects’ statement will soon be obtained.

SOURCE: The Sangai Express

Friday, August 01, 2008

Lamka Fashion

Editorial, Manipur Express August 01, 2008

Fashion kichi Sappau kammal hi a, kicheidan leh khawsakdan chi’n let le hang dik thei thou leh kilawm. Mihingte ading in kicheina kichi poimawh mahmah a, i niteng hinkhua a i tuah touhtouh ahi hi. Kicheina ana poimawh lua a, kicheina in mihingte chei mahmah ahi chih kuapeuh theih ahi.

Lamka Fashion i chih chiang in i gen ut tam mahmaha, bangpen a pat a, bang atawp ding hiam chih bang theih huai zezen lou hi. I lak ah fashion sang mahmah in, huai in i economic dinmun a hon sukha ban diam chih patauh huai thei in kilang a, ihihna khel a om sawm tamtak om hita hang e chihtheih in om hi.

Fashion in bangteng huam hiam chih theih geih kei mah le hang, kicheina chauh hilou in, i gamtat khohei leng huamban ding in kilang a, huai tawh mekmat theih ding thil tamtak om hi’n kilang hi. Tuma deuh in numei naupang Class VII sinlel khat in a nu kiang ah mobile ngen a, mobile aleisak kei ua leh school kainawn lou ding in kiphin zaih hi. Anu’n leng bang lungsim pu adiam mobile leisak giap lel hi. Tulai in i lak a kithang penpen te lak a khat ahihleh, mobile leh two wheeler activa ahi. Numei naupang chikchik mobile tawi, activa a tai muh ding tamtak om a, Lamka fashion mobile leh activa suakta hi. Naupang kum chinglou gari heek dan in phallou hi. Tuabang mah in, pasal naupang chikchik Pulsar deih in kiphin tamtak om a, huai leng Pulsar 150 hilou in, 200 hizaw mah hi. Pulsar, Activa leh Mobile phone kichite Lamka fashion suak gawpta hi.

Aneih zou te’n leisak uheh poikei ichi kha maithei. Himahleh, huai in i society bangzah in a effect khadia chih I theih ding uh ahi. Bangziak in? India khawpi tuamtuam te ah leng mobile ana kithang mahmaha, himahleh, tuni chiangin mi tamtak ten ahoihlouh lam thei in, school te ah mobile kuaman tawithei nawnlou ding in khamta uhi. Huai ziak in iki taitehna te uh kitaitehna dik mah adiam chih ut huai hi. School kailai in tuition lakna tawh kisai tehkak zual le hang, a neizoute’n tuition la in, aneizoulou te la lou hi. Hiai tungtang bel a siang mahmah a, a kuamah kimawhsak theih mawk hilou hi. Tate lehkha siamding deihna ziak in tuition lakbel selou a, himahleh, mobile leh gari khawng a kitaitehna pen bangchi tuk in hausa himahle hang, i tate’ maban ding lungzin huai hizaw hi. Hinkhua (life) enjoy baihlaw te mi lawhching vang mahmah ua, vaite mi hausa taktak te’n leng a tate uh pawl XII tan beek a zawh ma uh material lam a kitaitehna te ah ki helsak vetlou uhi.

I economy niamlam theilou in sangpi in iki taiteh kha naak ua, a khenchiang in vualzawl taklou i di uam chih theih ton atam hi. Mi khat in a ta duat mahmah in, a duh teng aleisak vek aleh, a ta ha (teeth) teng tok gai gawp in lung in ne gai chitel uhi. Bangziak a i lak ah khamtheih hichi ot lawmlawm hiam chih bulsut a, study bawl taktak ding chi le hang, nule pa te mawhna tamtak om kha thei ding hi. I tate uh zalenna i piak nak luatziak un i thuak lawhkha sek uhi. Nidang in phula lane puanak kithang mahmah a, huai apan stage sangzaw hong kal in kicheina uang hiaihiai a, tuni chiang bang in Biakinn ah leng kikhop ngam huai nawnlou khop in kicheina sangta a, function tuamtuam te ah leng trop tak a vatel ding thil zumhuai hongsuak ta hi. Naupang piangtung chih theihphial te nasan in coat suit silh ta mai, i fashion un Mumbai fashion a phaklouhna a om tuam dia hia chih theih in om ta hi.

Westernisation in hon nak zawhluat ziak in haigai vek simta in i om ua, changkang tak a khawsak i ut chiat uhi. Khawpi tuamtuam te chetdan bang in i om nuam ua, hoihtak a I et vengveng chiang in lah mi zawng leh genthei ngen ina hi naak ua, i lungtung uah mei am kikoih lel te i suakta uhi.

Kicheina mihing ading in poimawh a, himahleh, akaan a val a kicheina pen mawlna (ignorance) ahi hi. Tudan a i paitouh zel ua leh, khangthak 100 ah 70% te bang khahsuah khak ding lauhuai hi. High school a kailai, mobile tawikawm a school kuan, school kaina dia two wheeler zang chih te pahtak huai lawlou hi. Aziak ahihleh, anu le pan leisak zou, nuamtak a khawsak sak sawm hikha ding ua, huai lam ah a nule pa mawhsa lua hikei mah le hang, a tate’ uh maban ding i gelsak chiang in bang hong chidia chih ngaihtuah tham ching a, aki suihpaihlouh na ding un tu ahun laitak a atate uh a haksa a zuihsak phot uh deihsak huai mahmah hi. Kuaman lah i tate gentheih ding i phaltuan ngal kei a.



- T.K. Lama, Aizawl

Khovel a nam tampi um in tawndan leh zuidan tuamtuam akinei chiat hi. Ei Zou te'n zong nam peidan tawndan leh dan zui (Culture and customary law)hoitah akinei a, tuate ahileh Ji leh Pasal a kineidante, man-le-mual kipia dante, tapa tapen goulua dante, numai tung a khut khial dante leh kikhen leh kikhul dan akinei hi. Inam tawndan leh ipu apatsa a ina zui uh hinanleh khenkhatte tulai khovel tawh kitua nonlou a um a, tuate hi hoitah a entha in tulai dinmun tawh kitua in aki heidanglam zel hi. Tambang a pupa tawndan kizuite tulai khovel changkan tawh heitua dan theite hi nam khangtou leh chang kangte anahi tangpi ua, nam changkang lou leh khangtoulou ten ipu ipate tawndan chi in a sumkhuang singkei zel uhi.

Ei Zou ten zong mimal leh innkuan khangtou nading a ipu ipa apat a ina zui uh U-pa goulua hi entha theilei ahoi ding kagingta hi. U-pa gaulua leh innpi nga hi khantouna mit a gal etleh in ahoina tampi um nanleh hoitah a zilchian a I etchian chiangin ahoilou na tampi ana um hi. Tam anuai a bang in U-pa goulua hi gam leh nam ading in ahoi tahtah nai chi zil vai:

1. U-pa hi tapate lah a upapen leh nulehpa te adinga tapa mel mu masatpen ahi zia in nulehpa itna akidang mama hi. U-pa hi nu leh pa adinga kinepna leh hamuanpi pen ahizia in nu leh pa dingin a it huai dan tadangte sangin asangzaw hi.

2. Nu leh pa te tha hengpen leh bangkim a padinmun a dingtheipen ahi zia in adia in nute ading in a hamuan huai dia hi.

3. Pa ten vangsiatna thu a sina khat atua kha chiang in upa in pa dinmun ading in innsung a enkawl zel hi.

4. U-pa kichi hi a naute sang a nileh ha mu masa ahizia in lungsim pi chin baina khat anei hi.

5. U-pa ten nulehpa te nasep leh sil bawl ah panpi in nulehpa te ading in puagih a zangkhai mama hi.

6. U-pa in nulehpa te ate avuai tan a enkawl in ana vui zel a, nu leh paten u-pa zal in hamuang leh lunggimlou in ahuntawplam azang thei uhi.

7. U-pa innpi ngana dan nuai ah nauzaw te ading in nulehpa vangsiat sil a angbeisan kha dinga zau huai seng sihi.

8. U-pa in thuneina angla chiang in nauzaw ten upa pansan in ama uh ma aki khual thei uhi. U-pa vaisaina nuai ah nauzaw ten nu lehpa a suhbuai ngam sihi.

Tam atunga te hi tapa tapen(u-pa) goulua dan hoina te hi a, inam un kum zatam ina zui uh leh ahoina leh hoilouna theilou a nam tawndan a ina pawmdet uh ahihi. Tapa tapen goulua a innpi ngana hi a hoina atam gual in a hoilouna zong atam thou a, tuate ahile:

1. Mihing dam kum et in u-pa apichin chiang in pa tampite athahat un deibang in na asem thei nalai ua, u-pa ang pichin chianga nasepte ang nei chiangin pate nasep aki thatda(Neclect) thei uhi. Pate nasep ang ki thatda chiang in nauzawte ading gou a umnon sih tangpi a, Tuachin nauzawte avavai ut mama uhi.

2. U-pa khenkhat ang pichin ua patetawh bantha kikim angnei chiang un khenkhatten pa thuneina thagum a tusawm in innsung ah pata buaina tampi aum thei hi.

3. U-pa in nulehpa gou aluading a a unau dangte a enkawl ding chi ahi a, hinanleh u-pa khenkhat innsung hindan leh khosah dan hasa deuten anaute aningin ama ua kitoudel ding in asawl gumsan thei ua, nauzawte adding in a beidawn huai thei mama hi.

4. U-pa khenkhat nulehpa goulua ding ahi kithei in ahinkhua ah kithatdana anei thei a, tuate hi nulehpa adingin puagihtah leh sihun lou a sina tan atun thei hi.

5. Nulehpa te ta itdan leh u-pa in a unaute a itdan tong leh laam a kikhia ahizia in u-pa in innsung a thuneina alabai seng chiang in unau dangte ading in hin ahasa ut mama hi.

6. U-pa in jilehta angnei chiang in aji atate a khual ngai ahizia in a unaute khualna aneithei sia, a unau dangte ading in mualsuana ding lamet avang ut mama hi.

7. U-pa in ji hoilou aneikha a ajiten anulepa leh asanggamte anuda khaleh unau dangte getlou nuleh pa adingin damsung gentheina khat aching thei hi. Nulehpa ten ata dangte lungsiat in khotua mama nanleh bangma abawlthei seng nonsia, Tate genthei hasatna lungsim natah in agal et zel hi.

8. Innsunga upapen amitmaw sim a sep leh bawlkhiat aneilou leh pate adingin lungkhamna ahi a, Unau dangte lah akikhual uh angai zia in nulehpa adingin vangsiatna liantah ahithei hi.

9. U-pa ten innsung a pa dinmun ading thei ding leh pate thaheng dingte ahichi kithei in lungsim nei leh kithatda theilou ahidan uh thei in na asem uh upaten lawchinna anei chiang un unau dangten kimuanpi in aki thatda thei uhi.

10. I nam sunga milawchinglou leh nasem lou a um maimai kitam zia u-pa hing enkawl ding um chi thei a kithatda akitam zia ahi thei hi.

Tam atung a u-pa innpi nga leh goulua dan tehi michin tung atungthei leh tunglou thei sil ahi a, Bangdan zui in khovel adan hoilou pen zuilei zong unau ki itna leh kingainatna nei hi apoimaw pen hi. Mihingte du amna khovel ateng leh anopthei bangpen a um utchiat aki hizia in Innsung a nulehpate (Adia in pa in) tate tung a itna kilahsah dante siama, gou tate hawmtham ching nei ten adamlai ngei a siamtah tate tung a deisah tuam neilou hawmsa a koi masat hi paching leh mipil hina khat ahihi. Pa khenkhat in anei alam teng upa ading a nuasia a anauzawte ngaisalou aki um thei a, tuabang hi Pa chitlana leh mani nopsat nading chauh ngaituate ahi hi.Inam khantou nading in u-pa innpi ngana dan nuai a um ihina bang un u-pa te hi nulehpa ten tate akikim a etkawl dan siama thuhil zing uh angai hi.

I kimvel a iten Unau Hmar, Lusei(Mizo), Meitei te hi eite sang a nam khangtou, pil leh changkang zawte ua, Namkhat changkang leh khangtou ten silpeidan ana musiam un atu atate dinga dan zuiding in ana bawl ua khangtha ten ang zuitou chiangun ang khangtou zel uhi. hoithei bangpen ding a dan anabawl a ana zuithei ziauh ahi uhi.

Nautum innpi nga leh goulua dan ahileh Innsungkhat a ta pasal teng a lianpen apat ji leh ta nei masate ana in tuan zel un nautum in innpi(Nulehpa tenna in) nga in nu leh pa gou analua a, tuachin anu leh pa te enkawl in ana vui zel uhi. Nautum innpi ngana dan nuai ah Pa in chitlana leh sina atua a kha leh u-pa in pa mawpuana la in thupi lapi vai ding chiangin u-pa in aki zang hi. U-pa inntuansa hinanleh zong nautum inn ah padin mun in ava ding thei hi. Nautum innpi ngana dan zui ten nautum innpi nga a hoina ana mu te uhleh akhangtou na bulpi uh hiding a gintat huaipen ahileh:

1. Ipu ipaten atate uh tung a anathei(Experience ananei uh) hoi mama khat uh ahileh atate lah ua upatdan azil in lungsim nei dan kikhiatdan leh U-pa/upazaw te Lungsim naupang zaw ten aphaloudante, nauzaw ten u-zawte adem zawlou dan uh getna in “Khup in Kha khel ngaisih” chileh “U-pa leh lamtou kidem zoulou” ana chi uhi. Nautum innpi ngana dan tuiten ipu ipate ngaidan bang ananei ziaun u-pa u-zawte hi bangkim ah nulehpa te ading in angaitua huailou zaw leh ama ua dingkipthei ahizia un ana indang sah uhi. Tuachia u-zaw te a indan chiang un u-zaw hina lungsim in pichinna apia zel zia un akitoudel thei tangpi uhi. Tate lah ah nautum ten nu leh pa te lungsiatna alaw mama un nuleh ten angai tuam mama ua, nautumte ngaitua nazia in nulehpa tampiten thei leh theilou in na asem vevaw zel uhi. Nautumte a lungsim uh anou in apiching ha ua, hinanleh nulehpa etkawlna nuai a um leh nulehpa neisa tawh bulpan ahi zia un a ute bangin lungsim neisih nanleh lungpiang kua chiang un nelehta hawlna ah alawching pai uhi. Tuachin U-zaw te a u-zaw lungtang tawh a inntuan ua angkitoudel chiang un nam sung ah mikitou delthei atamlaw zel a tuachu gam leh nam khantou leh changkang na bulpi khat asua hi.

2. Nautum inn pi nga na ah u-zawte aki thatda(neclect) thei sia, inntuan zaw ding ahi kithei kawm in lungsim neitah a a um zia un inn kuan khawsa/ um thei a sua tangpi uhi.

3. U-pa te hi khovel mu masa zaw tea hi zie un nauzawte kung a vakun ding sil hitheilou bang a angai zia un tupguna/tahpan na khat a anei tangpi un, tuamin sangpi atut thei zel uhi.

4. U-pa goulua nanuai a siltung dei huailou tapain nu leh pa thunei na thagum a lasah leh thu neina kitu abuaina nautum innpi ngana innsung ah a um thei sihi.

5. U-pa gouluana inn sung ah u-pa in ji leh ta ang nei chiang in a lungsim ngaituana aji leh tate tunga umlou theilou ahizia in anaute angai sah thei seng sia, Nu leh pa pilvang louzia leh chitlou zia in nu lehpa tampi ten tate vavai gentheina mu in lungsiat mama nanleh bangma bawl thei neilou in lungsim na kawm kawm in a enliam zel hi. Nauzaw innpi ngana a nu leh pa damsung nu leh pa in tate khem tuam neilou a enkawl in a nei bang bang aki lawm dan a a hawm chiang in lungkimna a um zel hi.

6. Inn sung a U-pa in ji leh ta ang nei a innsung khawsah hasat chiang in nunei(U-pa ji ) agilou ut mama in unau dangte leh nu leh pa huatna a neithei a, U-pa ji ngamlou deute innsung ah buaina leh hasatna atung ut mama hi. Nautum innpi ngana innsung ah jinei masa inn tuan zel in moute thuala na a um man seng sih a, nautum jite agitlou a nuleh pa alungkimsah lou leh u-zaw ten nauzaw innsung ah thunei liantah aneithei zia uh leh nulehpa ten gouluana u-zaw te kung a pekhie thei ahizia in nautum ji agilou thei sihi.

Unau Hmar, Lusei leh Meiteite te tawndan nautum innpi nga hi I Zou nam tawndan U-pa goulua dan izah sang un innkuan sunga mimal chin te khangtou nading leh changkan nading in ahoizaw in nuleh pa gousum nei sunsun tezong aki homgual zaw hi.

Mi changkang leh khangtou te sil hoibawldan entawn a bawlte hi mipil ahi a, Mibawl ahizia a bawl sawmlou a silhoi ning khinte hi mimawl akihi hi. Eite zong mimawlte um bang a um sawm teitei nonlou in eima mimal, inam leh igam ading a changkanna leh khantou na ding ahi pou a silsia ahisih pouleh mite silbawldan hoite entawn in kibawl pailei mimal, gam leh nam bang in I khantou pizaw ding hi.

( Tami U-pa goulua leh nautum goulua dante hi i nampi in zui vai china ahisia mimal chinte, gam leh nam khahtou nading mit (Eye’s) a et in ahoizaw chizia a kang talat ahizaw hi).
For TK Lama writings, please visit ZOUGAM VISION 2025

Zomi Min Tawh Kisap Hunluata

- Eddie N. Hang

Ka pianna Khamtung hi-a ka nu leh ka pa Zomi ahih manin ka neu lai-in Chin cih kammal khat veibek ka za ngeikei hi. Ka nu leh ka pa in khat veibek: "Chin hi hang" hong ci ngeilo hi. Tedim ah sang ka kah sungin zong Zomi lak vive ahih manin kua mi ka hi hiam? cih kankul ngeilo-a, Chin cih kammal mahmah kiza ngei vetlo hi. Rangoon ah Kawlte lak ah sang ka kah ciangin: "Bang minam nahi hiam?" ci-in hong kidong sese-a, "Zomi hi ing" ci-in ka dawng hi. Kawlte in Zomi cih natheilo uh ahih manin: "Chin nahi hiam, Kachin nahi hiam?" ci-in hong dongkik sese uhhi. Amau theihsa khatbek tawh hong ciamteh mikmek uhhi. Ke'n bel:."Chin hi ke'ng, Zomi hi'ng" ci-in dawngkik tektekse ing.

USA ka tun ciangin zong: "Koi gam pan hong pai nahi hiam?" ci-in hong kidong pahpah a, "Kawlgam pan hi'ng, ahih hang Kawlmi hi ke'ng, Zomi hi'ng" ci-a ka gen ciangin Zomi mahin hong sangpah uhhi. Zomi hi'ng, cita le'ng, Kawlte'n: "Chin nahi hiam?" ci-in hong dongkik hamtangbek a, gam khangtona a om mipilte'n: "Kawlgam pan hong pai nahih ciangin Kawlte hi zawteh, Chin-te hi zawteh" ci-in kuamah'n hong ci hamtang selo uhhi. Zomi ka hi, ka cih bangin hong sang pah uh a, Zomi-in hong ciamteh pahlel uhhi.

2001 kum April kha sungin Guam atung ih mipih Zomi pawl khat, asylum interview ah kam phensak dingin ka pai sungin, minam hong kidot ciang, "Zomi" kici ding hihang ka cih leh khat in: "Midang-te'n, 'Chin' in hong thei zaw ahih teh, Chin kici zawlo ding ihhi hiam?" ci-in hong dawng hi.

I minam min Chin hi zaw hiam? Zomi hi zaw hiam? a buaipih huailopi tu dongin i buaipih mahmah hi. Mi hong ciamtehna bang mang zaw ding ihi hiam? Zomi pen ei kam hi diak a e'n zanglua lehang, Zomi a deihlo mi dangte'n hong zatpih nuamlo ding uhhi, a ci i om mah bangin mi dangte hong cihpih nop hun dong ngak a, tua hun ciang zang pan ding ihi hiam? Greek-te leh Japan-te'n bel a minam min uh amau kam lopi tawh a kiciapteh tudong phamawh sakei ven, e'n e leh, phamawh i sa hiam? I minam min bang taktak hi-a, ei kam lopi tawh hong kiciamteh tehlai leh ut ihi hiam? Zomite kammal sungah, 'Chin' cih kammal khatbeek omlo ahih ciangin Kawlte'n 'Chin' hong cih tawh lungkim kimlai ding ihi hiam? I minam min Zomi hilo ham? Zomi kicih hun nailo hiam? Hun luata hi! Zomi hiteh! Zomi kicih hunlua mahmahta!

'Chin' pen Kawl kammal hi-a, a deihkaihte'n: "'Lawm ahong cihna hi", ci uh hi. Tangthu kansut lehang Kawlte hong lawmbawlna ka mu ngeikei hi. Bogyoke Aung San in England kumpite khut sung pan suahtakna adeih hun tawl khat sung hong lawmbawl ve'n, tualo Kawlte'n hong lawmbawl ngeilo uhhi. Tu hun diakdiak ciangin Kawlte'n hong lawmbawl ding cih thadah hong vatmai nuam zaw uhhi. Galkap ulian hong piak sawm nawnlo uhhi. Kumpi nasem ulian hong piak sawm nawnlo uhhi. Khamtung ah galkap om ngeilopi galkap hong puak uhhi. Ahang na thei naleh? Tangval tata hong puak uha, Zomi nungakte a ngah zawh zahzah uh tenpihgawp nuam uhhi. A tate uh Buddhist biakna ngeina tawh pantah nuam uhhi. Buddhist biakna ngeina tawh a pattah theihnadingin lutolte zong Khamtung ah hong puak uhhi. Na khua sung, na gam sung ah Kawl biakna Buddhist sang hong omlam na phawknai hiam? English-te Kawlgam ah hong lut lai-in thau tawh hong lut a, Kawlgam sung a na manpha a laktheih zahzah la-in, England ah ciahpih hi. American-te ahih leh Lungdamna thu leh pilna tawh Kawlgam hong lut uha minamneu khempeuh tungah Lungdamna thu leh pilna hong puak uhhi. Tu'n Kawlte Khamtungah hong pai uha, hong deihsak tateu in hih phattuamna hong puak ding, cih hilo-in Kawlgam sunga mi namneuteng a maimangsak nuam uh hilel hi. Kawlgam i cih mah bangin Kawlte gam taktak suah nuam uhhi. Na minam hong maimangsak nuam hi. Na biakna hong susia nuam hi. Christian na suak ding hong kham hi. Na singlamteh hong phuksak hi. Biakinn tunga na suante nangawn hong lakhiasak hi. Tua maw, Kawlte' hong lawmbawlna! Tu dong, 'Chin Poh', mah hong cilai hilo hiam? Ke'n ka neu tunga kipan Kawlte' hong itna, hong lawmbawlna mu ngeikeng. Kawlte' lawm hi ngeilo hihang. I minam pen Chin hi ngeilo hi. Minam khat pen minam dang khat i lawm cih banglel tawh kiciamteh ngeilo hi. Kawlte' lawm peuh hilo-in Zomi hihang!

Khamtung ah kipawlna lian a om masa pen Zomi Baptist Convention hi, ci leng kikhiallua-in ka umkei hi. Zomi Baptist Convention min a kiphuak lai-in Falam, Khalkha, Tedim pan makaiteng mah kikuma thukimna tawh min na phuak uhhi. Khangthak ciangin biakna sungah politics hong luta, Zomi pen ei kam hi phadiak cise uh ahih manin Zomi deihlo a dangte in Chin Baptist Convention tawh hong laih nuam sese uh hi. Ei kam tawh nungak tangval ahi zong, numei pasal ahi zong, i khenna-in 'lia leh taang' i nei-a, a neite-a zat khop pih le'ng hilel napi eimah mah hong langpanna uhin, Falam, Khalkha, Tedim gam sungah cikmah huna a kizang ngei lo, 'salaing leh maing' zat dingin University sangnaupang khat hong hanciam hi. A dangte zong oltakin hong lawh zopah hi.

Tua bangin hong kilangpan lua ahih ciangin: "Zomi kici lehang a dangte'n hong zatpih nuamkeikha inteh", ci-in Cimnuai-mi peuh kihemcih heihai hihang. Cimnuai i lawh ciangin, sung khat suak hihang, laigui zom hihang, cih lungsim hong neisaka, sung khat suak bang, laigui zom banga kingaihsun thei zawdiak ihih leh pha. Ahi zongin i pianna taktak kansut ni, ci le'ng, Cimnuai pan piang taktak hi-in na ki-um thei hiam? Vakhu tui hiam khat sung pan keuh khia ihihkei leh Ciimnuai pan laipianlo ding hihang. Tapidaw-te' upna tawh kilehbulh hilo ahi hiam? Ciimnuai mun zong koi lai-ah om, cih a kicianin kithei lo hi. Kithei mah leh zong Cimnuai pen mun khat hilela i vekpi in hong huam zolo hi. Tua mah bangin Tedim-mi hihang, pawl khat in ci hihang. Tedim pen zum tutna khuapi hi-a, ei mite ading khuapi thupi pen hi. Ahi zongin Tedim-mi cih bang om theilo hi. Tedim khua-a a teng Tedimte cihbek om hi. Tedim khua bek in ei mi khempeuh huam zolo hi. Nidanga Tedim uk pen tu'n Tonzang uk tawh khen nih kisuaha khuapi min zui-in i minam min puasak lehang Tonzang khua leh Tonzang huam sunga a teng mite in, ko Tedim-mi hikei ung, hong cinuam ding uhhi. Mikangte uk sungin Kamhaumi peuh hong ci zanzana ei mi pawl khat in Kamhaumi mah zong kici nuampah uhhi. Mun khat, khua khat in ei mite hong huam zolo ahih leh mihing khat bek in ei miteng hong huam zolosem ding hi. Ei mi khempeuh Kam Hau sung pan kipiang samlo hi.

Khai leh! Zomi a deihlo mi dangte'n, Zomi hong cihpih ding i ngak zawh kum bang zah phazo-a kua'n hong zatpihta hiam? Bang hun dong ngak le'ng hong zatpih ding uhhiam? A omsa nangawn zang nuamlo-a khel nuam zawzen uh ahih leh hong zatpih nuam ngei dingin i um hiam? Mi hong zatpih ding i ngakngak kalin mi'n 'Chin' mahin hong ciamtehteh ding hi. Ei kam lopi, Kawlte lawm lopi, Chin mahin hong kithei lai leh ut ihi hiam? Kawlte'n lawm hong cihna ahi phial zongin Kawlte lawm hih ding pen angtanhuai luading hiam? Kawlte' lawm lela i minam a kitheih ding uthuai luasam ding hiam?

Guai aw, Chin kici ding ihi zongin, Zomi kici ding ihi zongin, kuateng thukim kul sese hiam? Chin ahi-teng Chin hive'n cin, Zomi ahi-teng Zomi hilello hiam? Kawlte'n ei deihlohpi Chin hong ci tentan ve'n, America khawng ah Zomi hi'ng kici le'ng Zomi mahin hong ciamtehpah lelveh.

Galkap kumpi in Kawlgam min pen Burma pan Myanmar ah bang hang hong laih uh ahia leh? Mikangte uk sunga Mikang min a pua lam min khawng Kawl min tawh laih sese uhhi. Gentehna-in York Road pen Min Ye Kyaw Zwa ci-in laih uhhi. Phayre Street pen Pan So Dan ci-in laih uhhi. Bang hangin laih sese uh hiding hiam? A gam min uh ahi zongin, lam minte ahi zongin amau kam tawh kilo leh a utman uhhi.

Ei zong Kawlte lawm hi ngei lopi Chin peuh hong kicihse sang', ei kam mah tawh Zomi hong kici leh ut zaw lo ihi hiam? Mi hong thukimpih ding ngakkulse hiam? Mi hong zatpih ding ngakkulse hiam? Ei minam min, "Zomi hi zaw", ci-in Zomite in gen theilo ihi hiam? Kua'n: "Chin hi zaw uhteh", hong ci thei peuhmah ding hiam? Amau Chin kici nuam zaw uh ahih leh Chin ahilel keiding uhhiam? Ei Chin hilo hive hang, Chin kici nuamlo hive hang, kua'n Chin hong ci hamtang thei ding hiam? I minam bang hiam? ci-a hong kidot ciangin Zomi kici ding hihang. Zomi ci-in kigen peuh lehang Zomi-in hong kiciamtehpah ding hi. Kuamah in: "Zomi hikei teh", hong ci thei peuhmahlo hi.

Guam a asylum ngen ei mite kam ka phensak ciangin asylum officer-te in: "Kua mi nahi hiam?" ci-a hong dot teh, "Zomi", ci-a ka dawn leh Zomi-in hong ciamteh suaklel hi. Chin a utte Chin, Zomi a utte Zomi hi lelve hang aw. I veka Chin hi ding, ahihkei leh Zomi hi ding, cih bang omkei veh. Chin maw, Zomi maw, kammal khat bek zong thukim theilo ihih leh bang thupi vaihawmkhawm theituan in i ki-um hiam? Zomi Baptist Convention a patkhiata kipan tu dong, Chin Special Division pan Chin State tu dong, kithukim takin bang vaihawmkhawm hiamhiam ngei ihi hiam? A tunga i gensa mah bangin Khamtung ah kipawlna lian a kivaihawm masa Zomi Baptist Convention sungah kigawma i dinkhop kum hi tanvei, hi ngiamngiamin bang tak i vaihawmkhawm thei hiam? Vaihawm khawm theilo beklo-in tu'n a kikhen veve khin hihang. Biakna vai nangawn ah vaihawmkhop haksa ihih leh gam vai, minam vai dangte vaihawmkhawm thei dingin i ki-um hiam? Thu khualval bel omkei mah. Ahi teita zongin theih hun talo hiam? Sawt khual kisa nailo ihi hiam? Bang hun dong khual sawm ihi hiam? Zomi hong cihpih ding uh i lametna-in Cimnuai-mi, Tedim-mi mah kicici photlai ding ihi hiam?

Ke'n hunta samawk ing. Tu dong Zomi hong kicihpih nuam sa naikei mawk ing. Hong cihpih nuamngei dingin zong lamen ke'ng. Hih lai ka gelhkawm mahin Guam pan hong sam uha: "Medical checkup bawlna ding registration oma minam zong hong kidong hi. Computer sunga a ciamteh pen Zo Tum Mung (a min hi bang maha a kigelh hiam? thei ke'ng, ka zak banga a awsuah kong gelh hi) hi. Minam hong dot ciang, " 'Zomi', ci-a ka dawn uh leh, Kawlpau in 'Bang hang Zomi ci nahi uhhiam, Zomi ci theilo ding, Chin ci ding' ci-in hong gen a, computer sungah Chin minmah in ciamteh hamtang hi", ci-in hong gen uhhi. Ei kam ahih ciang mi dangte'n hong zatpih nopkei leh e'n zanglo ding maw, guai. Ei tha tawh dinglah ding lahhi peuhmahlo, bang hangin Zomi kici lela ei mailam ding e'n khuatlello ihi hiam? A mi zong kicinglel hihang. Vaihawm siam peuh le'ng ei mite sungah a vaihawm thei ding zong omlel hi. I vaihawm bangbang sepkhiat zawhna dingin ei mite' neihsa sum leh pai zong kicing mahmah talel hi. Kilem ngaplopi kipawl tentan kulse hiam? I vekin Chin kicih kulse hiam? Zomi zong kicih khop kulsese hiam? Ni khat Guam asylum zumah officer khat in kamphen numei khat: "Hih nu mu ngeikei si'ng e, na thei hiam?" hong ci-a, kei zong: "Theingei ke'ng, Chinte hi'nteh", ci-in ka dawng hi. Amau Chin hi kisa zaw uh ahih leh Chin hive'n cin, ei zong Zomi hi kisa zaw ihih manin Zomi i kicilel keiding hiam? Kayahte zong ei zahkan phase ding hiam? State khatin dingtuam theilel hilo hiam? Mailamah Kawlgam a hoih lama hong kihei leh Zomi State zong i lalelkei ding hiam?

Zomi min tawh kisap hunluata! Kuama hong thukimpih masak kulsekei. Zomi ahiteng Zomi kicilel tani! Amau Chin ahitenglah Chin nahi tahen! Nang Zomi hi zawteh, ci-in ahi zongin, Chin hi zawteh, ci-in ahi zongin, kuamah kivaihawmsak sedah ni. Hi i sak bangin i minam min puaciat lelni. Chinte Chin bangin mu-in Zomite Zomi bangin i muh theihna ding hanciamlel ni. Chinte'n lah Zomite Chin hi lo nahih uh ciangin ci-in hong muhdah uh kulsekei. Hong huat kulsekei. Ei Zomite'n zong Chinte Zomi hikeitah ci-in muhdah kulse kei. Huat kulsekei. Kuamah langpan selo-in Zomi-te mailam ding ei Zomi-te mah in khuatin, hanciamlel ni. Kuamah dang in hong hanciamsak ngeilo ding uhhi. I minam min Zomi ahih athukimlo ding, Zomi a deihlote sung ah simloh, ei mi sungah om peuhmahlo ding ihih ciangin, zang peuhmah dih ni. Zat hunluata!

IZToday sinthubu Hawm 01-na sung pan, Editor-te' phalna tawh, a kisuaksaksawn ahi hi.


Today in History- August 1

Today is the 213th day of the year. There are 152 days remaining until the end of the year.

On August 1, 1914, the First World War erupted. Four days after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Germany and Russia declared war against each other, France ordered a general mobilisation, and the first German army units cross into Luxembourg in preparation for the German invasion of France.

During the next three days, Russia, France, Belgium, and Great Britain all lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and the German army invaded Belgium. The "Great War" that ensued was one of unprecedented destruction and loss of life, resulting in the deaths of some 20 million soldiers and civilians.

Other historical highlights on this day

In 1461, Edward IV was crowned king of England.

In 1498, Christopher Columbus became the first European to visit Venezuela.

In 1774, dissenting British minister Joseph Priestly discovered oxygen while serving as a tutor to the sons of American sympathiser William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, at Bowood House in Wiltshire, England.

In 1831, a new London Bridge was opened. London Bridge is a bridge in London, England over the River Thames, between the City of London and Southwark.

In 1834, Slavery was abolished in the British Empire.

In 1902, The United States bought the rights to the Panama Canal from France.

In 1967, Israel annexed East Jerusalem. (With research inputs)




1291 - A pact was made to form the Swiss Confederation. The anniversary of this founding has been celebrated as National Day in Switzerland since 1891, the 600th anniversary of the Swiss Confederation.
1873 - The first cable streetcar in America began operation on Clay Street Hill in San Francisco, CA.

1876 - Colorado, the 38th state, entered the United States of America this day. It is the only state to enter the union in the one hundredth year after the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Consequently, Colorado is called the Centennial State. The Rocky Mountains are Colorado’s most famous feature; which explains why the Rocky Mountain columbine is the state flower. The lark bunting is the state bird. Denver, Colorado’s largest city, is also the state capital.

1893 - Henry Perky and William Ford of Watertown, NY woke up early and found their patent sitting on the breakfast table. They had invented shredded wheat. Pass the bananas and milk, please...

1894 - George Samuelson and Frank Harbo completed a 3,000-mile journey across the Atlantic Ocean -- in a rowboat! They landed in England after having left New York on June 6th. We can think of easier ways to cross the ocean...

1937 - Mutual radio debuted "The Goodwill Hour", with its familiar phrase, “You have a friend and advisor in John J. Anthony.”

1940 - The first book written by 23-year-old John Fitzgerald Kennedy was published. It was titled, "Why England Slept". Later, Kennedy’s "Profiles in Courage" would become a best-seller for the man who would become the United States’ 35th President.

1941 - "Parade" magazine called it “...the Army’s most intriguing new gadget.” The gadget was “a tiny truck which can do practically everything.” General Dwight D. Eisenhower said that America couldn’t have won World War II without it. The tiny truck was the Jeep, built at the time by the Willys Truck Company. "Parade" was so enthusiastic about the Jeep that it devoted three pages to the vehicle.

1942 - Jimmy Dorsey and his orchestra recorded "Charleston Alley", on Decca Records.

1942 - The American Federation of Musicians went on strike. Union president James C. Petrillo told musicians that phonograph records were “a threat to members’ jobs.” As a result, musicians refused to perform in recording sessions over the next several months. Live, musical radio broadcasts continued, however.

1943 - This day marked the groundbreaking ceremony in Oak Ridge, TN for the first uranium 235 plant. (Uranium 235 was needed to build the A-bomb.) The uranium manufacturing facility cost $280,000,000 to build and was completed in the summer of 1944.

1944 - 13-year-old Anne Frank made the last entry in her diary; a diary she had kept for two years while hiding with her family to escape Nazi deportation to a concentration camp. Three days later the Grune Polizei raided the secret annex in Amsterdam, Holland, where the Jewish family was in hiding. Anne died in Bergen-Belsen concentration camp at age 15.

1950 - Pitcher Curt Simmons of the Philadelphia Phillies became the first major-league baseball player to be called to active military duty during the Korean War.

1953 - The first aluminum-faced building constructed in America was completed. It was the Alcoa (Aluminum Corporation of America) Building in Pittsburgh, PA.

1958 - After 26 years at 3 cents, the cost of mailing a first-class letter in the United States went up a penny.

1960 - Chubby Checker’s "The Twist" was released. The song inspired the dance craze of the 1960s. Round and around and around...

1971 - The Concert for Bangladesh was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City. George Harrison, Ringo Starr, Eric Clapton, Bob Dylan, Leon Russell, Ravi Shankar and Billy Preston performed. A multirecord set commemorating the event was a super sales success. Together, the concert and the album raised over $11 million to help the starving minions of Bangladesh.

1978 - Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds failed to get a hit in five times at bat in Atlanta. As a result, his consecutive hitting streak ended at 44 games -- just 12 short of Joe DiMaggio’s major-league baseball record with the New York Yankees.

1981 - MTV (Music Television) made its debut at 12:01 a.m. The first music video shown on the rock-video cable channel was, appropriately, "Video Killed the Radio Star", by the Buggles. MTV's original five veejays were Martha Quinn, Nina Blackwood, Mark Goodman, J.J. Jackson and Alan Hunter.

1984 - Singer Jermaine Jackson made a guest appearance on the TV soap opera, "As the World Turns".

1987 - Mike Tyson ‘out-pointed’ Tony Tucker in 12 rounds at Las Vegas, Nevada. He won the right to call himself the “Undisputed world heavyweight champion” as he won the IBF heavyweight title and retained the WBA/WBC heavyweight titles.

1996 - Here’s today’s Olympic wrap-up: Michael Johnson left his fellow runners in the dust to win gold in the 200 meters in a record 19.32 seconds. He was the first male Olympian to complete the 200/400-meter Olympic double. And French sprinter Marie-Jose Perec became only the second woman in history to win a gold medal in both the 200-meter and the 400-meter runs at the same Olympics. Perec joined American Valerie Brisco-Hooks, who won both the 200 and 400 races in 1984 in Los Angeles. The U.S. women’s soccer team claimed the gold medal and capped the first women’s soccer competition at the Olympics, beating China 2-1. And last, but certainly not least, Dan O’Brien won the gold in the decathlon, four years after failing to make the U.S. Olympic team.

Birthdays - August 1

1770 - William Clark (explorer: Lewis and Clark Expedition; died Sep 1, 1838)
1779 - Francis Scott Key (attorney, poet: The Star-Spangled Banner: U.S. national anthem; died Jan 11, 1843)

1818 - Maria Mitchell (astronomer: 1st woman to be elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 1st U.S. woman to become a professor of astronomy; died June 28, 1889)

1819 - Herman Melville (author: Moby Dick, Redburn, Typee, Omoo, White-Jacket; died Sep 28, 1891)

1843 - Robert Todd Lincoln (son of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln; rescued from train accident by Edwin Booth, brother of man who assassinated President Lincoln; died July 26, 1926)

1914 - Lloyd Mangrum (golf champ: winner of 36 professional tournaments including 1946 U.S. Open; died in 1973)

1916 - James Hill (producer: Vera Cruz, The Kentuckian, Trapeze, Sweet Smell of Success, The Unforgiven, The Happy Thieves; writer: His Majesty O'Keefe; died Jan 11, 2001)

1921 - Jack Kramer (tennis champion: Wimbledon [1947], U.S. Open [1946, 1947])

1922 - Arthur Hill (actor: Harper, The Andromeda Strain, Revenge of the Stepford Wives, Futureworld, Owen Marshall, Counselor at Law, Glitter; died Oct 22, 2006)

1923 - George (Irvin) Bamberger (baseball: pitcher: NY Giants, Baltimore Orioles; manager: KC Royals; died Apr 4, 2004)

1929 - Michael Stewart (Rubin) (playwright: Midnight Edition, Bye Bye Birdie, Hello, Dolly!; died Sep 20, 1987)

1930 - Geoffrey Holder (dancer, actor: Live and Let Die, Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Sex [But were Afraid to Ask], Doctor Dolittle)

1931 - Tom Wilson (cartoonist: Ziggy)

1932 - Bobby Isaac (International Motorsports Hall of Famer: In a race in 1973, Bobby Isaac heard a ghostly voice telling him to stop immediately or suffer the consequences. He pulled out of the race and, until the day he died of a heart attack in 1977, he believed that he had pulled out just in time.)

1933 - Dom Deluise (comedian, actor: Dean Martin Show, Loose Cannons, Cannonball Run 1 & 2, Blazing Saddles, Silent Movie, Smokey and the Bandit, Part 2, The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas; host: New Candid Camera)

1936 - Yves Saint Laurent (Henry Mathieu) (fashion designer; died Jun 1, 2008)

1937 - Alfonse M. D’Amato (U.S. Senator from New York)

1939 - Robert James Waller (author: The Bridges of Madison County, Slow Waltz in Cedar Bend; professor of economics, business management)

1941 - Ronald Brown (U.S. Secretary of Commerce [Clinton Administration]; Democratic National Committee chairman: 1st African-American to head a major political party; killed in plane crash Apr 3, 1996)

1942 - Jerry Garcia (guitarist, banjo, lyricist: group: The Grateful Dead: Dark Star, Truckin’, Alabama Getaway; died Aug 9, 1995)

1942 - Giancarlo Giannini (actor: A Walk in the Clouds, Once Upon a Crime, Goodnight Michael Angelo, Swept an Unusual Destiny in the Blue Sea of August)

1947 - Rick Anderson (musician: bass: group: The Tubes)

1947 - Rick Coonce (singer, drummer: group: The Grass Roots: Let’s Live for Today, Midnight Confessions)

1948 - Cliff Branch (football: Oakland Raiders wide receiver: Super Bowl XI, XV; LA Raiders: Super Bowl XVIII)

1950 - Milt (Milton Scott) May (baseball: catcher: Pittsburgh Pirates [World Series: 1971], Houston Astros, Detroit Tigers, Chicago White Sox, SF Giants)

1952 - Greg (Gregory Eugene) Gross (baseball: Houston Astros, Chicago Cubs, Philadelphia Phillies [World Series: 1980, 1983])

1953 - Robert Cray (singer: group: Robert Cray Band: albums: Showdown, Strong Persuader; in film: Animal House)

1958 - Taylor Negron (comedian, actor: Hope & Gloria, Angels In The Outfield, Young Doctors In Love, Easy Money, Punchline, The Last Boy Scout)

1959 - Joe Elliot (singer: group: Def Leppard: Photograph, Rock of Ages, Foolin’)

1963 - Coolio (Artis Ivey Jr.) (rapper: LPs: It Takes a Thief, Gangsta’s Paradise, My Soul)

1970 - Jennifer Gareis (actress: Private Parts, Miss Congeniality, Venus on the Halfshell, Gangland)

1972 - Devon Hughes aka D-Von Dudley (pro wrestler/actor: Extreme Championship Wrestling, Raw Is War, Royal Rumble, Wrestlemania 2000, WWF Judgement Day, Armageddon)

1973 - Tempestt Bledsoe (actress: The Cosby Show, Dream Date, Monsters, Fire & Ice)


ATSUM lines up Aug stir

IMPHAL, Jul 31: The All Tribal Students’ Union Manipur (ATSUM) has lined up a number of protest agitation on various issues like reservation for Scheduled Tribes in Manipur University, appointment of teachers to hill schools where there is shortage of teachers and cancellation of the grant-in-aid to aided schools.

The planned series of protest agitation will begin with wearing black badges by students reading in class IX to University level from August 4 to 9 and sealing all ZEO offices. This would be followed by 96 hours of State wide bandh from August 11 to 14. The bandh which comes into effect from the midnight of August 10 will exempt schools, colleges, medical, water supply, electricity and religious services.

In continuance of their protest movement, the tribal students will stay away from the Independence Day celebration. All private and Government schools will be shut during August 18 to 23 and there will be picketing of all Government offices located in hill districts.

This would be followed by sealing all Government offices indefinitely in hill districts from August 25 until and unless adequate strength of teachers and necessary infrastructure are provided to all Government schools located in hill districts. At the same time, all ZEO and DI offices will be sealed.

On August 30, a rally against the failure of the State Government to execute its own decisions will be taken out at Delhi under the aegis of ATSUM in collaboration with tribal students staying there.

This was disclosed by ATSUM information and publicity secretary Joseph R Hmar during a press meet at its Old Lambulane office this afternoon.

Joseph said that out of 145 faculty members teaching in 25 Departments of Manipur University, one three are tribals. As against 305 non-teaching staff, there are only 46 tribal employees.

As long as the University Act 2005 is amended, reservation in centralised Manipur University for tribals will stand at just 7.5 percent. Under the existing regulation, tribal students and people are facing great hardships in getting admissions and jobs in the University. Even as the ATSUM has been persistently urging upon the Government to increase the quota for tribals so as to redress their woes, the ATSUM functionary decried that the Government is still refusing to act in this regard. He also demanded a separate university for tribal people. Asserting that schools located in hill districts have been facing shortage of around 576 teachers, he alleged that more problems have cropped up due to irregularities in service extension of contract basis teachers.

The decision to cancel grant-in-aid to 171 aided schools out of total 608 aided schools was a wrong policy on the part of the Government, he contended while asserting that the cancellation of grant-in-aid to 13 high schools amounts to denying education to hill students.

The ATSUM information and publicity secretary further appealed to the people to cooperate towards its proposed series of agitation aimed at redressing the woes of tribal students.


Thursday, July 31, 2008

Maban ah Manipur in bang hon phutpih dia?

Editorior, The Lamka Post July 31, 2008

Kum chinglou naupang pimangna, helpawl tuamtuamte ziak a buaina leh protest, general strike, bandh leh public rally tungtawn mipi kiphinna tuamtuamte banah a tangpi thu a dan leh thupiak dinmun ni teng phial a kise hulhul in Manipur paidan luah dim hi. Hiai bang dinmun ziak in gam hoih leh nuamtak Manipur pen “Switzerland of the East” leh “Jewel of India” chih minkhem bang piak in ana om mahleh tu’n bel muanna leh bitna om nawnlou in Manipur polammite’n a hon mullit uh gentaklouh Manipur sung a tengte mahmah lungsim ah leng a om geuguau gige khat, lauhthawnna chi kituhta hi. Huai ziak in mipite lungsim ah mawk mai a dam zoklou ding ‘meima’ omta a, tulai a thil paidan et in i dinmun un hoihlam sang a siatlam manoh sem ding ahihdiam chih ngaihtuahlouh theihlouh khat suak hi.

Kha khat vel paita sung in niteng phial in newspaper teng phial ah helpawlte’n a sepaih ding ua kum chinglou naupangte a pimangna thu tuang gige a, thului kia hilou in hiai bang a naupang pimangna thu thak leng omtou den hi. Manipur a newpaper-te report dungzui in apaisa kha 6 sung in Manipur ah thagum a mi pimangna case 45 om a, huai lak a case 21-te ahihleh piching a kisim nailou leh kum chinglou a ngaih naupang kum 18 nuailamte pimangna case ahi uhi. Hiai thu 45 te’n July 16 tan a pimangna sawmna case, pimangna case, pimangtute apat suakte case leh pimangtute apat hutkhiak a omte case huamkhalou zomah hi. Case 45 lak a pimangna case 21-te ahihleh July kha sung kia a kum chinglou naupang 24 pimangna case hi a, hiai naupang 24-te lak ah naupang 5 khahkhiak in om ua, a dang 5-te ahihleh a pimangtute apat suakta thei uhi. Case 45 lak a case 24-te ahihleh government officer-te leh a dangdangte pimangna toh kisai hi uhi.

Hiai bang a kum chinglou naupangte pimangna thu in nu-le-pate patausak mahmah a, pawlpi tuamtuam leh school tuamtuamte’n naupangte mah zang a sit-in-protest leh public rally tamveitak a neihtak banuah general strike leh bandh bang leng tamveitak puan in ana omta hi. Sit-in-protest chauh leng tukha sung in Manipur phaizang bial a 30 bang omta hi. Kum chinglou naupangte pimangna tungtang a kiphinnate’n mipi a dia nawngkaina nasatak a tun dan gentaklouh ‘kuamah phawkphaklouh’ JAC tuamtuamte’n leng strike leh bandh chihte puang den ua, zanhal masa zek in leng khumbichilh in i om uhi. Singtangmite leng ‘vualphalou’ hituanlou i hihna uah govt. in school 171-te huhna piak nawnlouh dia thupukna a lak tungtang ah AMHGAESTA in Manipur pumpi huap di’n bandh puang ua, “JAC-te” hon khumbichilh vettak deihkhoplou in i gum zomah uhi.

Helpawl member hivek tel ding uh hiam chih muanmohhuai thei khop in security force te’n niteng in ‘helpawl hidia muanmoh’ mi 1 bek kaplum gige ua, tuni mahmah sunnung dak 2 ding vel in leng Laphupat ah Imphal West police commando te’n mi 2 kaplum nawn uhi. Helpawl member hitaktak hi’n hitaktaklou hitale uh, hiai in dan leh thupiak dinmun a tangpi thu a kise deuhdeuh ahihdan taklang hi. Dan leh thupiak dinmun kise deuhdeuh kia hilou in Manipur ah nekguk-takgukna uang mahmah zomah hi. Transparency International India in survey a bawl dan dungzui in India a nekguk-takguk a tamnapen state 4, “very high corruption” category ah Jammu and Kashmir, Assam leh Madhya Pradesh lak ah Manipur leng tel hi. Nagaland ahihleh “high corruption” category ah Chandigarh, Delhi, Kerela, Tamil Nadu leh Chhattisgarh lak a tel hi. Hichibang dinmun a i dinlai un thautui leh niteng poimoh van tuamtuam banah nek-le-tak man nakpitak in hong khang zomah hi. Hiai bang dinmun ah Manipur in maban ah bang hon phutpih peuhmah ding hiam chih ngaihtuah tham ching mahmah a, mautaam kialpi maituah dia kisate a ding ngial in patauhhuai mahmah hi.


Bible with Indian flavour is a hit

Ketki Angre

Lakhs of Christians in India have been following the teachings of the Bible for generations. But now for the first time, the holy book has made an appearance in an Indian avatar. All this in an attempt to help Indian Christians understand the Bible better.

A prayer service in Marathi at a chapel in Vasai outside Mumbai in an area that has a majority of Christian fisherfolk or 'kolis' comes across as a surprise for some, and a routine for others.

These villagers, who converted to Christianity generations ago, are now happy their culture is finding a resonance in the scripture.

"The latest edition of the Bible in India now has a distinctly Indian flavour. The Virgin Mary clad in a sari, or even the flight to Egypt depicted in pictures with clear Indian imprint," says Cardinal Oswald Gracious, the Archbishop of Mumbai.

There are 27 such typical Indian sketches besides footnotes that refer to the Indian scriptures for easy understanding.

It's a work that took 18 years to accomplish and has been inspired by similar attempts in countries like the Phillipines.

"All our prayer services are in Marathi. Now that Virgin Mary's picture is also depicted in our clothes, that makes us feel nice," says Janu Peter Patil, a fisherwoman from Vasai.

Another resident of Vasai, Marisina Jonathan Patil, adds: "We already read the Bible the Marathi, now its like our scriptures are coming closer to us."

The new edition has sold 30,000 copies in its first week and gone in for a reprint.

The Bishop of Vasai, Thomas Dabre, says, "In today's materialistic world, its not possible to follow the true Christian way of life. The Church here cannot ignore the cultural similarities. This edition is an affirmation of that.

Orthodox Christians are not impressed, though. They feel the Bible should remain untouched.
But for villagers like them, efforts like these only reaffirm a way of life they've been following for generations.


Bandh total in CCpur

S Singlianmang Guite

Lamka, Jul 30: The 24 hours general strike called by All Manipur Government Aided Elementary School Teacher Association and All Tribal Physically Handicapped Association has totally affected normal life here as shops down their shutters and vehicles keep away from the streets.

Unlike other bandh calls, today’s strike not only effect normal life but the first light business transaction such as the meat industry and hotels.

Schools and other educational institutions shut down while the roads wore a deserted look except for the few students who took advantage of the deserted streets to fulfill their fantasy of playing cricket.

Tyres were burnt at least on five points in the afternoon, even as security personnel both from the state and paramilitary forces were maintaining vigil along the streets.

ZSF, CDSU and KSO has pledge their unflinching support on the bandh calls of the State aided teachers association, while CDSU has made it known that it also supports the cause of the physically handicapped community. The bandh sponsored by the physically challenged persons’ organisa- tion was started at 6 pm of July 29.


Stir against cancelling aid, Bandh total, ZEO offices to shut from today

IMPHAL, Jul 30 : The Statewide 24 hours bandh called from 6 am today in the hill districts against the decision of the Government to cancel the aid to 171 grant-in-schools was total with more agitations lined up for the future.

As part of the agitation all the offices of the ZEOs in the district headquarters of the hills will be closed from tomorrow while a number of student organisations have announced that they would back any course of agitation taken up against the Government’s decision.

The 24 hour bandh was imposed by the All Manipur Government Aided Elementary Teachers Association and Secretaries of School Managing Committees and started from 6 am today.

The bandh was effective in all the five hill districts and vehicles stayed off the National Highways while vehicles stayed off the roads connecting the district headquarters with other parts of the State.

Government offices in the hill districts as well as banks also remained closed for the day.

Commercial transactions were also severely affected as all business downed shutters and no shops were opened. There is however no report of any bandh related violence.

At Senapati the bandh was spearheaded by local bodies of Senapati headquarters and Karong, Senapati District Students’ Association, Naga Peoples’ Organisation and ATSUM.

Other than vehicles of security forces no other vehicles plied on NH-39 during the bandh. All shops along NH-39 also downed shutters for the day.

Out of the 171 grant-in-aid schools which the Govt had identified to cancel the aid, 102 are located in the hill districts while 59 are located in the valley area.

In Senapati district, there are three Grant-in-aid High Schools and three Grant-in-aid Junior High Schools. There is not even a single Government High school in this district.

Voicing a strong stand against the decision of the Government to cancel the aid to the grant-in-aid schools, the Thadou Students’ Union today warned that if the Got does not withdraw its decision then it would be constrained to launch a series of agitation.

Secretary of Senapati district school board Y Joseph said that they cannot accept the decision of the Government to cancel the aid to grant-in-aid schools.

The chairman of Sena-pati Town Committee A John said that cancelling the aid would amount to robbing the students of the hills their rights.



ATSUM expresses concern

Imphal, Jul 30: The All Tribal Students’ Union, Manipur (ATSUM) after a series of meetings in the hill districts with the district head bodies and other like minded organizations concluded that the situation in the five hill districts has gone from bad to worse with the little cosmetic development that are seen in the district headquarters, stated Joseph R Hmar, Secretary of Information and Publicity, ATSUM, in a press release here on Wednesday.

Accusing the State Government for the little cosmetic development in the district headquarters, Joseph exposed that education was the worst affected due to the lack of teachers and proper infrastructure, poor programmes and policies for teachers and students, lack of commitment and vision. He also alleged that education as a fundamental rights of the hill people was grossly violated by the State Government. He further stated that ATSUM and districts student bodies had an in-depth discussion over the last ten days and has called on a press conference on July 31 at the Information Centre, Old Lambulane, Imphal, inviting all the concerns especially the media to discuss the matter.

The demands of the Union are related to the Manipur University, shortage of teachers, contract basis teachers and grant-in-aid schools, stated the press release. The release also disclosed the tentative lines of agitation that the union is planning to undertake. These are wearing black badges, bandhs, boycotting Independence Day and closure of schools.


Wednesday, July 30, 2008


- T.K. Lama, Aizawl, Mizoram

Kana thei dan in Manipur Churachandpur a unau Paite leh Kuki gal lai a Zou ta khie4lna neilou a si sawmthum val ki um in, galzaw apat Kuki lam a um ten Kuki te kung ah tax kipia in Paite lam a umten Paite te kung a tax tunitan in akipia nalai hi. Tuachia unau Kukite thuneina nuai a umten tax sangtah kipia ban mipite tunga chintaw neilou leh lusuang tah a agamtat uh kithuala mama hi. Tambang a gaal lai a izou mona bei a siteng leh mite khut nuai a ki um thuala kisa in gam leh nam ngaina khangtha ten I Zou khuate vengbit leh imi isate humbit nading in Zou Defence Volunteer(ZDV )chi ang phut khia uhi. Meitei te khut nuai apat training nei in a thei khawm khawm in I Zougam ang veng bit ua, mipiten zong ki support in sum leh pai neibang bang imi isa ading chi in ana kipia hi. ZDV um kichi apat Zou tate ilungsim uh hinghang in gualphana khan bang a kingaina leh kouzong mi kanei ve uhi china lungsimte ang kinei man hi.Tuachia ZDV ten igam leh nam ading a sil hoitah angbawl khiat ding mipiten lam etna(Hope) liantah tawh aki ngazing lai in, vangsiat huaitahin ZDV general secretary Pu. Thangkhochin in sina ang a, Pu. Thangkhochin sithu akiza in Zou tate ki ngui in lungkhiatna liantah akinei kia ta hi. Thangkhochin pen kei kana za dan in Migum leh hangsan Zou te thautang aakoilen tuan sih ding hi chi a, midingkip khat ahi zia in ithuai kasa in Zou tate ading a Tanna liantah(Great lost)in kana thei hi.

Tuachin President pu lamkaina nuai ah ZDV ten masawnna sang in beilam manaw in, kholai kam a kiza dan in ZDV te mithum chau ahi chite ahing ging in mipiten ZDV aginna leh lametna liantah kineipen meilum bang a hing theng in, ZDV thawm leh gamsua thu akiza nonsia. Thusua khat leh ni hingbawl zel nan leh uh mipiten ZDV umnonlou a Lamkaipa leh anungzui khat leh ni maimai um leh bangma bawl thei nonlou bang akingai in koiman thusim leh thula lou in bang in ngaidan aki nei tahi. ZDV apat bawl leh malana( activity) kiimu lou leh kiza lou ahizia in athusua uh koiman angai poimaw nonsia, Volunteer tampite Aapi sanga in amat a anoute lingkom daikawm a lutmang bang in akitheza ua, hunchikhat chiang in ZDV te kikap lum chi thu akiza zel hi.

Tuachin ZDV mi leh sa ten mun tuamtuam ah sina tua in Zou khangtha tampi ten kanatna leh sepkhiat neiloi a sisan leh hinna tampi atan law ua, volunteer tampite atunna gam uh kitheiphalou a mang in, tampite mani pianna khua a zong kia(return ) ngamlou a umzong uhi.

Tambang a Zou taten i hamuanpi leh ikisuampi mama uh gam leh nam humbit leh veng bit ding a lam etna sangtah tawh igaldawt zing laitah ua ZDV te kesiat tungtang I thei chiang un Zou taten na isa un I sinlunglai sung uh gubang in ang zel hi.

ZDV te hoitah a akiform lai ua gam leh nam a ding a amalana ding un keima khawm in lampi kana ngaitua zing a, hinanleh ZDV beita ang kichi kaza in beidawn huai kasa mama hi. Miten agam leh nam ading a thau a tawichiat lai ua, eimiten zong kitawipan in gam leh nam in bangtan in akinatpi diai ? bangchi in pan hing la leh uh ahoidiai chi a ka ngaitua lai a ake siat thu kaza in kalungsim ana sah mama a, Zou tate ading chaanna liantah(Great lost) bang hial in ka ngai hi.

Tunung a thu kanaza kiadan in ZDV founding President dam nalai leh ZDV min tuzing nalai hi in ka thei a, ka lungsim ah kipa guna liantah kanei kia hi. Hinanleh ZDV bangchibang a peipi asawm e, Bang tupna nei a bang chibang a ma latha asawm e, mibangte khutlai a pan maimai ama ahilou leh Politic a kigawl sawm maimai zong ahithei hi. Hinanleh ZDV akiform tunglai ua amala dan te uh kathei dan apat leh akiform ziate uh ka naitua chiangin tuabang maimai a masial leh du am ding in kagingta thei sihi. Sum leh pai zia a buaina ana neikha uh ahileh zong angai dam thei hi. Sum mu ngailou in sum ingmu chiang in ginumna aki tasam ut mong ahia, Hinaleh , gam leh nam min suanlam a mimal law nading del emaw be leh phung khat tungnun nading ahilou leh politic a kigawl sawm ahileh abawl fuh ding kaging ta sihi. Azia chu ama lamkaina nuai a Zou tangval sisan tampi luang in ,mi tampiten henna ana tan ta ua, mipiten sum leh pai tampi ana kithaw khawm ta ahi. Tuaban hilou a ZDV reformation anei a tupna leh ngaitua natha anei a gam leh nam a dinga pan alatha leh mipiten full suport ipia ding mong uh ahi. Ama ZDV President mimal in kihoupi(Contact) thei sih nan leng tami Web site apat gam leh nam khangtou nading a ZDV te mala nading a kathei leh kadeite ka hing talang hi.

ZDV President in Zou tate gentheina puona leh gam leh nam ngaina tahtah nahi leh tam anuai a na panla tha dan ding a hoi kasha bang te in nalungsim leh ngaituana ahei danglam a, ngaituana leh thatha(New strength) tawh igam leh nam ading a pan nangla tha ding kagingta in ka lam et hi. Zou ta nahi a Zou sisan kai nahi leh na mileh sa mualliamsa te hagau kipana ding leh Imi nasate ading a nakalsuanna in ga hoitah ang sua nading in anuai abang in thu kupna kang pia ut hi.

1. Economic: Zougam economic niam dan leh economic poimaw dan keisang a theisiam zaw ngen ihiding uh ka gingta hi. Tambang a Zou tate economy niamtah a I umzing uhleh Nam pumpi in Volunteer in lut nanlei bangma kanat na leh masawnna I nei ding uh agingtat huai sihi. ZDV ten economic a Zou tate khantou nading nangai poimaw ua ma nangla uhleh Zou tate tuban kum bangzat ekhat chiang in aki khangtou pan ding hi. Zou tate economic a khantou nading in Singtang lou nasemten haisum(Cash crop) lam a panla ding a ZDV in thusua abawl ding a, Singtang Aa atamthei bang pena khawi chiatding a singtang kho mipite thupia ding ahi. I singtang gam piang te kg khat a Rs.100/ man a zua thei ding singtang AA chilou sildang a umlou sia, Innkuan khat in Aa pumkhat Rs. 150/- lah in zua thei in kumkhat ah AA pum 100 zua thei taleh Rs. 15000/- sum alalut thei hi. Singtang khaw khat ah inn 20 in kumkhat sung in AA pum 100 chiat zua thei taleh tuami khua economy Rs.300000/- (Lakh thum) in akhangtou ding hi. Rs. 300000 ah ZDV ten gam leh nam ading in Tax 3-5 percent lataleh uh Rs. 3000-5000 lah a ching thei ding ah. I Zou khua 20 ah atung abang in singtang Aa khawi chiat thei talei kumkhat sung in Zougam economy Rs. 6000000/-(Lakh sawmguh)in a khangtou ding a, Tuachin Tax a lut Rs.60000/- apat Rs.100000/- aching ding hi. Tambang a mipiten na angsep chiang un mipite nasa tah in ang khangtou ding ua tuachin ZDV ten zong ma ang sawn zel ding uhi.

Tambang a ZDV ten a thuneina uh azah ua, ma angla chiang un mipiten full support akipia ta ding a ZDV lamkaite hi Zou tate Robin hood akichi hial ding hi. Tua hilou a kithau tawisah leh mipite tung a aki lulaa seng uhleh nampi in support aki pe thei sih ding hi. Tami AA khawipen I singtang khua apat mimal leh nam bang a I khangtou thei nading uh umsun leh lampi naipen ahi ban ah lampi nop pen ahi a, hinanleh Zou tate hi mi luhlul leh minial kal hatte , mite thuhoi thupha gette zong nialkal nading suite kamdam a kigensung nialkal sawmte akihizia in ZDV lamkaiten ten hoitah a ngaitua a, Gam leh nam khangtou nading ahilou leh chi a force zah angai leh zong zah mai ding a hoi ahihi. Etsahna: Singtang khua khat bulpat nading a tel(select) a bulpan ding a thupia mai ding ahi. Tuami khua a Aasa ne leh Aa zua dan et a, Aa khawi pungna lam a mala lou a Aasa nete tung a action la a, ahithei leh kumkhat sung Aasa koiman nelou ding chi khop a Aa pung nading a panla phawt ding ahi. Tuami khua a mite Aa khawite hi etkawlna damdawite leh azua dan tan a Volunteer ten pan lapi a, Tuami khua Aa khawina khua Model a siam sawm phawt a alawchin dan a zil a khawdang a bawltou zel ding ahihi. Ahilou leh Kumkhat a innkhat in Sum tuazat tax apia teitei ding chi a, Tuami tax pia thei nading a Aa khawi hoipen ahidan leh Aa khawite hasatna leh malana theitawp akithuapi leh ahasatna tua theite uh panpi thei theina a panla pi ding ahihi. Tambang a kumnikhat in bawl chiang in singtang mipiten Aa khawi lawdan ang thei ding ua, ZDV kigawl ngailou in ama un theitawp ang sua paiding uhi. Tualeh ZDV malana himhim hi gam leh nam khantou nading ahi dan mipite kung a hilna/tangkouna(Briefing) nei zing ding ahi.

ZDV Lamakiten atheiding ua poimaw kia khat ahileh Tu leh tu in Zou ta ten koima subuai thei leh koima tawh kidou thei ding ihinai sih ua, mi khutnuai a umleh mite halim bel a kalsuan te ihina lai zia un Tuban kum bangzat ekhat chiang a Zou tate eima a ikitoudel thei nading ua, lampi umsun ahileh atung a bang a Aa khawi leh haisum bawl lam a plan leh policy hoitah nei a ipei uh
angai hi. Etsahnan: ZDV te malana nuai a singtang Zou khaw chin ah Aa khawi leh Haisum lam ah panla in tuban kum nga zaw chiangin insuam chin in innsung sumpi(Budget) buailou in AK 47 (Tulai kamzah dan in)khat leh ni chiat nei thei talei Zou taten koi e ilau ding uh, koita e Zou tate simmaw leh musit ngam ding.

2. Ahi thei leh ZDV in I Zou sung a be leh phung min a committee um teng hing beisahleh adei huai mama hi. Be leh phung min a committee nei chiang in kingainat tuamna leh ki thupisa sawmna lungsim akinei ut a, tuabang lungsim inei uh thei in midang ten, khat leh khat kihuatna siamtah in ang nei sah thei uhi. Etsahnan: Lamkai ching mama khat mapuina nuai a silkhat ibawl ding chiang un mitten tuami phungte lamkaina nuai ah nahichi uh hingchi leh ama phung sang in kei phung alianzaw china lungsim akinei ngal thei hi. Tuazia in midangten ikilungtuana uh suhsiatna ding a angzah uh leh eite kal a ki ettuamna lungsim hingpiantheina ahi zia in be leh phung a kihui khawm leh Committee himhim inam sung ah umsih henla Zou ihina ah lunkim chiat thei lei ahoi pen ding hi.

ZDV / ZPA President leh lamkai dangte hi gam leh nam lamkai dangte (UZO/ZYO / Hattuam ) bang a gam leh nam ading a lamkai poimaw mama te ahi ua, Galvan tawite ahizia ua mipiten etdang leh hingging leh ettuam ding ahisia ua, Ama uh zong galvan tawi ahizia ua aki tung a lulaah/ kithau tawi sah a dankal a agam tat ding uhi ahi sihi. ZDV/ZPA lamkaiten mipite masawnna leh gam leh nam khantou nading a ma hoitah a angla uhleh Zougam lamkai kichi tampi te sang in gam mipiten aki kanat pi zaw thei hi. Tualeh ZDV leh ZPA ten Namkhat Chikhat ihi dan uh kithei siam a kigalmuna leh kihuatna lungsim neilou a, tuabang lungsim neitheina ding a kamka leh thubawl te dou khawm a, Zou tate Nam khat Chikhat bang a idinkhiat thei nading uh ngaitua a aki thuza zing ding uh ahihi.

Tua leh inam leh pawl sung a kimu siam louzia, thukimu lou zia leh lungkim louna neizia a midang leh pawl hatzaw te kung a tai lut leh vazawm ten, ami vabelh te uh suanga imi isate tung a khut ha na lungsim aneilou uh Zou mipiten ibeisei ua, Kami kasa tung a khut ha(That) sang in ka hina apat ka kiningkhin ding hi chi ngam ding lei midangten zong angza deu ding uhi.

(Tam atung a ZDV te Gam leh nam ading a mala leh kalsuan nading a ka thukupte hi keima ZDV ah katui in ZDV kapanpi china ahisia, ZDV te kana theidan in Zou tangval te gam leh nam ngainat zia a mani innlum taisan a hasatna leh genthei tampi thua leh lu phal a lut tea hi ua, tua a thuana te uh leh Zou tangval hinna leh sisan tampi luangte athawn ahilou nading a amala nading ua hoiding a katheite kagetna mai ahihi. Tuaban ah ZDV te chau hilou in I Zou sung a pawldin himhim in gam leh nam khantouna ngai poimaw masatpen ainei uh apoimaw pen ahi chi kagen ut sawn sawn hi. Tua leh ZDV/ZPA Presdent/ Leaders ten athei ding ua kadei ahileh Galvan tawi leh mipi ten tung aleng bang akingai a sum leh pai ama uh mimal hamphatna leh bal eh phungkhat koisang/ tungnun nading a lungsimgu anhei uhleh gam leh nam lamkai ching ahisih ding ua, Khangtha te sisan leh henna tawh nehawl bang in mipiten akingai ding a, Ama uh leh a volunteer te ading in I Zou khua leh I Zou mipite ahim(Save) sih ding hi.)

The Author can be contacted through the administrator.

Is bandh a solution to a problem?

By Thangkhala

Every present day prevalent demon in our society will usually find its origin or roots in a very established instrument of society like dowry, caste system, bandhs, violent protests and prevalent socio- political system. The story of problems society faced today due to these ills was not always like this. These were very noble instruments or systems evolved for betterment of society and individuals. With advancement of time, erosion of social values, education, awareness and biggest ever increasing greed for power and money has converted these noble instruments into demons of society.

If we trace the history of bandhs it will clearly lead us to the pre-indep time “Non co­operation movement. It was a movement instrument used by freedom seekers to grab the attention of the Imperialist govt without causing any non-required disturbances to society or common man. It further evolved into a full fledged branch so as to strike at Imperialist Govt’s financial arm and also demonstrate the solidarity of everybody behind the cause. The common man was the driving force and a volunteer participant to it.

After independence during the political restructuring process bandh was an effective tool used by various political parties to show the solidarity and volunteer participation of society in their cause. The political parties used to call to bandh , the society used to support it voluntarily in a very peaceful manner. These bandhs were called for to gain the attention of govt and then get their concern or issues conveyed to Govt through absolutely peaceful process. In the present day a “bandh” is called for (“Sponsored”) by a political party for a cause but with only a sole aim of showing strength. It is usually supported or better “enforced” by gangs of musclemen.

These bandhs besides causing the personal agony to many causes huge financial losses and also non financial losses like closure of schools, colleges, hospitals etc. The affected people are mostly neutral towards the govt and the party calling for the bandh. The bandhs of today cause great nuisance to society and are called for by various political parties or underground groups only to show their stern. The common man or society although is greatly affected by a bandh mostly remains neutral which makes a bandh soulless and ineffective. It does not grab the affection of the establishment as there is seldom volunteer participation by a common man en-masse besides increase in duly of security for to prevent damage to public property and smooth flow of supplies and necessities.

With presence of so many political parties and underground groups sponsoring enforcing a bandh against the wishes of a common man every other day, It has deprived this once very noble, powerful and effective peaceful political instrument of its sheen. The bandhs today have become a huge problem themselves unlike earlier times when it used to be a cause or way to the solution of a political or social problem.


SoO : Cabinet okays ground rules

IMPHAL, Jul 29 : After three preliminary rounds of talks between officials of the Union Home Ministry and officials of the State Government, New Delhi, to begin formal negotiations with Kuki UG groups under Suspension of Operation (SoO), a meeting of the State Cabinet held with Chief Minister O Ibobi in the chair today has approved the ground rules of the proposed talks.

A senior Minister of the SPF Government informed The Sangai Express that the Cabinet acceded to the Kuki UG groups’ proposal to hold talks once in a year instead of the earlier plan to hold talks every three months. The talk will be within the Constitution of India, he said.

According to the ground rules, all UG groups which have signed SoO will have a key one room each where their weapons will be deposited. The Home Depart- ment will also have duplicate keys of each of these rooms. Further, the designated camps of the UG groups should be located 20 kms away from National Highways and international borders.

On the other hand, following increase in the seats of MBBS course from 30 to 150 in RIMS, the Cabinet also discussed on setting aside 15 seats for Central pool and reserving 27 percent of the remaining seats for OBC.

Under the proposed plan to reserve seats for OBC in RIMS, the main beneficiaries will be students belonging to Tripura, Sikkim and Manipur.

To discuss the matter of seat reservation, RIMS Director Prof L Fimate will be leaving for New Delhi tomorrow.

The Cabinet meeting further deliberated on the visit of a five member team of Union Planning Commission led by Advisor Jayenti Chandra to the State from August 3 to 6.

The Planning Commission team on the second day of their arrival will travel to Churachandpur to inspect Khuga Dam and the NREGS works being executed there. On the same day, the team will also look into the activities of LDA at Loktak as well as the construction work of Bishnu- pur mini-Secretariat.

On the next day, the team will visit Moreh and inspect the area identified for construction of integrated check post. They will then look into the construction work of the hundred bedded hospital at Thoubal.

The Planning Commission team will leave the State on the next day after a meeting with the Chief Minister.


Indo-Myanmar biannual liaison meeting in progress at Tamu

IMPHAL, Jul 29: The main agenda of the 33rd Indo-Myanmar biannual liaison meeting currently under progress in Tamu of Myanmar revolves around an effective joint military operation against Manipuri outfits operating in Myanmar, an official source said.

The meeting commenced from July 27 and will last till July 31, the source said adding that a 10-ember Indian delegation led by major general BK Chengappa, AVSM, commanding officer, head quarter Manipur, Nagaland ranges of 3 Corps is currently staying at Tamu town in Myanmar.

Other members of the delegation are brigadier Balbir Singh, CDR headquarter 26 Sector Assam Rifles, brigadier LN Singh, VSM, BGS (intelligence) headquarter engineers corps, colonel Sanjoy Singh Gupta of GS headquarter IGAR, colonel SK Sharma of GS headquarter, 57 mountain division, colonel SK Narain, SM representative of MO/DTXE, ministry of defence, colonel GS Kualr, SM, VSM, DTXE, colonel Sandeep Choudury of 18 AR (CMPT), representative of the ministry of defence, major BIS Sheimar, GOS 2(intelligence) headquarter 3 Corps and major SN Kulkarni, inspector (MI DTE).

The meeting is discussing various issues including cross border insurgency, arms smuggling and border management, the source said.

Mention may be made that the 32nd Indo-Myanmar biannual liaison meeting was held at headquarter 3 Corps, Rangapahar, Nagaland during the month of April 2007.

The meeting also discussed on the use of international border with Myanmar and the deep jungles of the neighbouring country shared with the states of Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh where various underground outfits have their hideouts.

The liaison meeting is held twice a year to review and further strengthen the friendly relations and hold discussions on issues of mutual interest between the two armies. The next meeting between the two sides will be held in Myanmar.

Mention may be made that intelligence establishments in Manipur have been observing that the porous Indo-Myanmar border has not only facilitated easy infiltration for the insurgents, but also helped in setting up of safe havens across the border where they can train or regroup, it said.

The insurgents who are now in possession of sophisticated arms and weapons, IEDs etc., use these weapons at will to terrorize the public and attack the security forces putting the state police under immense pressure to perform well and overcome the challenges, the report concluded.


Tuesday, July 29, 2008

The British Northeast Frontier Policy and the Kukis

Written by T.H. Robert

The Northeastern region of India, popularly known as the ‘seven sisters’, comprises of the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura. Recently, Sikkim has been added as the eight state of the Northeast region due to its proximity to the area, a similar developmental problems and convenience in implementing developmental projects.

The Chinese scholar and pilgrim Hiuen Tsang, who visited the plains of Assam in the first half of the seventh century described the region as covered with beautiful mountains, lush forests and wild life, and depicted a fairly advanced civilization and rich cultural heritage in his narratives.

Contrary to the mainland Indian perception of Northeast India as a culturally homogeneous region of mongoloid races, the region is diverse in almost every aspects; it is inhabited by a mosaic of societies characterised by diversity of ethnicity, language, culture, religion, social organisation, economic pursuits, productive relations and participation in political process. J.B Fuller wrote in 1909 that the province of Assam at the far northeastern corner of India is a ‘museum of nationalities’.

Academically, the Northeastern region is still regarded as part of Southeast Asia from the cultural point of view. Peter Kunstadter in his two volume work entitled Southeast Asian Tribes, Minorities and Nations included a chapter on Assam, which denotes the present day Northeast India. Kunstadter explain his inclusion of the region on the basis of the region’s large population of tribal and minority peoples whose languages are more closely related to the languages of Southeast Asia than to those of the Indian subcontinent and their cultures too resembling the cultures of their neighbours in Southeast Asia.

Sir Robert Reid, Governor of Assam (1937-1942) also stated that ‘they (tribals of Northeast India) are not Indians in any sense of the word. Neither in origin nor in appearance, nor in habits, nor in outlook and it is by historical accident that they are tagged to Indian province.’ Therefore, the inclusion of the region into Indian Territory can be termed as a ‘series of historical accident’.

Most of the inhabitants consist of peoples who migrated from Southwest China or Southeast Asia via Burma at various point of history; they retain their cultural traditions and values but are beginning to adapt to contemporary lifestyles. One of the late migrants into the Northeastern region were the Kukis who are scattered all over the region in due course of time. The earlier Kuki migrants into the region were termed by the British scholars and administrators of Northeast India as ‘Old Kukis’ who migrated about a hundred years earlier than the later migrants, the ‘New Kukis’.

Even though there exist a great diversity, the people of the Northeastern region can be broadly divided into three distinct groups of people; the hill tribes, the plain tribes and the non-tribal population of the plains. Most of the hill tribes in Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura are Christian while a substantial proportion of those living in the plains of Assam, Manipur and Tripura are Hindus and Muslims.

In spite of the modernisation and emergence of present day problems, the people still dearly cherish the essence of century’s old mutual ties and culture. The hill tribes can be grouped into four major groups: the Kuki-Chin-Mizos, Nagas, Khasi-Jintia-Garos and Arunachalis. The British rulers described these hill tribals of Northeast India as faithful and loyal subjects.

The Northeastern region of India has little or no contacts with the mainland India through out the annals of history. The different communities in the region maintain autonomy or independence not only from outside forces but also within themselves even though there was intimate relationship between the warring communities. The region was considered more as a part of Southeast Asia than the India subcontinent as the people interacted more with the people of this region and the culture and racial composition is more close to Southeast Asians.

The British military success over Burma in 1826 and the annexation of the Ahom kingdom of Assam to the Presidency of Bengal marked the entry of the British East India Company to the region and the region’s inclusion into the Indian sub-continent. Initially British India was strongly against the absolute possession of the region but due to strategic compulsions they were forced to so.

By the right of conquest these territorities were brought directly under the control of the British government and the region was redrawn as the political frontier upon India’s ‘Northeast’, away from its historical positioning at the cultural and ecological crossroads of South and Southeast Asia.

The whole of the present northeastern region was under Bengal province till 1874. Due to the British policy of expanding areas under their control and administrative rearrangements since the Revolt of 1857, the Assam province was created and governed by a Chief Commissioner who was subordinate to Lieutenant Governor of Bengal province. However due to change in subsequent administrative policies, a new arrangement was made where Assam province became a distinct unit directly administered by a Governor-General.

Therefore, successive legal and administrative decisions taken between 1874 and 1935 gave Northeast India, a distinct region and identity. The region has been treated separately and distinctly from other parts of the region or province by British India through out their colonial rule. The Northeastern region has been a difficult frontier region ever since the British colonial period.

The initial British policy for the frontiers, as commented by a mainland Indian Scholar- S. K. Chaube, was the policy of ‘segregation’. However, anthropologists like Verrier Elwin and most of the British administrators were for the protection and seclusion of the hill tribes. Since their contact and subjugation the British administration takes steps to give hill people a paternal government which allowed them to exercise their own genius in the management of themselves, with just that amount of control from above.

A series of acts and regulations were passed by the British to protect the peoples in the hill areas of the Northeastern region and most of these acts and regulations were followed by the independent Indian government. The legal enactments made for the rest of the country could not be automatically be enforced in these areas, except when they were specifically adopted for them. The administrative system developed for these areas were quite different from that in the rest of the country, and most administration was left by the British to the local tribal chiefs.

The Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation of 1873 was the first among them which allowed the colonial state to create an Inner Line along the Assam foothill tracts. This Inner Line, under the Government of British India, is defined merely for the purpose of jurisdiction. However, this regulation prohibit any subject living outside the area from living or moving therein on the pretext of protecting tribal minorities in the hill areas of Assam.

It allowed the tribes beyond the tracts to manage their own affairs with only such interference on the part of the frontier officers in their political capacity as may be considered advisable with the view to establishing a personal influence for good among the chiefs and the tribes. This regulation was added to by the Scheduled Districts Act of 1874 and the Frontier Tract Regulation Act of 1880 which permitted the exclusion of the territories under their purview from the codes of civil and criminal procedures, the rules on property legislation and transfer and any other laws considered unsuitable for them.

With the same purpose, the Government of India (Excluded and Partially Excluded Areas) Order of 1935 was passed and declare the Naga Hills District, the Lushai Hills District, the North Cachar Subdivision of the Cachar District and the frontier tracts as excluded. The Garo Hills District, the Khasi and Jaintia Hills District (excluding Shillong) and the Mikir hill tracts of Nowgong and Sibsagar District as partially excluded areas.

The Excluded Areas were under the direct jurisdiction of the British through the executive control of the Assam Governor and that no Act of the Federal Legislature or of Assam Legislature was to apply to these areas. The Partially Excluded Areas were under the control of the Assam Governor and subject to ministerial administration, but the Governor had an overriding power when it came to exercising his discretion. No act of Assam or Indian legislatures could apply to these two hill divisions unless the Governor in his discretion so directed.

Therefore, the politics of mainstream political parties did not have any effect in these areas. According to Sharma the British rulers kept certain areas of the Northeast as ‘excluded’ from the rest of the country with two fold objectives: (i) to keep the area as a buffer region between India and the neighbouring countries; and (ii) to protect them from exploitation by the plainsmen.

Among the hill tribes of the British Northeast frontier region the Kukis were one of the dominant community. They are, to use Mackenzie’s word, ‘a hardworking’, ‘self-reliant race’, and the only hillmen in their neighborhood who can hold their own against the other powerful hill tribes.

The tribes Aimol, Anal, Chiru, Chongloi, Chothe, Doungel, Guite, Gangte, Hangsing, Haokip, Hmar, Kipgen, Kom, Lhungdim, Lamkang, Lunkim, Changsan, Lenthang, Thangeo, Kolhen, Lhangum, Lhanghal, Milhem, Maring, Mate, Mozo-Monshang, Paite, Sitlhou, Lhouvum, Singsit, Simte, Baite Tarao, Touthang, Vaphei, Zou, etc., may loosely be put under one egalitarian ethnic entity called Kukis.

They have freedom and sovereignty in their land. Their territory stretch from the Chindwin River in the east, the Naga Hills in the north, North Cachar Hills in the west and the Chittagong hill tracts in the south. Till the beginning of the twentieth century these hills were not largely populated and the Kukis reigned supreme all over these hills and wandered about freely all over these lands.

The Kukis use bows and arrows instead of spears, ready at once to avenge an inroad, and therefore were much respected by the powerful Angami Nagas. The British, as early as the first half of the nineteenth century, recognize the strength of the Kukis and therefore proposals were frequently made in British India Government to utilize the Kukis as a buffer or screen between the timid British subjects like the Cacharis/Kacharis (Bodos, Dimasas, etc.), Mikirs (Karbis) and Aroong Nagas (Zaliengs) and the offensive Angamis.

In 1856-57 lands were assigned rent-free for ten and afterwards for twenty five years to any Kukis who would settle in this designated buffer areas and fire arms and ammunitions to be given free by the British Government. Apart from the already settled Kukis in North Cachar, many Kukis from the south accepted free settlement on these terms and by 1860 the colony contained 1,356 inhabitants in seven villages. These colonists had risen to almost 2000 as more immigrants came from Manipur.

With the settlement of substantial Kuki population in these buffer zones the British Government stopped supplying arms and the Angamis too stopped incursions in these areas. It was a great relief to the British Government and the weaker tribes like the Cacharis, Karbis and Zaliengs. In 1880 a Kuki militia, 100 strong was raised as a protection against Angami raids and under a British officer this militia was used for more effective control of the different tribes.

But with the establishment of the Naga Hills District, the Kukis in these buffer areas were deprived of much of their political interests. The saddest part is that for the past two decades, most of the warring tribes whom the Kukis protected against repeated onslaughts and their possible extinction consider the Kukis as immigrants (even though they are also a migrant themselves) and butcher, instead of recognising their contributions to peace and tranquility in the past.

A Labour Corps was raised by British Government for France in 1916 among various clans of Nagas, Lushais and others, as Colonel L. W. Shakespear mentioned, ‘who willingly came in, having in many cases done this short of work for (British) Government before in border expeditions, and knew the work and good pay.’ In 1917 more Labour Corps were needed and to supply it the British Government felt that it was necessary to draw from other sources, viz the various Kuki clans inhabiting the hill regions of the native state of Manipur, the people who had never left their hills and knew little of British people and their ways.

The strong optimism among higher authorities in British Government was turned down at the first attempts. In their repeated attempts to raise Labour Corps among the Kuki clans violence erupted and the world began to witness the Kuki War of Independence in December 1917. The Kukis adopted guerilla and jungle warfare techniques, where the war lasted for one and half year. The war could have still continued had not the British went rampaging the Kuki villages by destroying houses and paddy stocks, finding the weaknesses of a Kuki man who has a great love and responsibility to his family.

The Kuki chiefs and warriors fearing an impending outbreak of famine surrendered to the British and this marked the end of the war. Many of the Kuki chiefs and warriors in Burma were imprisoned in Taungkyi Jail while those in the British India, in Sadiya Jail in Assam. The Bravery of the Kukis made Shakespear to comment that the Kuki Rebellion was ‘the largest series of military operations conducted on this side (Northeastern Region) of India.’ An Indian linguist, M.S. Thirumalai, also made an observation that: ‘The 1917 Thadou Rebellion or the Kuki Rebellion against the Britishers is a special and significant event in the history of the Indian freedom movement.’

During the 1930s, British India separated Burma from India and therefore divided the Kukis into two halves. The Partition of British India in 1947 and subsequent political events brought the cutting and restriction of old routes of mobility in the Northeastern region, as well as major demographic mobility shifts: together these two forces give Northeast India the shape and location we see today.

Further, there are popular movements after 1947 which attempts to close off and regulate national borders more rigorously than ever before with a goal to defend national territory against foreign threats and to secure national territory against internal disruption that might be fed by forces across the border. All these forces worked against the interests of the freedom loving Kukis, who were segregated into parts (India, Burma and Bangladesh), weakened and restrained their freedom of movement in their own ancestral lands.

The British policy against the Kukis in particular and the Northeast Frontier people in general can be termed as a policy of segregation, exploitation and divide and rule. All these policies were responsible for the indifferent attitude and resentment to the gospel. They have left a number of communities in the region being alienated in their own land, with untold miseries and tears unnoticed.

The Britishers were also responsible for the integration of this region into India and putting away from its historical position as the cultural and ecological crossroads of South and Southeast Asia, and making them almost engulfed in this vast Aryan world, neither their voice heard nor their miseries understood.


1. Peter Kunstadter. (ed.). Southeast Asian Tribes, Minorities and Nations. Vol. 1, N.J. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.

2. David Ludden. Where is Assam? Using Geographical History to Locate Current Social Realities. CENISEAS Papers 1, Guwahati, India: Centre for Northeast India, South and Southeast Asia Studies, 2003.

3. S. K. Chaube. Hill Politics in Northeast India. Patna: Orient Longman, 1999.

4. S.K. Sharma and Usha Sharma (eds.). Discovery of North-East India, Vol. 1. New Delhi: Mittal, 2005.

5. Colonel L. W. Shakespear. History of the Assam Rifles. Calcutta: Firma KLM Pvt. Ltd., 1977.

6. Alexander Mackenzie. History of the Government with the Hill Tribes of the North-East Frontier of Bengal. Calcutta, 1884.

The author is a research student at the department of Political Science in North Eastern Hill University (NEHU), India.