Saturday, February 23, 2008

12 women hurt in police action with related to NIT site | MU sets record straight on quota

IMPHAL, Feb 23: Atleast 12 women who sustained injuries in police action on local residents who came out to oppose land demar-cation for construction of the proposed NIT at Langol-Laimanai today morning have been admitted to Shija Hospital for treatment.

The injured who are pre-sently undergoing treat- ment are identified as Kim-bam (40), Ahat (38), Hingboi (22), Lalam (30), Aneng (31), Annie (33), Haokip (39), Hi-kim Chongloi (48), Themboi (28), Titing (30), Nemboi (35) and Akim.

According to report, a team of officials from the Settlement Department led by Deputy Commissioner of Imphal West District came to Langol Laimanai this morning to survey and mea-sure the land for construc- tion of the NIT there.

As the measurement of the land started, a group of local residents mostly wo-men came out to protest the move being made to set up NIT there. Security personnel including IRB personnel and women police on duty in the area were called in to control the situation and in the ensuing melee 12 women were hurt.

Meanwhile, Meetei Erol Eyek Loinasillol Apunba Lup (MEELAL) and Salai Taret Meira Paibi Apunba Nupi Lup urged the Govern-ment to go ahead with the construction of the NIT in the interest of educated un-employed youth of the State.


MU sets record straight on quota

IMPHAL, Feb 23: Coming out with certain facts for the knowledge of all concerned in connection with the stand of All Tribal Students’ Union, Manipur (ATSUM) to withdraw all tribal students from Mani-pur University by March 1, Vice Chancellor of the University has appealed to the student body as well as to all the varsity students belon-ging to the ST communities not to withdraw and help in upholding the academic at-mosphere of the University in true and good spirit.

Addressing a press con-ference in this connection at the Committee Room of the University this afternoon, Vice Chancellor C Amuba pointed out that matters re-lating to reservation for the ST candidates in appoint-ments had been discussed with the Manipur Univer-sity Tribal Students’ Union several times and the University had also taken up the issue with Union Minister Arjun Singh and with offi-cials of Ministry of Human Resources Development.

The University has been instructed by the Ministry to follow the Government of India’s reservation norms strictly and so it is bound to follow the reservation poli-cy of the Government of In- dia and the guidelines of the University Grants Commission in force from time to time. The University has, therefore, provided for reservation of 15 percent for SC and 7.5 percent for the ST communities at the time of appointment for Group ‘A’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ posts. This is in accordance to guidelines prescribed by the UGC.

In order to fulfil its commitment to the SC/ST com- munities, the VC said that the University has taken up a special recruitment drive for SC/ST. The University has recently advertised 13 vacant positions for teach-ing posts of which eight are reserved or SC and five for ST. Similarly, the University has also advertised six posts of Group ‘A’ officers, of which two are reserved for ST and one for SC.

As to the suggestion of ATSUM to the University to initiate action for the amendment of the Manipur University Act, 2005 so that reservation in all appointments in the University is based on the population of the State, the VC, while appreciating the concern of the student body, explained that amendment of the Act is beyond the powers and purview of the University.

While assuring that the University would always endeavour to serve the best interest of all the communities, within the framework of the rules of the Government of India, and the guidelines of the University Grants Commission, the VC appealed to the tribal student body to retract its decision in view of the efforts being made by the University to develop its infrastructure and maintain proper academic atmosphere after it was converted into a Central University in last part of 2005.

The Sangai Express

Friday, February 22, 2008

Dih Tat Na MaCieng Suan Vai

Leitungah minamkim phial in minam ki melcina, gam khat ki meelcina lim (Emblems) khat ciet ana ki nei ngimngiama USA te aki meicina in muvanlai lim ahihi. Kawlte minam kimelcina in Utong lim ahihi. Ei Zomi te in vaphual ih zangh vuh hi. Tami vangphual pen vanam te lah pan in gol pen, meel lawm pen cina lam a nakila hilouzaw in Mihing te banga tahpanna leh muan huai na lung tang aneizieh ahizawhi. Tami vaphual te in zi leh ta neina vai aha pendang mama vuha ettehuai ahihi. Tungleeng vanam dang te tawh kibang lou in mihing te mabang in lawm kingai thei-in mou aki lathei vuh hi. Twazieh in Khangluite in tambang in sannemla ana phual vuh hi.

(a) Phualva moukou hing leeng e vanlaizawl ah ngainou eima mabang dei lungta macieng suan lawm aw ee.
(b) Mual ni thum sun donlei lenvuikai ta nata vang ngai na tong dam san namaw'ng lawm aw ee.

Tambang dan tawh vaphual te in vasa kim lai ki it kingaina, kinunna leh mou ana kilah thei na te ban ah, Tahpanna leh Muanhuaina lung tang tawh kisipi ngam na cieng dong ki it na anei zieh vun ih Pu ih Pa' te in ana thupi sim mama vuh hi. Ei Zomit te zongh a thuman zuau leh nal agen ngailou te thuman leh Dihtatna a pom te ih hi zieh in, ih minam melcina ding in Vaphual lim tam bang dan a na ki pom ahi hi.

Ciem aitui na kidawn hi

Ih Pu te Ih Pa te in Zuau leh nal kici mawngmawng pen akam pan un ana gen ngai sih vuh a midang te zong ana sol ngai sih vuh hi. Bangkhat pou a zuau thu gen khat aop cieng in Aituidawn a kiciemna, Thaulawng sung ah tuidawn a kiciemna, gunlilai ah suang kaang tang lahna tawh kiciemna, Suangpeta kiciem na te ana bawl vuh hi. Aituidawn a kiciem ih ci tah cieng in Kazuau leh kanalthu ka gen tah leh ci-in siempu te mai ah ana kiciem zaw cieng un aphuisamsa ciemaitui na ki dawn sah hi. Ciemaitui kici pen siempu te'n ana phuiisam sa, vompi hatang humpi hatang, kamkei hatang, ngal hatang te tui a kidie pen gen nuam ahihi. Kazuauthu kanal thu ka gen tah leh tambang sapi te khat penpen in ei mumu na ah ei pet ta hin len galhang sahang ah kalou ngam hi cia aki ciem ngam zaw cieng vun ciem ai tui na ki dawn sah pan hi. Zuau leh nal thu agen te in silaw tah pi vuh hi. Tam bang dan tawh khang lui lai a aitui dawn na leh suangkaang peta ki ciem na pen atangtung ana kisawng va lon ahi hi.

Revd. Job Thawngno in alai gial na khat ah tuhun lai ih Zomi te hin khua ah Tahpanna leh muanhuaina te ei Zomi te sung ah om nawn lou hi. Tapidaw thu ih zui masang lai a ih nei vuh dihtatna ahi ih Zomi hina pen Tapidaw ih sua zaw cieng a ei te in mansua kia ding ci pen zum huai da huai lua diong hi anci pen khua ngai huai mama kasa hi.
vaphual ih elngat ta vuh hi

Vaphual lim vuh ih elngat kha ta vuh amah?

Tulai cieng in inn lam sum hah ding te Pastor te leh kapiengtha hi acinuam zaw deuh te ei kipuasah ngam nawn lou hi. A jieh pen Dihtatna ih nei lou zieh ahi hi. Christian thuzui mi te kim lai sum-le-pai lam ah gensiet abaang mi ki tam mama ta hi. Minam leh Pawlpi makai ding te ih hi vuh a hinanlezongh Gambling tawh sumsuina te phamaw ih sa vateh nawn sih vuh hi. Zukham ankham sa in Biehinn akai zongh ki om takon hi. Lungtom thangpai sapi'n pulpit siengthou ah thu ih gen thei va giap lai vuh hi. Pasien sum ahi "Tithe" Sawm ah khat ih pie tasih vuh hi. Tep-le-muam lam ah ih ki hungla doh vuha, zi leh ta tung ah it na leh thumanna anei mi ki tawm mama ta hi. Ih Pawlpi dan banga ih kalsuan zoulou na te, kum cin khawmpi thu passed om banga, ih zui zoulou na te leh khua cin ih satan Target (sum) ih khieh lou na te leh tambang thute ang pien theina pen Zomi te lai ah Dihtatna, Tahpanna leh Muanhuaina te ih nei lou zieh ahi hi. Zo gam Pawlpi khat-le-khat ih kikal ah ih kithupi simna te vuh tawm seng ta luo kasa hi. Ih Vaphual lim vuh ih elngat kha ta vuh amah? Dihtatna om lou Tapidaw hinkhua pen agammang ih hi khinkhien vuh hi. Tapidaw hinkhua amansuo ih hi vuh hi.

Ih minam ih Pawlpi ei zieh in mai zum ding hi. Bang hilezong mihing ih hi cieng in kikhiel thei hi ci ta vai. Khielna bawlbelap nawn sih vai. Khat-le-khat khial kingai dam theivai. Jesu ih ci-in Thutah ahia Dihtatna tawh kizom ahi bou hi. "Kei lampi leh Thutah leh Hinna khu ka hi". John (14:6) ana ci hi. Ama a um leh agingta ei te in athutah na leh a Dihtatna ih hinpi ton ding vuh ahibou hi.

Ih cinlana te leh ih Dihtat lana atuamtuam te tami kumlui (2007) tawh mualliem sah ciet ta vai. Ang tung ding (2008) kumtha sung ah ih lungsim te vuh beela zu bang in kipua pha ciet a Dihtatna te ih duang ah puan bang a silh piengpan lunlai Zomi te ei kici na ding in hanlung sial ciet vai. Pasien in a thu gualzaw ta heh.. Amen..

By: Revd. Ai Lien Mang

Thursday, February 21, 2008

AIDS needs special mention in budget allocation

By Dr Khomdon Singh Lisam

Do we want our future generations to be free from HIV/AIDS? Do we want our future generations to be free from drugs? If the answer is Yes, what do we need to do now? The time for action is today. Tomorrow, it may be too late. Do not think, AIDS will not touch your family in the near future. Because young people want to experiment new things, explore what is unknown. In the process, many young people tend to experiment sex and drug use before marriage at least once in their life time either out of curiosity, pleasure, peer pressure or just to forget what they do not want to remember. AIDS does not discriminate between rich and poor, educated and illiterate, high or low, male or female, hill or valley, Meitei or Naga or Muslim or Kuki. AIDS tends to kill in families. I myself have seen many families where three out of four or two out of three in the family are living with HIV/AIDS — not only in many parts of the valley but also in many interior areas of Ukhrul, Tamenglong, Churachandpur, Chandel and Senapati. I am not exaggerating. I am only putting the facts before you to ponder.

Changing scenario of HIV/AIDS in Manipur:

We are facing an unprecedented human catastrophe because of HIV/AIDS. AIDS has inflicted immense human suffering in every district and every subdivision of Manipur in the hills and valley. More than 27,900 HIV positives have been reported as of October, 2007, of which 7106 were women and 1362 were children below 10 years of age. Women constitute about 25% of the total positives. The HIV/AIDS scenario in Manipur is changing over time. The HIV serosa prevalence rate among the IDUs has shown a decline from 80.7% during 1997 to 19.8% during 2006. Every day, every hour, there are new infections. The HIV epidemic is now no longer confined to injecting drugs users but it has spread to their spouses and their children and also to the commercial sex workers and MSMs. It has spread from people with high risk behaviours to the general population through sexual transmission. It has spread from males to females and from urban areas to the rural areas. All the districts and subdivisions are affected. The Imphal East and West districts constitute about 56% of the all HIV positive cases, Thoubal district constitute 9%, Churachandpur 7%, Ukhrul 6%, Bishnupur 5%. The HIV seroprevalence rate among the pregnant women is 1.4 but in Ukhrul district, it is more than 4% , which is the highest in India. The beautiful town of Ukhrul, Shiroy and Kamjong are worst affected. The HIV seroprevalence rate among the CSWs is 11.6%, among the MSMs 12.4%. The young people between 15-25 years constitute 45% of the total HIV positive cases. AIDS is becoming the No.-1 killer of young people in Manipur. The future of our young people and the future of our society is at stake because of HIV/AIDS.

Earlier experience of political leaders in Manipur:

1. AIDS was included in the election manifesto of 2002 because of intensive advocacy campaigns on the eve of election in 2001. But nothing was done to translate the election manifesto into action during 2002-2006.

2. In the all political parties conference held on 23rd November, 2006 at Kangla, almost all the representatives from political parties have pledged to include HIV/AIDS in the election manifesto of 2007 and that was done.

3. The State Legislators Forum was formed on 30th June, 2007 with the Hon’ble Speaker as the chairman. The Legislators Forum has made a 15 point declarations. Our legislators are now sensitised.

4. The Legislators Forum has organised an impressive World AIDS Day, 2007 on 1st December, 2007. They have organised one day convention on HIV/AIDS for Panchayats and Zilla Parisad at Porompat, Imphal and organized a series of one day HIV/AIDS awareness campaigns in the constituencies of the MLAs since November, 2007 till date.

5. Some political leaders have organised IEC campaigns in their own constituencies in a limited way out of their own initiatives.

What are our political issues in the context of HIV/ AIDS?

Manipur is facing a number of problems. Whatever problem happening in any part of the world, it is also happening in Manipur — political instability, corruption, unemployment, poverty, female illiteracy, insurgency, terrorism, ethnic conflict, low status of women in society, civil war, human rights violations of any kind, extortion, kidnapping, rape, women trafficking, drug trafficking, drug abuse, national highway blockade, bandhs etc. We are facing the question of life and death almost every day. Our political leaders have no time to think about HIV/AIDS. Many a time, they do not want to remember HIV/AIDS because it is also considered a taboo.

But AIDS is real and it is happening here right at our doorsteps. It is a question of life and death for our young people. Our political workers are dying, our political workers are getting infected, our religious leaders are dying, our legislators are dying of HIV/AIDS, our police officers and Government employees, agricultural workers are dying, our young people, our women and our children are dying of HIV/AIDS. AIDS has destroyed the families and family relationships. AIDS has impoverished the families. AIDS has produced innumerable widows and orphans. AIDS has completely devastated villages after villages in some of the countries in Subsaharan Africa. What is the guarantee that these catastrophes will not happen to Manipur within 15-20 years time. It has already started showing the tip of the iceberg.

We therefore need to examine what are the political issues to ensure the highest level of political commitment in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

1. Legislators are law makers and policy makers. The support and participation of legislators in the fight against HIV/AIDS is therefore of paramount importance.

2. We need to overcome the legal barriers for effective implementation of the AIDS Control Programme. We need to legalise needle syringe exchange programme, drug substitution programme, condom promotion etc. Wee need to legalise the provision of health and medical care to the CSWs and MSMs. We need to overcome the discrimination and stigmatisation of people living with HIV/AIDS.

3. As law makers, they can consider bringing out a new law for effective implementation of the AIDS Control Programme in Manipur.

4. As Policy Makers, they can consider revising the Manipur State AIDS Policy­1996 to incorporate new and emerging issues providing ART treatment including 2nd line ART or protease inhibitors, research support, female condoms, vaginal microbicides and vaccine trial. Policies need to be implemented. They should monitor proper and effective implementation of the State policies.

5. We need to amend or revise the Manipur State AIDS Policy adopted on 3rd October, 2006 to incorporate the women and children’s issues, the widows and orphans issues, vocational training and income generating activities for rehabilitated commercial sex workers and injecting drug users, medical treatment and food and nutrition of people living with HIV/AIDS.

6. We need to provide a strong leadership to the programme. Leaders make the difference. HIV/AIDS should not be implemented as routine Government programme. It needs to be implemented passionately as a result oriented programme.

7. We need to intensify our IEC efforts to reach the poorest of the poor section of the society particularly women who are working in the forest and paddy fields with no education, no income, no means of earning and no employment. Smallpox vaccine took 120 years to eradicate smallpox. Even if the AIDS vaccine is available today, we still need to intensify our IEC efforts. More than 98.6% of our general population is not yet infected.

8. We need to equip our young generations with the basic knowledge and skills of protecting themselves from HIV/AIDS. Protecting our young generations from HIV/AIDS should be the high priority agenda of our political parties.

9. We need to expand and strengthen the targeted intervention projects for the people with high risk behaviours such as IDUs, CSWs and MSMs to achieve at least 90% saturation. We should achieve 90% condom use, reduce STD prevalence below 1 %, reduce needle sharing below 1 %, reduce needle borrowing rate below 5%, increase needle cleaning rate above 90%. But we are now far away from achieving these standards of targets.

10. We need to expand and strengthen the facilities for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases to cover every district and every community health centre.

11. We need to provide blood banking services in every district so that no woman dies due to want of blood and nobody gets untested blood transfusion in the name of emergency.

12. We need to include sex education and reproductive health in the school curriculum for students from Class-VI to XII.

13. We need to involve all the Government departments, private corporations and agencies in the fight against HIV/AIDS so as to enable them to implement the AIDS Control programme with their own budget under their own supervision. This is called” mainstreaming and this is the one point agenda of the National Council on AIDS chaired by the Prime Minister.

14. We need to do something to translate the Manipur State AIDS Policy into action. The State Government has repeatedly announced that HIV/AIDS is top priority in Manipur. But no budget is earmarked for HIV/AIDS Control programme in the State. Many forward States like Maharastra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka have contributed substantial budget from their State budget to supplement the central funding from NACO. When the first HIV positive case was reported to then Chief Minister of Manipur in the last week of February, 1990, the then Chief Minister announced that the State Government will immediately release Rs. 1.00 crore for HIV/AIDS Control programme in the State. The news was highly publicised in many newspapers. But the money is yet to be released till date. The State Government should provide fund for staffing and strengthening of our blood banks and STD Clinics in the hill districts.

15. Our legislators are very active and they want to carry out many HIV/AIDS activities in their own constituencies. The Manipur Legislative Assembly and the State Government may consider revising the present guidelines for utilisation of the Local Area Development Fund meant for MPs, MLAs so as to enable our legislators to utilize at least 5% of the Local Area Development Fund to carry out HIV/AIDS activities like IEC campaigns, voluntary blood donation campaigns, strengthening district level blood banks in hill districts, strengthening STD Clinics in hill districts etc.

16. As political leaders, they need to mobilise all cross sections of the people to make the AIDS Control programme a people’s mass movement. We are yet to mobilise the churches in the hill districts and the Meira Paibees in the valley who are very powerful force for a change in Manipur.

17. As political leaders, they need to participate and supervise proper and effective implementation of the AIDS Control programme in their own constituencies. They need to insert HIV/AIDS prevention messages in their day to day speech or talk to the people.

18. As political leaders, they can mobilise the religious leaders particularly the church leaders and Muslim leaders in the fight against AIDS.

We know leaders are needed because we know that HIV is more than a virus, more than an epidemic. It is a social and political challenge that must be faced head-on. Political leaders are distinguished by their action, innovation and vision. They can set their personal example and mobilise the people and masses towards a specific cause. The words coming out from the mouth of political leaders can incite the community into action. Political leaders have dynamism, energy, stamina, tenacities, foresight and perseverance in the face of obstacles and challenges Nelson Mandela said “I hope that as time goes on, we realize that it is important for us to talk openly about people who die of AIDS,” ‘HIV/ AIDS knows no boundaries, History will judge us harshly if we fail to do so right now.’ George W . Bush, President of America said on April 29, 2003: “There are only two possible responses to suffering on this scale. We can turn our eyes away in resignation and despair, or we can take decisive, historic action to turn the tide against this disease and give the hope of life to millions who need our help now. The United States of America chooses the path of action and the path of hope.”

President Bush’s bold and aggressive attack on global HIV/AIDS has made it clear that political leadership is essential to battling HIV/AIDS. Early and effective action by high­level political leaders can contain and even roll back epidemics, as evidenced in Uganda, Thailand, and Senegal. Where leaders have been silent, inactive, or worse — combative, or propagating incorrect or stigmatizing messages — HIV continues to spread despite the best efforts of communities and contributors. Leadership is an essential enabler for HIV/AIDS efforts, spurring action and magnifying its effects.

Parliamentarians, Legislators and political leaders wield enormous power, authority, and legitimacy. They can combat stigma, denial, and misinformation through forthright discussion of the nature of the disease and thus lead the people to change their behaviour. They can influence cultural patterns that contribute to the spread of disease, including gender inequity.

— to be contd

The Sangai Express

Wednesday, February 20, 2008

CAREER | Career kichi bang china.

By: Philip Thanglienmang B.E(Civil), DANICS
Oxford Dictionary gêndân in; Mihing khat hinkhuo tamjaw sunga sep-leh-bawl poimawtah tualeh khantoutheina dînga sep-leh-bawl khu Career kichi ahi.

Mihing khat in adamsung in, nêh-le-tâh, sil-le-tên leh inn-le-lou hunkhop khat ama leh a innkuonpite dînga anei leh alamdoh poimaw mama hi. Minua-mima deljou leh phâhjou têisâm na’ngin damsung a sepna hoitah mai khat tûh têi angâi hi.

Ei Zouhâm in Career khu mihing khat hinkhuo sunga nêh-le-tâh suina leh ngâna dînga asep-atoh khu ahi hi. Atomlam in gên lei; damsung kivâna sepna ahi. Tulâi in khâm chiin zong i thei uhhi. Career toh kizawitawn hinkhuo sunga ana kichîndânte leh midangte chîndânte themkhat kikumkhawm va ui.


Damsung kivâna nasep tonggim in ipu-ipate khu kukaltah in bu-al khuon main joulei tângzawl ah ana kuon let u’a amuol sângteng ana lêp u’a, ahawhguomteng ana zui uhhi. Sunni tumdong in khosa pânkâi in zotunmângpi tu un na ana tong uhhi.

Ipu-ipate’n joulei ana hou [lhou] u’a sing ana puo u’a, sakâpsiemte’n sa ana kâp u’a, ngabengsiemte’n nga ana beng u’a ahinkhuo sungteng uh nâsep-silbawlna in ana zang let u’a tualeh ana pawnthaw mama uhhi.


Tulâi in, Khristien sahkhuo zui in tapidaw i hikim chiet ta uh hi.

Nidanglâi a ipu-ipate uh nasep kukaldânte Tapidaw i suo u’a patin i na chîng nawnta sih u’a, khuchi’n thagum toh nasep kukaldân chite akithupi ngâi kholta siha, lâisim lam ma, ana kingâikhawh jota hi. Tate lâi hâsim a, simsah dîng ma, koipou in agên thupi pênta uhhi. Athu mai a, gênsiem bangpên e? Bawl tahtah dîng theithei lou i umkha dîng uhhi. Nâupang khat lâisim dînga kikhawhngâijaw jiehin khutgum-thagum a natong leh sêmgim dîngin I tate uh I na enta sih u’a, lâilam maimai sai uhleh chi’n deisahna leh ngâidân nei in I tate I na enkol tou zêl uhhi. Tua toh kijui in, I tate uh sâng [school] I kâisah chiet uhhi. Pawl 1[khat] apat pawl 10[sawm] 12[sawm-le-ni] tan in atamjawte khu nu-le-pate etkolna nei ah ahing khanglien uh hi. Joulei ah kuon vai chi hitalou!


Ei singtangmite hinkhuo mandân pên; tunia huon dîng tunia suithu leh hawltawm,tunia nêh dîng tunia suitawm, mu leh, zangtawm zîngchieng thâichieng dîng gêlkhawh khollou in, I hinkhuo uh tamjaw I na mang let uhhi. Bangma khuoltûpna ana kinei khollou in I damlâinite uh i mangtou tou zêl uhhi.

Ta-leh-nâute pên anêh uh,asil atên uh, asâng kâiman uh i piehjou phot leh, bangkim jousie bawljou,pejou leh ngaituojou dânin mi tampite’n ngâidân ana kinei zêl a, tu’n zong tuachibang ngâidân nei mi nempi i umlâi dîng un ka gingta hi. I tate uh a lâisim sung u’a toupi khinkhian leh lâi hildân thei gêhgûh,hinanleh I hilsawm khol sih u’a, tate pûihuoidân leh etkoldân zong I na khawhngâi khol sih uh a,tuajiehin I hindânte uh zong azie-apawl a om let sih hi.

Hun-le-tâng zahdân bihkhiet om tuonlou mahni lungsim bûtbût dâna gamtângte I tam nalâi maithei hi tunidongin. Hun mandân zong kisiem vatêh lou!. Hunte ût ût dâna manggawp nisuo leh nitum kâl a kiviel lele kawi ‘sa lah hilou mihing lah hilou’ dinmun a, hindân mang tampi i um nalâi maithei uhhi. Niengtui[singpi] sai[hotel] sungah zîngninou suo enkawmin,I hunteng uh thusie-lasie gênna in I mang zêl uhhi. Zîngchieng khum bawl na’ng thâichieng tammi nevâng china lungtang kuo i tawm nalâi dîngun ka gingta hi.

Tam atunga ka gên chîndân hoiloute i chi diei mah? jiehin eimite’n guollui thupil in “Zoute’n chiengkhut asât uhleh asât khat” chi khu mi nempi’n i chîng na lâi u’a, tu’nzong akijang leng hi.Tuajiehin khanmaw bawmlâng in ahing kuoisuh nalâlâi hi.

Bieh-inn kâi dîngin nu-le-pate akijawt dieldiel zêl u’a, himaleh, bieh-inn kâi hun sungin tate’n bang ana bawl uh e? lâi asim uoi? ahilouleh amawh tâpva uoi? chite atheilou mi i tam nalâi maithei uhhi. I tate uh pên Lêngkhawm mang a tou khinkhian ahiei, lasa diemdiem ahiei? ahilouleh suhva-touva,pêva mi ahiei ? chite zong theilou mi tampi i om dîng un ka gingta hi.

Ka nêulâi in sângka ka tun chiengin ka pa in; ‘Lawm tuni’n na shiete’n bang na’ng hil ei? chi’n ei na dong let hi.Hâsa na sa ei, bang na chi ei ? chi in ahing dong let hi.Ka bawl hoi chiengin nuomman[letsong] ka sang let hi.

Ka nêulâi in zân chienga lâisim a ka tou chiengin ka nu in meivâh ahingtânpieh a, ama ka kûngah ahing tou let hi. Ka chim chiengin ka kihoulim zêl gêl hi.

Sângnâupang khat Career siemtupna ah Nu-leh-pate mawhpuohna lien mama hi.

1995 kum in India kumpi in Delhi Andaman & Nicobar Islands Civil Service nasep ahing pie hi. Tuachi’n Delhi ka tuh kalsie kum 8(giet) avâlta hi. Tam India khopi sunga nam khangtoute lah a, ka sil mukhiet tampi ka’ng theisah nuom uhhi.

New Delhi khopi sungah vêng tuomtuom a om a, tualah apatin ka tênna vêng min pên Greater Kailash-Part I a kichi hi. Tam mun ah mi hâusa milien-milal,summêtbawlmi nempi atêng uhhi. South Delhi zong akichi hi. Tam mun ah sânginn hoi mama tampi a om hi.India sunga mipil-misiem nempi tênna zong ahi hi.

Tami vêng sunga midangte’n atate uh, a etkoldân tângpi ka mu chiengin ka lungsimkhoi mama hi. Bangjieh e? ka chi leh,midangte tate kipuihuoidânte leh ki-etkoldânte ka mu chiengin eimite’n i tate i etkoldânte leh i etkolloudânte uh ka lungsim sungah ahing kilang a, eimite leh kolte tate pûihuoidân leh etkoldânte uh têkâhna[comparison] mai khu ka lungsim sungah athâm zing hi.

Zîngmawng in nâupangte athaw chiengun nu-le-pate zong athou chiet diemdiem uhhi. Lâisim hun chiengin thei leh theilou omlou in, nu ahilouleh pa in atate uh a lâisim na u’ah atoupi uh hi. A kuon khiet chiengun atuithawlte leh alâibu thongpite uh apuohpieh u’a tuachi’n Bus parking tan vathahkhe zêl uhhi. Nitâh ahing kilelam chiengun tua Bus parking ma ah aman pên khat in avalata hi. Hakhat sungin Nu-le-pa leh sângshiete kimukhawmna[Parent-Teacher meeting] a om let a,tuahun chiengin nu-le-pate sânginn ah ava hawkim diemdiem uha, tuachi’n sângshiete toh ava houlim u’a a tate uh lâisimdân asiemna-asiemlouna chite a nu-apa akihil chien hi.

Sângnâupang khat masawnna leh tawnlanate akigênpieh let u’a, tuachi’n mabân a ahât sêm nadîngun hânthawnna leh pûihuoidân dîngte akihil let uhhi. Anêulâi u’a patin nu-le-pate pûihuoina leh etkolna hoitah amu jieh un nu-le-pate thumang mi ahing suohta u’a, asep-abawlte uh nu-le-pate thulou in agamta ngam ta sih uhhi. Nu-le-pate’n agêngên pên khu Pasien thu-leh-la mabangin apom u’a, asângthei uhhi. Nu-le-pa ângsung apata hing khanglien ahiman un kingamna,tahtâina,kukalna chite anei thei uhhi. Nu-le-pate’n a hinkhuo sung u’a asep-abawl dîngte uh akawmupieh uhhi.


Tuni’n sângnâupang[student] Pawl 11-12 sim na hia,tami pawl na jaw chiengleh bang na bawl diei? chi’n nang kidong khataleh,atamjawte’n ‘Civil’ Service ka bawl nuom’ na chi maithei uh hi. I society uh Colonial lungsim [mindset] alut jiehin mikângte bawlbawl tengpi jawng in atût[athaw,to imitate] bangin ngâisangna lungtang dim in I thaw u’a I jui chiet dieldiel uuhi. Lambu lâi sunthei hâmhâm thuneidânte ana kingâisâng mama mawh ahimanin tu-a khangnoute pên DC,SDO chite ana kingâithupi mama uhhi.

IAS, IPS maimai ah ana kipei sawm têntûn chiet hi. Amahaw nop leh noplou omlou in Zote chiengkhut sât thakhat kigên i bang siengta uhhi. Summetbawl nasep poimawdân chite i na kihil khawh khol sih u’a, i tate photphot sâp leh lêng suoh dîngin i na ngaituotang chiet mawh uhhi. Thagum a nasep-natoh athupidân leh agildân i na hil ngai sih u ‘a, tuni’n sâunâupang lâi sim thei maimai khat in zong tuga lawlmêt dîng, nisa tânghâm nuoi a opsa kâi zên a nasep dîng chite a mang un zong aman kha ngai ta sih uhi. B.A,M.A passte gênda mai vâi!.

Sângnâupang khat in a Career dîng atêl masanga,angaituo masapên dîng ahileh keima lâibawlthei mipil ka hi amah? nasêmmi,natongmi ka’mah? ahisihleh summetbawlna lam lunglut mihing ka’mah? chite atheisawm masapên hoi ka sa hi. Lâibawlthei manglou a,sepna sângpipi vangîm leh vatup chipên lawsapna kêntawng a, ketêitêi dîng na hi china toh kibang ahi chi ana thei khinkhian in lawm. Na khomkhom in tupna leh ngîmna nei inlen na gieldoh jawtan theichien masa inlen deljui in.Ipu-ipate’n thupil na gendan bangin ‘Sakhi that joulou ngaltang tum pai si’n’. Mihing pawlhina lamah kitâhla si’nlen na mabân kikhuotjaw in. Mijousie’n chiengkhut sât e! chiin nangin zong sâtsawm si’n,na hina na tupjou dîng,na lunglutna leh na kituohpi chet nasep deljui in tuachiin na lawching ngêidîng hi lawm.

Atângpiin,science stream lamah pei lachin zilna lam tampi a umjaw a,mabân sepna lam atamjaw a, tualehzong ahuop atamjaw hi.Tami ka chi chiengin Art lam, Commerce lam ahoisih ka china ahisih hi. Science streams lam a, peinuomte dîngin Cl.X[pawl X] jaw chiengun leh Physics,Maths,Chemistry leh Biology alâh uh ngâi ahi.

Sepna dangte dîngin Graduate khat poupou ahithei mai hi.Tulâi kitêtna(competition) chinteng ah Maths poimaw mama hi.

Mihing khat hinkhuo sethumsuo sekhat(1/3) khu hinkhuo mandân kizilna in akimang hi.

Tuajiehin, adieh in Manipur gam apata hing kipankhete adîngin sil tampi gêlkhawh dîng a om tham hi. Gam sung buoina um ngîtngêt pên i nêulâi u’a pata kipan ahitabou hi. Tuapên sillamdang a zong gelding ahi nawn sih hi. Kumpi lah zawng deudeu nasep[kâm]lah kihonbe mawngmawng ta lou ahi chilei khiel sihvai.

Asiem apil lah nichin hachin a pung sêmsêm. Hun hoilou jiehin gam abuoi zêngzûng nu-le-pate’n atate uh Manipur pulam sena’n anei chiet uhhi.

Sângnâupang in sumlam khuoltupna anei ngâi hi.Na nu-leh-pate’n bangja a’ng support jou diei? chi hisâp masa inlen theichien masa’n tuachiin na tup leh ngîm pên del jui in .

Gêntena in; Na pa’n a halaw apatin in dangka 1000 a’ng thot jou leh chîngkiptahin na sumjah dîngdân kisiem inlen kivêng in, regular student hi sawm têitêi inlen,National Scholarship, ST Scholarship khu na lâisiem nadîngin hoitahin,apanna dîng ah dihtahin zang in. Ann tuitui me tuitui mawh nêhnêh si’n puon-âh lîlî âmla si’n na sil na tênte asienthou pouleh lungkim inlen mi hâusa tate chiet bangin che si’n. Mi sângin simtamjaw vâng chiin, Na vâna leh na lênna dîng buoipi si’n na sim dîng toh buoijaw lachin tuachin na lawching ngêingêi dîng hi. Khumjiehin I lawsân uh ,I sum-I pâite uh Manipur pulam ah 50% phiel apawtdoh zing hi. Hun leh nite’n koima angâh sih hi.

Na career uh hoitahin tunia apatin kisiemtup chiet ta un. Na tup na ngim uh na deigaw uh joulei a kuonte mabangin sêm tinten un bawl ngîtngêt un. Mother Earth Cassette sungah Pu.Thawngpau phuo la ngai khat sângnâupangte adîngin hoi ka sa mama tuajiehin ka talang nuom kia hi.

Kei ka kuon ding Joulei ah

1. Kei ka kuon dîng Joulei ah,
Bu-al khuonma`n ka kuon dînga,
Amuol sângteng ka lêp dînga,
Ahawhguom teng ka zui dîng hi.

Kei ka kuon dîng joulei ah,
Mi tunma in ka tung dînga,
Lienpipi in ka huol dînga,
Hâichi chikim ka tawi dîng hi.

2. Kei ka kuon dîng joulei ah,
Doupi Nisa sa nanleh zong,
Tuiguo gielpi ke nanleh zong,
Khopihui thawmging nanlehzong.

3. Kei ka kuon dîng joulei ah,
Zoutu mângpi ka tudînga,
Tutkhawllou in ka pang dînga,
Mitutma in ka tut dîng hi.”

Tuinleh Professional Line tuomtuomte en va ui:-


Bachelor of Business Administration(BBA) leh Master of Business Administration(MBA) ,Post Graduate Dip. In Business Management ziljaw chiengleh Private Companyte ah nasep hoi mama muthei ahi.

Regular Universities leh Open Universities tuomtuomte; Indian Institute of Managementte, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, Annamalai University, Kamaraj University Chennai ,Delhi University, Delhi leh adgdgte’n kumsiel in Business management lam ah Bachelor of Business Administration(BBA) leh Master of Business Administration(MBA) Post Graduate Dip. In Business Management, examination akandak let hi.

Law: Bachelor of Law(LLB), Master of Law(LLM)
Teaching: Diploma in Teaching, Diploma in Nursery Teaching,
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed), Master of Education (M.Ed) leh adgdgte
Science lam: Astrophysics, Nuclear science, Geology, Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering, Anthropology, Archaelogy, Sociology, Psychiatry, Psychology leh adgdg.
Engineering Fields:

Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Architecture, Production Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering, Construction Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Sanitation Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, Textile Engineering leh adgdg.

Medical sciences:-

Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery(MBBS), Master of Medicine (MD), Master of Surgery (MS), Bachelor of Dental Surgey (BDS), Diploma in Nursing, B.Sc in Nursing, Orthodontics, Prosthetics, Physiotherapy, Lab technics, x-ray technics, ultrasound technics, pathology, radiology leh adgdg.

Library Science:

Bachelor of Library Science(B.Lib),Master of Library Science(M.Lib)

Hotel Management and Catering:

Diploma in Hotel Management and Catering, Bachelor in Hotel Management and Catering.


Diploma in Indian Music,Bachelor in Indian Music,Bachelor in Western Music.


Bachelor of Fine Arts,Diploma in fine Arts.


Diploma in Photography,Bachelor in Photography.

Fashion Designing:

Bachelor of Fashion Design,Diploma in Fashion Design

Media & Communication:

Journalism, news reporting, news reading, editing
Sports: Diploma in Physical,Sports,Bachelor of Physical Sports.

Career(sepna) khu zât nempi aom hi. Kumpi nasepte toh kisai in Union Public Service Commisssion nei a sepnate tam aneia bang ahi:-

Civil Services:- Tami sepnate pên Graduate khat poupou na jaw chienga na gielthei ahi.

Lâivuonna chithum a um hi:- 1.Preliminary Examinations(kuolkhum-Objective type)

2.Main Examination(Gielkhiet-Written)

Indian Administrative Service(IAS),Indian Police Service(IPS),Indian Revenue Service(IRS), Indian Foreign services(IFS),Indian Railway Traffic Service(IRTS),
Indian Defence Account Service(IDAS), Indian Economic Service(IES),Indian Forest services(IFS),Delhi Andaman Nicobar Islands Civil Services(DANICS), Delhi Andaman Nicobar Islands Police Services(DANIPS),Custom Appraiser(CA),Central Secretariat Service(CSS) leh adgdg a um hi.

Military:- Pawl 12 na jaw chiengin National Defence Academy(NDA) ah Entrance Test a na siemna dungjuiin Navy,Army, Airforce ah na’ng kilutsah dîng hi. .NDA ahileh military lam a IAS toh tethei ahi.

Graduate na jaw chiengin tam anei sepai sâp hina ding na têt thei dîng hi;
Indian Military Academy lutna dîngin UPSC in Combined Defence Service kumsiel in akandak let hi. Assistant Commandant in BSF,CRPF,CISF,
Army Technical Service,Short Service Commissions,Border Security Force(BSF),Central Reserve Police Force(CRPF),Central Industrial Security Force(CISF) lam têtthei ahi.

State Civil Services: State Public Service Commission in akandak zêl State Civil Service pên Graduate khat poupou in atêtthei ahi.Manipur a dîngin Manipur Civil Service(MCS) leh Manipur Police Service(MPS) ahi.Tam nasepna ngate adîngin IAS leh IPS promotion zong om thei ahi.

Indian Institute of Management (IIMS) Ahmedabad, Gwalior, Kanpur, Kolkatta, Chennai, Delhi] Ministry of Human Resource and Development,India Kumpi in atawm ahia, tam IIMte in sângnâupangte lâhlutna dîngin kumsiel in Common Admission Test(CAT) akandak zêl hi. Khatvei na lut a ahileh sepna na mudîng chi gên sese ngâilou ahi.

Asia gam buppi tailouin Leitung pumpi ah zong tami IIM degree chipên MBA khu angâisâng mama u’a tualeh Campus Recruitment a um chiengin azil jou nâiloute zong akitêlkhe paipai mai hi.

Sepna lam ahuopte:- Kumpi,Private companyte, Multinational companies (MNCS)te’n sângnâupangte pên ajawma deu un Campus recruitment abawl zêl uhhi.
Staff Selection Commission Examinations kandakna nei ah tam anei nasepte têtthei ahi: Inspector of Custom&Excise,Inspector of Income tax,Assistant Inspector Police, Sub-Inspector police,accountant,Assistant Grades,auditorsd, leh adgdg.

Railways Service Recruitment Board Examinations kandakna nei ah tam anei nasepte têtthei ahi. Railway apprentice,Railway Ticket collector,Clerks,typist leh adgdg. Railway Service pên facilities tampi om ahijiehin nasep hoi mama khat ahi.

Religious Pastor :-Bachelor of Divinity(B.D),Bachelor of Theology(B.Th)
apoimaw hi. Military Services ah Havildar in akipan ngâl uhhi.Biehna lam ah biel pastor in apangthei a, NGOS lam ah spiritual counselor,chaplin chite in apangthei hi. Adîngin

Career tuomtuomte tam anei bang ahi:

Atângpiin B.A, B.Sc, M.A, M.Sc, M.Phil, Ph.D, technical training chite na jaw chiengin Astrophysicist, Nuclear Scientist, Geologist, Biotechnologist, Genetic Engineer, Anthropologist, Archaelogist, Sociologist, Psychiatrist, Psychologist, Radiologist, Ultrasound technician, Physiotherapist, Orthodontist, Dentist, Teacher, Lecturer, Principal, Headmaster, Professor Advocate, Judge, Meterologist, Oceanographist, Disaster Mangement Expert,
Human Rights Activist, Social Activist, Travel agent, Tourist guide, Import & Export Business, Call Centre receptionist, leh adgdg.

Atunga Professional line ka gên jousie zaza mihing careerte umthei ahi.

By: Philip Thanglienmang.B.E(Civil),DANICS

Thuteng poimawte:-

mihing pawlhina=social organization


1.Career bangchina ahiei?
2.Ipu-ipate’n na bang ana chi sep uh e?
3.Tapidaw suonua a chindân hilchien in.?
4.Career seimtupna lam ah Nu-leh-pate panmun bang e? Hilchien vawi?
5.Sângnâupangte theidîng poimawte bangteng e?
6. Career chi bangza a um e?
7.Kumpi nasepna lam toh kisai kitêtna chi tuomtuomte hing gên in?
8.Management lam toh kisai a sepna
7.Professional line bangza na thei e?
8.Career tuomtuomte hilchien in?
9.”Kei ka kuon dîng joulei ah” koi phuo e?Bang ka cassette a kisa e?
10. ‘Kei ka kuon dîng joulei ah’ hing gieldoh in.?
11.Indian Institute of Management heisungsung ah a om ei? Koi tawm e? Ahoidân hing gên in.?
12. Religious Pastor hina dîngin bang zil angai e? Hei sungsung ah sepna a muthei e?


1. Tam anei a tomlamte sâukai in:- IAS, IPS, DANICS, IIM, IFS, IRS, MPS, IRTS, SO, CSS, NDA, CDA, CISF?
2. Tam anei a tomlamte sâukai in:- MNCS, BDS, MBBS, M.Lib, Ph.D, MBA, BBA, B.D, B.Th, IIM?

About the author

Pu.Philip Thanglienmâng ahileh Pu.(L) Subedar Thangkhokâm tapa lîna ahi. Amapa pên February 22,1964 kum in Singtom ,khuo Chandel District,Manipur ah apieng hi.


· Pawl Kg-IVtan; 1970 apat 1975 kum sungin St. Joseph’s School, Sugnu, Manipur; ah ana kâi hi.
· 1980 kum in Loyola High School, Jakhama, Nagaland; ah Pawl X ana jou a,
· Nagaland pumpi adingin topper 10th Rank (asawmna) in ana panghi.
· Hygiene, Science leh Geography subjectte ah 80%(distinction) ana mu hi.
· Nagaland State Government Scholarship mu in St.Edmund’s College, Shillong ah P.U.Sc 1982 kum in 75% in ana jou hi.
· 1986 kum sungin Lukhdhirji Engineering College, Morvi, Gujarat ah; B.E. (Civil) Engineering First Class in ana jou hi.
· 1987 kum in Manipur Public Works Department ah Section Officer-I asem hi.
· 1993 kum June ha in Assistant Engineer in ana kâisâng hi. DC, Churachandpur ah AE (Dev) in ana toukha hi.
· 1994 kum in Anthropology leh Geography subjectte la in Civil Service (Main) Examination ah ana lawching a, Delhi Andaman &Nicobar Islands
· Civil Service (DANICS) amu hi.

1997 apatin Delhi Government ah

1) Sub-Divisional Magistrate (Chanakyapuri)
2) Sub-Divisional Magistrate (HQ)
3) Sub-divisional Magistrate (Elections)
5) Deputy Director (Transport)
6) Deputy Director (Higher Education)
7) Assistant Commissioner, Food &Supply Department ana sêmkha a,
Tuin.... in asem hi.

HOBBY: Nga thângkam (Angling).

Zo tawndân a sahou semdân

Zo tawndân a sahou semdân mun ni(zâtni) in a kikhen hi. Khatna ahileh; innlamsuisa, sielkhupsa, nâu âisa) Anina ahileh; Tunsa ahi.

(i) Mun ni ci na khu a tunga innlamsuisa,sielkhupsa,nâu âisa citeng khu a semdân a kibang hi.

(ii) Tunsa(Mousa) pen a semdân a tuom hi.Tunsa semna ah,salem,salukhu a kilem hi.

(iii) Sahou pen a kigawm in 8(giet) a pha hi.

(iv) Tunsa thâ ciengin salem kiciteng khu ; a ngawng viel tunkhat,a cing a zin a salukhu kic khu toh,a nâh leh a phua kikâl a(V) bang khu,a ziet lam leh a veilam a toh,a gawm in salem a kici hi.

(v) Salem kici khu gamlapi a pansa hing kuonte mê in a kihuonpi hi.

(vi) Ei Zo Sielmawng a hing kuon,Dênhla a hing kuon,Khuongtal a hing kuonte zosie tunsa semdân a kibang hi.

Sahou minte

1. A lutang
2. A khanei
3. A lieng gêl(a ziet a vei)
4. A nâh khat(a gu sim in 5)
5. A ngum
6. A mal gêl.

A lieng khat leh a mal toh giet(8) ahi.

Sagaw kimandân


(7) Innlamsuisa pen sahou tunna I hileh I pâithei( I hlângthei) hi.cina khu,Tanu moutha pante sa I tha nâis ih leh ,innlamsuisa a pieh sawnthei ahi. Sahou mute I hileh nâu âisa leh âitah sa khu a cidân a ki bang hi.

Nâu âisa(âitah sa)

(8) I tanu khat a moutha a ta ang nei ciengin aitahsa ci khu numei nu nuate’n a pie hi. I tanu sa I pieh te’n a nuapa a pupa khu sum Rs.1000(tûlkhat) a pie hi. Tam khu kinoupuohna a hi. I pu I pate’n a kipuoh khu puon kul ngentang a kipuoh I hisih leh lungsim in zong a kipuo cina khu ahi.

Bilvusa tungthu

(9) Bilvu sa ci khu I tu I ta khat mouthana a ta ang nei ciengin a min a kiphuo, a nuate a kitap leh a min pupa amin punu’n a tu bilvuna’n a pieh nuom bangbang a pethei hi. A tute’n bilvu(na) a dangdang apethei nai sih hi.

Upa in naupa a vanpiehna

(10) Upa’n naupa innmun lougam a pieh leh naupa’n sahou khat in mâisí kici khu upa a pedîng hi.

Upa leh naupa innmun lougam kipieh kal a,kihauna kisietna a nei uh leh mâisí pieh nâilou ahileh apepa upa(tazawpa’n) a piehsa van lougam inn mun a nualâhpi thei hi.

Nauzawpa’n mâisí a sahou a pieh man leh tazawpa’n(upa’n) a van piehsa a nualâh thei nawnsih dîng hi.

Tanu Tu kicina

(11) Tanu tuta kici khu I unu I naunu I tanute khu tuta kici ahi.

Nopni dâni’n nute’n pute(a nuate) inn ah panmun a lahi.Dâni’n shi a uop u’a,kuo zong a nute pasalte’n a tou uhhi.

Tanu pasalte tute’n a pute natoh silbawl a hu u’a tuami khu tu in tusawn a nei kici ahi.

Pute a tu inn a haw ciengleh

(12) A pu atu inn a a haw ciengleh a tu in a pu zu a sum dîng hi.A tupa a tunu pu inn a a haw leh a pu in, a tu khu sa a gaw dîng hi. Tuami khu tanu nuakawm a kici hi.

(13) Zaw leh Bê kimandân

Tânglâi in zaw leh bê mandân thusie thupha a op leh patong in a kisawl hi. Tualeh,mou hlâhna ah thu sungin a kimang hi.

(14) Inn lam ciengleh

Inn lam dîngpa’n tu kum in inn lam dîng ka hi ziehin zutung(zozu) a kiging pha mama hi. Tualeh,a zaw a bêpa’n zong khâuvaw lien mama khat tuoh in a ging hi.

(15) Inn lam dîngpa’n sa inn lam sa zong nâhpitahin a khol a,voh bang tûhnga bang zong a khawi hi. Inn lam ni’n inn neipa’n sungzu(pulamte cina hi) a tât a(zu min ni in a kikhen hi); (i)Sungzu leh (ii)Tângzu a kici hi.

Sungzu pen tângzu sângin a tûizaw deu a,a cia deu hi. Ahivangin,a min nei deu a,kibawl ahi.Inn kilam a,a zawna ah innkhumte a tuom ah inn tungah ann leh zu a tuom in ( atuon in) a kinesah a,a kidawnsah hi.

(16) Inn lam ni a zu leh sa peidân

(a) A tunga kigên bangin sungzu leh tângzu lâhdân. Sungzu pen inn neipa zawpa in a lâh a,tângzu pen inn neipa bêpa’n a lâh hi.

(b) Inn lam ni in tapzâng(tap) a kiluoh a tute’n tap a luoh hi. A mawpotu pen tutazaw ahi. Inn lam zaw in tap luo zu zong khâpkuo khat,a tuom in a kikoi a,tuta tazaw in a lâh hi.

(17) Inn lam zaw cienga na sepdân leh a pata nasepdân

Inn lam kipatin zawpa’n bihla a khâi hi. Bihla ci pen mâi lang leh sia langah a kikhâi hi.Bî a taltal in kikân(ia) hi. Tuami khu inn neipa leh a zawpa bangkhat zieh a kihâu a kibal na a op khâh leh, zawpa leh inn neipa akihlasiet khâh leh thutam tuhna in zaw leh bihla heu e a kici hi.

(18) Zu lâhdân

Sungzu kilâh in apatna ah inn neipa zaw leh bê gêl in sielki lienpen dimtuoh in a kisawpieh a,a khawng nukhia pen a kidim gêl hi. Ahisihleh,khâpkuo sungah a nuasun thei hi. Tuazou ciengin sungte(pute) lah a a tâpen ah a kipan hi. Mi ni a kimâituo a,a kidem gêl hi.

(19) Tângzu zong tua bangin a tâzaw langah mi ni a kidemsah hi. A kilah hi.

Inn lam ni a,pute tawi dîng

(20) Pute’n âh khat ciet,aminsa in a tawi a inn lamte a pie a,tuami pen inn lampa zaw leh bê te zinu te’n sêu ah bû a khol a,âh pen a tuom in a khol a,tapkuong sungah a koi hi.

Tua pute hing tawi bu leh âhsa pen inn neipa tute zousie’n a kinesah hi. Tuaziehin,No.12 na kigiel bangin tute pu inn a haw leh sa a kinesah khu ahi. Ki-îtna lien mama hi. Lâi Siengthou Korinth; 13:1 apatin en lei tuami toh kituoh ahi. Îtna silpieh lienpen ahi.

Inn kilamzou a zîngni a omdân

(21) Inn lam ni in inn neipa’n voh ahisihleh ûi a that hi. Tuani in a zaw leh a bêpa tel in a tute zousie toh,tua inn tha lam in tua mun ah na a kisêm hi. Tuani in inn tha ah,zawpa’n bihla a sah langah a hlang langah tangtahin,a tan dîng hi. Bêpa’n tute nasep zousie a enkol dîng hi. Tutâzawpa lamkaina in tute a kimkhat a hat lang. Phungdou(singkehna) gamlah ah a puo uhhi. Tuami pen sumpha leh bihlâppha kikâl ah a kicieng dîng a, hawh lam kitawna leisâi zousie sumpha dipna’n a kinei dîng hi. Zo te adîngin sumpha pen na poimaw mama khat na hihi. Tua sungah sum a kikoi a,numeite’n tuanah,annêh a su uhhi. Sum koina ahiziehin in sumpha a kici hi.

Inn lam ni a tute opdân dîng

(22) Inn lam ni in tutate’n zubêl tungkhat ciet a tawi a,tua zutung pen inn lamzu a kici hi. Adiehin,a kitung nêh hi. Zu lâh pen tuta tâzawpa’n a lâh hi. Zu lâhdân zong a om hi.

Compiled by Philip Thanglienmang, DANICS, MA(Linguistic)

Introduction to a brief historical records of the Zo people

- Philip Thanglienmang, DANICS, MA (Linguistic)

The Zos are Tibeto-mongoloid group of people, a sub-family of the Kuki-Chin-Mizo race. The name Zo or Zou is the name of a group of Tibeto-Burman people inhabiting the ChinHills in Mynamar and Manipur in India. It is also recorded as Yo,Jou,Zou by many colonial civil servants and modern writers. While colonial records referred to the Zou tribe variously as ‘Yo’ or ‘Yaw’, the Zou community living in Manipur called themselves ‘Jou’. The first Christian church established by the Zou tribe in Manipur was called Jou Christian Association (JCA) on 20 February 1954. But the Government of India officially recognised the name of this tribe as ‘Zou’ in 1956.

I) The earliest historical records of Zo was written by Fan-Cho a diplomat of Tang dynasty of China who mentioned of a kingdom in Chindween valley whose princes and chiefs were callled Zo or Shou or Zhou in the year 862 A. D.
II) The most genuine historical records of the Zos/Zous were written down by Rev.Fr.Vincentious Sangermano; a Roman Catholic Missionary who came to Burma in 1783 A.D. He wrote a book entitled “A Description of the Burmese Empire” it was published in 1835 A.D in Rome in latin language,later on it was translated into English by William Tandy D.D. (reprinted at the Goverment Press,Yangon;MDCL XXXV) Page 35; wrote about the Jou.
The extracts are given as under:- “To the East of Chien Mountains between 20o30’ seconds and 21o30’ North latitude is apetty nation called ‘JOU'. They are supposed to have been Chein,who in progress of time, have become Burmaniszed,speaking their language,although very corruptly, and adopting all their customs”

III) Betram S. Carey CIE, Assitant Commissioner, Burma, and Political Officer, Chin Hills and H. N. Tuck, Extra Assitant Commissioner, Burma and Assistant Political Officer, Chin Hills wrote 'THE CHIN HILLS'. In that book Volume I page 140 they wrote about the Zos as follows:-

“The Yos[Zos} tribe three generations back occupied the tract now occupied by the Kanhow clan of Soktes, and many of the Kanhow villages are inhabited still by Yos, whose tribal name has given way to that of Kanhow. As has been shown in the previous chapter, Kantum, the Sokte, conquered all the inhabitants right up to the borders of Manipur,and Kanhow,his so, founded Tiddim village and ruled the newly acquired conquests of his father. The conquered Yos thus became known as Kanhowte,Kanhow’s men, and as they intermaried with the Soktes who settled north with Kanhow Kanhow,there is no real difference between the conquerors and the conquered”.

IV). F. K. Lehman of Illinois Studies in Anthropology No.3,The University of Illinois Press Urbans 1963, Page 179 states as follows: Between Burma and India there lived a racial group people who are living with their tradition and customs firmly. They are not easy to ruling. They worship “SHA” which was their dead peoples spirits. They called their dead people’s evil spirit JIN. Their origin name is “JOU”

V). The terms ‘Zo’ have been employed in many books written by the people. The first complete version of the Holy Bible in Zo language(1983 A D) used the title as ' The Holy Bible in Zo' and the second complete Holy Bible also used the word 'Zokam' . Pu. T.Gougin used the terminology :Zo and Zomi to denote this community in the book 'A Brief History of Zou'(1961 A.D.) and (L)Pu. Thangkhanlal also used the term 'Zo' in his Zo primer(1973) and Pu.Goupau in ' Zo Sannemla' others. The term ‘Zou’ is officially accepted to refer to the Zou tribe in Manipur since 1956. But in Myanmar(Burma) these very same people;they have been using the term 'Zo' to denote themseves in Chin Hills and Sagaing division of Myanmar since the beginning of Roman script for writing perhaps as early as 1920s. The name 'Zo' has been used by Zo Baptist Association (ZBA) and Zo Presbyterian Synod Church in Myanmar.

In the year 1926 two missionaries Mr. Hrangchuaka and Mr.Dawnthawma visited the Zo country and wrote their about them in the bulletin ‘Khristian’. Free translation of the above write up is given below:-

“First of all,I would like to tell briefly about the land as described below:- The country is located in the Imphal areas and north of Guite tracts,between the lands of Meitei and Sukte along the valley of Imphal river. Like, the Lushei country they people have petty chieftains in the small villages which are not extensive enough. They all called themselves by the racial name or tribal name; Zo .. they are very ignorant and illiterate; I learnt that they fought against the Government few years back. Religion: they are all worshippers of spirits of their forefathers, and they practised animal sacrifices to propitiate the spirits.. ‘I donot have a son. If I follow God will I have a son? They used to asked me,thus,the Zo ram ‘Zo country’ does not hear that God sent his only begotten son to redeem the sinners,therefore,I implore to you to please pray for this Zo people”.

A brief Historical linguistics of Kuki-Chin languages with special reference to diachronic linguistic studies of Zo language in India and Burma

During the ancient period the Zo people are said to have possess their own script written on parchments. In course of their migration to distant lands these parchments were lost. Some believed that they were eaten by hungry dogs. Zo language is believed to be very old language as told by elders of the community. Zo language had been in usage circa A.D 850, Prof. G.H Luce stated that the though it is known as Tibeto-Burman their common language is either Chin or Kachin or the combination of both of them. The Zo language is very closely related to the Kachin language.

The coming of missionaries into the land of the Zo people nearly coincides with the education of the people and thus we may say that the historical linguistics of Zo language begins with the advent of the missionaries into the Zo country; eastern and western regions.

In the year 1912 A.D the Royal Asiatic Society, Calcutta was founded with Dr.George A.Grierson as one of its founders. In one of its journal they proposed Roman alphabet to write the dialects of the wild tribes. Zo literature also saw its birth sometime in the second decade of the 20th century. In 1904-1930,Dr.George A.Grierson prepared a detailed descriptions of Kuki-Chin languages in Part 3 Vol No.3

Lushai/Mizo/Lusei language

Dulien,Duhlian,Lusei and Lushai are one and the same language what is today known as Mizo.
In 1893 R. Arthington of the Arthington Aborigines Mission sent two missionaries to Aizawl. In 1894 F.W.Savidge and J.H.Lorraine reached southwest Mizoram. They learned the Lushai(Mizo) language and introduced the Roman script for writing the unwritten Lushai language. They translated some Bible parables. They taught the people how to read and write in their mission schools. They translated the Gospel of St. John and the Acts of the Apostles in Lushai language. They were transferred in 1897. Thus, Lushai/Lusei literature began its long journey from then onwards. In 1898, Rev.D.E Jones reached the western part of Lushai Hills. By 1899,he visited all the important villages they opened up missionary schools and taught the Duhlien dialect.

The complete New Testament was published in 1916. J.H.Lorraine started preparing the Lushai-English Dictionary which was published in 1940. The entire Holy Bible(minus Apocripha) translation was completed on 30th June,1955. It was printed at Calcutta and it was published in 1959 by BSI. Now,the Mizo language studied as MIL from Cl.IX,X till M.A level in the state of Mizoram and Manipur.

Hmar language:

The Hmar language belongs to the Kuki-Chin-Naga sub-group of Tibeto-Burman stock of the great Sino-Tibetan family of languages. The speakers of the language are also known as Hmar. The allograph of Hmar,as recorded in some books is Mhar.

Hmar speakers are scattered over a vast area in Mizoram,Manipur, NC Hills and Cachar districts of Assam state,India. There is no homogenous settlement of Hmar speakers alone. Hmar is a recognised language in the School curriculum of Assam, Manipur and Mizoram, and also recently recognised as one of the Modern Indian Language (MIL) at Manipur University. Board of Secondary Education, Assam has also included Hmar as an MIL in its matriculation syllabus from 2005.


The beginning of written languages in Hmar can be traced to the arrival of missionaries Dr Peter Fraser and his wife Mrs. Fraser sent by Welsh Missionary Society. in 1906 at Senvon. Evangelist Watkin R.Roberts was an independent missionary.

In 1908-9, Dr. Fraser arrived at Aizawl where he opened a clinic to treat the hillmen. He appointed Rev. W.R. Roberts as his assistant. Rev. W. R. Roberts began to learn the Lushai language. He visited many villages in Lushai Hills. He bought 104 copies of the Gospel of St. John in Lushai and he distributed them among the Hmar people and one copy was specially sent to the Chief of Senvon, Mr. Kamkholun. The chief of Senvon was greatly impressed by the book he at once requested Rev. W. Roberts to come to Senvon to tell more about the book and his gospel. In those days, Senvon was the biggest Hmar village in Manipur. In spite of ,many warnings by the British officials in Aizawl from the wild head-hunters of those days, Rev. W. Roberts accompanied by two students Lungpau and Thangkhai(both belonging to Vaiphei tribe became the first Christians in Manipur south west area) began their journey from Aizawl on 31,January 1910 towards Senvon. They reached Senvon on 5th February 1910.

On the request of Chief of Senvon,Rev.W.Roberts sent three Bible students who volunteered themselves viz; Savawma,Vanzika and Thangchhingpuia to be evangelist teachers. They arrived at Senvon on 7th May 1910. They opened a Mission School at Senvon Hmunte. They also taught the Good News to the peoples besides teaching them the 3 Rs. Thus, the Hmar language saw its birth through those missionaries.

He translated the Gospel of St. John in Hmar language. In those days, the Mission was referred to as Thadou-Kuki Pioneer Mission(1910-1928) which was later on renamed as North East India General Mission(NEIGM) in 1928.

In 1920,the Gospel of Mark in Hmar,translated by Mr.F.J.Sandy of Eldh Presbyterian Mission,was published at Aizawl. Later on,the whole of the New Testament was translated by Mr. H.S Thanglung,H.L Sela and others,was published in 1946.

Mr. R. Dala wrote a book titled ‘Khrista Hnena mi huai Dan’ and he published a monthly magazine called ‘Thadou-Kuki Pioneer Mission’(Khristian Tlangau Bu).

Vaiphei language

The Gospel of St. John was translated into Vaiphei by Rev. Watkins. Roberts and it was published in 1917 by Bible Society of India. The New Testament and Psalms printed in 1957 were translated by Mr. Siaklam assisted by Mssrs.Liankhopao, Khaivung, Zamkai and Pauva.

In 1967,the book of Genesis was printed by the Bible Society of India. Mr. Th.Lamboi with the help of the Trinitarian Bible Society in London published Bible in 1979. Vaiphei is a developing language.

Haka/Hakha(Lai) and Khalkha languages

In 1898,Rev.Carson and his wife reached Haka to preach the Good News. On 15,March,1899, Rev. Arthur Carson and his wife of A.B.M reached Haka the capital of the Chin State/Hills,with much difficulties he managed to convert one person in 1904,after struggling for five years. He introduced the Roman alphabet and taught the people how to write in their mother tongue. He translated the New Testament into different dialects. He died on 1,April,1908 at Haka.

On 5,April,1906 Chester Strait arrived at Haka. He learnt the Haka(Lai) language well. He established a Bible school at Haka in May,1928 with few students. He prepared Sunday school lessons and translated the New Testament in Lai(Haka) language which was published by Mission Press Rangoon in 1940.

Tangkhul language

In 1894,February William Pettigrew who was incharge of the American Baptist Mission,opened a school among the Meitei Hindus at Imphal. He was not welcomed in the land of Meiteis. In 1895,he establish a Mission centre at Ukhrul. From the years 1895 to 1910 he learnt the local language,later on he developed the Tangkhul language by unifying the various village dialectical groups into one single language; Hundung/Ukhrul dialect.

Now,the Tangkhul language taken as MIL from Cl.IX,X till Cl.XII the state of Manipur.

Thado-Kuki language

On the demand of Rev. William Pettigrew, Dr.Grozier came to Kangpokpi in the last part of 1909. From 1910 onwards,he set up a Medical Centre at Kangpokpi Mission Compound servving as Doctor for the sick and the poor. The history of this language began with the arrival of the missionaries at Kangpokpi, Manipur state. T.C Hodson(1905) called this language as Thado, Rev. William Pettigrew named it Thadou. Longkhobel Kilong(1922) and Thomsong Ngulhao(Lekhabul,Thadou Kuki first Primer 1927) called it Thadou Kuki.

T.Lunkim,in the early 1970s proposed the name of this language as 'Kuki'. He wrote the Holy Bible in Kuki.

Mssrs. Lt.R.Steward (author of ' A slight notice of the Grammar of Thado or New Kuki language published in the Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal 1857) and Dament called it Thado language and local dialect it is known as Thado pao. Thadou or Thadou-Kuki is a language spoken in the states of Assam,Nagaland,Mizoram,Manipur and in the Chin Hills of Burma, Homalin areas of Upper Burma and Chittagong tracts of Bangladesh. It is widely spoken language belonging to the Kuki-Chin sub-group of Tibeto-Burman sub-family of Sino-Tibetan families of languages.It shares linguistic similarities and ethnographic similarities with the other dialects of th Kuki-Chin sub-groups.

Now,the Thado-Kuki language taken as MIL from Cl.IX,X till Cl.XII the state of Manipur.

Paite language

The beginning of written languages in Paite can also be traced to the arrival of missionaries Dr Peter Fraser and his wiwfe Mrs. Fraser sent by Welsh Missionary Society. in 1906 at Senvon. Evangelist Watkin R.Roberts was an independent missionary.

Rev. W. R. Roberts began to learn the Lushai language. He visited many villages in Lushai Hills. He bought 104 copies of the Gospel of St. John in Lushai and he distributed them among the Hmar people and other neighbouring people.

In spite of ,many warnings by the British officials in Aizawl from the wild head-hunters of those days,Rev.W.Roberts accompanied by two students Lungpau and Thangkhai(both belonging to Vaiphei tribe became the first Christians in Manipur south west area) began their journey from Aizawl on 31,January 1910 towards Senvon. They reached Senvon on 5th February 1910.

On the request of Chief of Senvon,Rev.W.Roberts sent three Bible students who volunteered themselves viz; Savawma or Thangbula ? , Vanzika and Thangchhingpuia to be evangelist teachers. They arrived at Senvon on 7th May 1910. They opened a Mission School at Senvon Hmunte. They taught the Good News to the peoples besides teaching them the 3 Rs. He translated the Gospel of St. John in Hmar language. In those days, the Mission was referred to as Thadou-Kuki Pioneer Mission(1910-1924/28?) which was later on renamed as North East India General Mission(NEIGM) in 1924 or 1928? by Rev. H. Coleman,due to some misunderstandings between him and Rev.Watkin Roberts. Mr. H.K.Dohnuna and Rev.Watkin Roberts established a denominations called Independent Church of India(ICI).

The Assembly includes various communities such as Paite,Lushai,Hmar,Thado-Kuki,Zo. From 1910 till 1947 there was one administration under the umbrella of NEIGM. As the number of tribes increased there arose linguistic problems amongst them. So,inorder to facilitate smooth functioning of the NEIGM,a resolution was passed in 1948 to divide NEIGM into different Presbyteries.

In March, 1948, just before the General Assembly to be held in 1949, the South Eastern Area Presbytery consisting mainly of Paite tribe and others(e.g. Zos of South District of Manipur now known as Churachandpur district, India), resolved to remain as separate Presbytery and they held their own conference at Kaihlam in 1949. It became the first Paite Christian Conference. In 1950 Songtal conference it was renamed as Manipur Christian Convention, later on was renamed as Evangelical Convention Church, now it is Evangelical Baptist Church.

The Gospel of St. John was translated by T.C Tiankham, Nengzachin, Vungthawn, Chinlang and Thangkhawgin were published by NEIGM. The first edition of the New Testament and Psalms as translated by the above persons was published in 1951 by the Bible Society of India(BSI). Another version of the New Testament edited by Rev. Nengzachin, Jamkhothang, Vungthawn, Nengthawn, Khamkam and Englian was printed in 1959 by BSI. The complete Bible in Paite(minus Apocripha) was translated by Rev. Nengzachin and committee was published in 1971.

Now,the Paite language taken as MIL from Cl.IX,X til B.A(TDC) in the state of Manipur.

Gangte language

The Gospel of St. Mathew was first book to be translated and published in 1951 by the BSI. The whole New Testament translated by Mr. Thongzakham and Mr. Vungzadal was published in 1959. The entire Bible (minus Apocripha) was translated by Mr. Khaigin Gangte of Evangelical Christian Synod(formerly known as Manipur Christian Synod) printed in 1991.

Kom language

The Gospel of St. Mathew was translated by Evan. Lunkhohen of American Baptist Mission was printed by BSI in 1954 and the entire New Testament was published in 1976 under the Chief translator Mr. Daniel Kom.

Simte language

The Gospel of St. John was translated by Mr. Ramlien Pudaite in 1957. The New Testament was printed in 1975 published by Trinitarian Bible Society of London. The entire Bible based on KJV English (minus Apocripha) was released on 20th January 1993 at Churachandpur,New Testament Baptist Church.

Diachronic Linguistic Studies of Zo language in Burma and India

In Burma the development of Tedim dialect and Zo language and its literature owes to one great missionary in the person of Rev. Joseph Hebert Cope of American Baptist Mission. In December 21,1908, he reached Haka and learnt the Haka and Falam dialects to spread the word of God but he was not very successful. In 1910, he arrived at Tedim town in Chin Hills and he began to learn the local language;Tedim-Chin or Tiddim-Chin. He had to face a lot of resistance and hardships especially from the orthodox Zos.

The practice of social drinking was prevalent in those days,it took quite a long time to convert souls for Christ due to the orthodoxy of the Zo people who use to worship the supreme being called ‘Pasien’ and their ancestors’ spirits called ‘Pusha’ .The form of worship is known as ‘Pusha Bieh’. Their form of ancient ancestor worship or religion may be termed as ‘Lawkism’ in anglicized terminlogy.

Kamhau dialect,Tedim,Tedim-Chin,Tiddim-Chin language

Prior to the development of Zo language in Burma,the most developed language and literature was that of Kamhau dialect or Tedim dialect found in the Northern Chin Hills of Burma.

The beginning of the 20th century Pu. Kamhau was one of the Sukte rulers(Innpite) of Tedim,Tonzang and other Zo villages in Chin Hills,his dialect was similar to the Tiddim-Chin dialect, therefore, he propagated his own dialect amongst his subjects after his name; Kamhau and he made it as the official language of his tracts with the patronage of the British Rulers and missionaries of those days. It was known as Kamhau dialect. In many books it is also recorded as Sukte dialect. The loconym Tedim is the allograph of Tiddim-Chin vice-versa.

J.H. Cope compiled hymn book in Tedim dialect and he also published portions of the Gospels. In 1913, he compiled the first Chin Primer in Tedim dialect using Roman Scripts called Mang Tual Lai). In 1915,J.H Cope translated the ‘Mate Lai Siangtho’ (Gospel of St.Mathew) in Kamhau dialect and it was printed by British & Foreign Bible Society,Rangoon and the ‘Zawhang Lai Siangtho’(Gospel of St.John) in Kamhau dialect,1923. These Bibles were the forerunners of the later days Tiddim-Chin Bibles. In 1931, The Sermont on the Mount was published in Pau Cin Hau script with the help of Mrs. Cope and Pu.Thang Cin Kham of Tonzang village. Due to the non-availability of printing technology for this script it could not be fully developed as a means of education in schools. He began to publish a 16 page bulletin called Tedim Thukizakna with the help of local pastors and literates from 1919 till his death in 1938.

About 1920-21,there was a Educational Conference at Falam which agreed to develop the Roman alphabet as a medium of instructions for schools in place of Burmese. The Chin Education Conference at Maymyo was held on 23rd October 1923,wherein the members resolved to prepare school textbooks in Tiddim-Chin language. Consequently,Rev. In 1922, J.H Cope was confered the rank of Honorary Inspector of Schools for the whole of Chin Hills. Hence forth,he was known as Sângmâng Pa ‘Master of Schools’. In the year 1925,he organized all the Primary Schools into Tedim Chin Primary Schools.

It is recorded that as told by Rev. Thang Kho Chin of Phaitu village, that when Rev. J.H Cope tried to prepare folktales in the Tedim-Chin Readers he could not satisfactory gather detail accounts of the Zo folktales among the Tedim speaking people of Tedim town,he said that some Tedim speaking elders pointed out to J.H Cope that the Zo people who preserve their customs,traditions and folktales still in tact, should be consulted for the purpose of writing folktales and other stories and so he approached them accordingly. So,he consulted and interviewed Pu.Tuong Za Go of Lomzang village in Tongzang Myuone who knew many folktales and stories,thus many Zo folktales and legends of course, the native Zo language also came to be incorporated into the Tedim-Chin Reader which was later on through several revisions the native Zo language was gradually dropped in place of Tiddim-Chin dialect. By 1925 A.D he prepared the Tiddim-Chin Readers.

In 1931,he translated portions of the New Testament in Tedim dialect. In 1932, assisted by Sia Vial Nang,Rev. J.H.Cope completed the first complete New Testament Bible in the Chin Hills which was published by British and Foreign Bible Society(Rangoon) in Kamhau/Tiddim-Chin dialect. In 1948, Sia Hau Go reprinted the New Testament, in Tedim dialect(Lai Siang tho thak,Tedim kam). In 1967,The New Testament and Psalms in Tedim kam was published by Bible Society of India,was officially released at Guwahati Conference of CBCNEI.

On 12th June 1977, under the aegis of the Tedim Baptist Association and Chin Baptist Association(Lamka),with the assistance of the Bible Society of India published the complete Holy Bible(minus Apocripha) translated and edited by Rev. Kam Khaw Thang of Burma,was released at Churachandpur,Manipur.

Zo language[Zokam/Zohâm]

After the British Rulers left India and Burma,the Zo language suffered much disintegration and diversifications in terms of its orthographies specially in N.E India.

With coming of the tribe recognitions in the beginning of 1950s by Government of India(vis a vis Government of Manipur), various speech communities of the Kuki-Chin groups began to adopt their own dialects as the basis of their ethnic differentiation and identities. The Kuki-Chin linguistic world was split up into various ethnic components such as ; Kom, Chothe,Anal, Paite, Simte, Thadou, Zo, Gangte, Vaiphei etc.

We have already seen the growth and develpment of Zo language in Burma through the pioneering works of Rev.J.H Cope,the Zos also benefited from the point of literature and religion.

Prior to the 1950s, like the Zos in Burma,the Zos in India were staunch believers of their ancient fore-fathers religion; ancestor worship which I may be called it ‘Lawkism’ in anglicized terminology. In the early 1950s,with the advent and invasion of foreign religion in the form of Christianity, the majority of the Zos were converted into Christian faith some were converted individually,major chunk of population underwent mass conversion resulting in drastic transformations of their social systems, kinship systems, customs, culture, and tribe solidarity. The advent of the new faith and its missionary activities came the western education. Many youngmen became literate and enlightened. In course of time, the newly educated people felt the necessity of having a denomination based on their tribe or community . The Zos of India and Burma were using either the Paite or Tedim Hymn Books and Gospels since the beginnning of the 20th century. Some even used to read the Lushai Bible. They also longed to have hymn books and the Bible in their own mother tongue.

In 1946,some schools were opened among the Zos in South district of Manipur state. The E.C.C missionaries Mssrs.Vungdal,Khamzalian,Thongluon used to preach the Gospel among the Zos of South District. Some people were converted to Christianity. However,in those days,there was no single organised Zo Christian denomination amongst them, in fact, they were scattered among various denominations such as E.C.C,E.A.C etc. After few years many Zos left their parent denominations MCConvention/ECC which were under N.E.I.G was rechristened as Evangelical Congregational Church of India (E.C.C.I) in November,1986.

Some newly educated Zos like Mr.Thawngzakhup and Mr.Kamzakhup began to organise the new converts into associations due to tribalisma and linguistics differences as perceived by them. On 20,February1,1954, they founded a new denomination known as ‘Jou Christian Association’ at Daizang village,South district,Manipur under the Chairmanship of Ngulzakhup. In 1956 they held the second JCA session at Buhsau village in which they renamed it as Manipur Christian Conference(MCC) so as to get a separate Presbytery affiliation under NEIGM.

Through their newly established church denomination,the Zos began to develop their own language and literature in their own mother tongue. The first hymn book called ‘Zomi Christian Labupi’ was printed in 1954(500 copies) compiled and edited by Zomi Theme Committee, Tuaitengphai under the leadership of Pu. Thonghang(T.Tungnung), Pu.Kaizakham (K.Phiemphu) and Pu.Semkhopao (S.K.Samte). They can be given the status of the Pioneers of Zo literature in Manipur(India). The second,third,fourth editions came out in 1956(2,000 copies),1970(3000 copies), 1985( 1000 copies) and 1989(3000 copies;tonic solfa) respectively.

Pu.S.K Samte published the first newspaper known as 'Jougam-Thusuo' in March,1954. He used a mixture of Hunterian orthography and the A,B,C....Z system based on phonological features of the then unwritten Zo language,as it is evident from the spellings found in the newspaper1.

In 1956 A.D, (L) Pu. T. Nengkhogin prepared and published a Zo primer known as ‘Jou Simpat Bu2 ’ with the assistance of Pu.S.K Samte. In that he proposed the use of the Roman Script,which is today known as the English Alphabet. Since,he was the pioneer in Zo orthography(reading and writing system) in Manipur he could be given the title of the Father of Zo Literature(Zo Laipa) in Indian context. In 1957, Pu. T. Gougin, Sub. Peter Thangkhokam, Pu.Vummâng and Pu.Jâmkhogin all of them painstakingly collected and compiled the ancient mores,customs and traditions of the Zos from the various chiefs. On 1.12.1957, they published the first ever Jou Customary Law3 book with the patronage of the Zo chiefs. Thus,all of them may be given the titles of the Fathers of Zo Customary Law book.

In 1958,Pu. S.K.Samte prepared 4(four) books they are; Jou Lai Bu Ina,Jou Lai Bu IIna,Tuottung Bu and Jou Hindi Simpat. In 1961,Pu. T.Gougin M.A published a book on Zo people known as ‘A Brief History of Zou’. In 1967,the first New Testament in Zokam was translated and published by Pu.S.K.Samte.

In 1967,Pu.Thangkhanlal prepared 6(six) books on Zo language viz; Zolai Bu Khatna,Zolai Bu Nina,Naupangte Zolai Patna,Learners English Grammar and Hindi Vocabulary. He followed the Hunterian system i.e A,AW,B,CH orthography which is adopted by the Lushai(Mizo) literature and partly of Rev. J.H Cope’s orthography which is still used by the Tedim-Chins and some Zo people in Burma.
Pu. S.Mangsuanthang also prepared some Zo Primer following the same orthography. But the spelling usages employed by the two authors are not same.

In the early 1980s a man named Pu.Siehzathang claimed to have discovered the lost script of Zo language in his dreams!. Later on,UZO accepted it to be the script for Zou vernacular in 1983. But,on detailed analysis it seems to be admixture of Burmese and Bengali script. Of course,the invention of this script shows his creativity of thought and his love of language.This script also needs fine tuning in terms of tones and vowel system.

In the late 1970 and early 80s the Catholic Church,Manipur published a book combining the Doxology and Hymns in Zo language called Jesu Minphat Un edited and compiled by Late Samuel M.Khamzakhup.

In 1977,the Zomi Inter-confessional Bible Translation Committee under the Chairmanship of Mr. T.Stephen Semkholun began the translations of the entire Holy Bible in Zo at Daijang village in South District of Manipur. It took 7 years to translate the entire Holy Bible. Mr. T. Aloysius Nehkhojang B.A, B.Th took over the Chairmanship of the ZICBTC in the year 1979,then on he proceeded to Madras for proof-reading, editing, compiling etc its printing took nearly 5 years to complete. In 1983, the first complete Holy Bible in Zo (including the first Apocripha translation among the Kuki-Chin group of languages) published by the Diocese of Imphal was released at Good Shepherd Parish, Churachandpur, Manipur.

In 1995,under the aegis of the Bible Society of India, Bangalore, Rev. L.Taithul published the Holy Bible in Zomi minus Apocripha. These two versions of the Holy Bible in Zokam has greatly influenced the literature world of the Zos. The old orthographies of the John H.Cope and James Herbert Lorraine(he followed the Hunterian system developed by Sir William Hunter-author of Imperial Gazetteer,1900) underwent profound changes during the past 27 years of the existence of the Bibles in Zokam/Zohâm(Zo language) in India and Burma.

In the year 1995 Zou Literature Society Manipur was registered under the Societies Registration Act. In the year 1998 Zou Cultural-cum-Literature Society Delhi was registered which was rechristened as Zo Cultural-cum-Literature Society India later on. Besides,these societies there are other literature committees set up and maintained by various Church denominations for the development of Zo language; prominent among them is Zomi Christian Literature Committee of the former Zomi Christian Church now converted into Evangelical Lutheran Church Manipur(ELCM). The Zo Presbyterian Church is regularly bringing out a bulletin called Khristian Tangkou,the counterpart of this in the E.L.C.M is Gospel Tangkou. Both these bulletins more or less follow the Bible orthographies.

In 2000, the Zou Literature Society, Manipur published books for Cl.IX and X which is studied in the state of Manipur India. The orthography used in these books are mostly based on the Bibles in Zo language but there are lot of double vowels which gives the writings very clumsy looks. Then,the punctuations are filled with hyphens and dashes which again gives the writings uneconomical and cumbersome. The contents of the books are mostly upto the mark.

In 2001,the Zo Baptist Association Hqtrs,Kalaymyo,Myanmar(Burma) published a magazine known as ‘A.D 2000,ZO MAGAZINE’ dated March 2001 which gives a lot of information about the history, language, culture and religions of Zos in Burma. One notable feature of this book is that it is written according to the orthography followed in the Zo Bibles(1983 and 1995). In this magazine there are proper blends of the old orthography(J.H Cope,Hunterian) and new orthography A,B,C,D,….Z system propounded by Mr. T. Aloysius Nehkhojang B.A,B.Th which also again consists of beautiful blends of the old ones and the new ones. The orthography adopted in this magazine is easy to read but this newest trend in Zo linguistics still requires much more fine tuning and proper refinements for its final adoption as the orthography of Zo language.

In 2001 Rev.Fr, Andrew Gou Lien published a book called Catholic Biehpiehna leh Missa Bu with help of Catholic Church of Haka diocese.

In 2006,under the aegis of the Zo Cultural-cum-Literature Society India Mr. Philip Thanglienmang, DANICS,B.E(Civil),M.A(Linguistics) published 5 books the most prominent being; ‘Dictionary of Zo Poetic Words,Metaphors and Similes Vol.I’. The other books are i) The Brief Biography of Subedar Peter ThangkhokamTungdim ii) Ka hinkhuo tomkim by Mari Lienzanieng iii) Ka Katekizam Masapen iv) Katholik Zailate leh Mass zuidan.

In 2006,the Zou Literature Society Manipur publised two books for Cl.X and XII viz; Chinthu Zaila by ZLSM and Zouham Zahdan by Philip Thanglienmang,DANICS.

In 2006,the Zo Baptist Association,Hqtrs,Myanmar with the help of Bible Society of India,Bangalore published the Zo Lai Siengtho; Zo Bible consisting of the New Testament version with Psalms for their own use in Burma and India.


1. J.C.A; JOUGAM-THUSUO Vol.I Douta March 1954 Ist year which is recorded as 10 Feb,1954 by M.G.P/M.E.P in JCA Golden Jubilee Souvenir 2004.

2. Jou simpat Bu; JOUGAM-THUSUO Vol.I Douta March 1954 Ist year

3. Jou Customary Book; Jou Tawndan collected and compiled by Pu.T. Gougin M.A dated 1-12-1957

4. Leivui Panin by Late Rev. Khup Za Go

5. Zou Lai Khantousah dingdan thu(How to develop the Zou Literature) ‘A Seminar Paper presented at the U.Z.O Lamka Block Conference on the 12th Dec 1995 by Pu.T.Aloysius Nehkhojang B.A.,B.D,B.Ph,Secretary,Zou Literature Society Manipur.

6. Zomi Christian Church,Tapidaw-40 (1954-1994) Souvenir editor: Rev.David K.Samte

7. Tapidaw Golden Jubilee 2004 sungah "Tawndan leh Tapidaw biehna" by Upa Suonkhanmang Chief of Tangpijol

8. A.D 2000,ZO MAGAZINE dated March 2001,Kalaymyo,Myanmar(Burma)

9. Tapidaw 50 Golden Jubilee 2004

10. What is in a name? Everything is in a name! Thado vs Kuki by Dr.M.S Thirumalai dated 9th Sept,2005.

11. Christianity in Manipur by Pu.H.S. Hatzaw 2003,Lamka

Miss Zomi 2008 | Grace Lamneikim



Monday, February 18, 2008

Global Warming | Leitung Satna

By - Philip Thanglienmang DANICS, MA(Lingustic)

Global warming kichi tungtâng thute theichienna dîngin, amasa in greenhouse effect kichi gênchien masa vâi. Leitung pen huikhuo(atmosphere) in a tuomkhum ahi. Nisahu (sun’s heat) in huikhuo a pailet a, nisahu pawlkhat pen leitung pumpi apatin a teutu (rebound/reflect) a, vânthawmzawl leh vânhawm langah a lêngmang (radiate) let hi.

Amasapên in, leitung khu nisahu in a khaw a, tua nisahu in huikhuo a pailet a, nisahu pawlkhat leitung pumpi in a tâwp (absorb) a, leitung huikhuo sungah a kikul (kikhumlut) a, ahi’nlah, nisahu pawlkhat pen leitung pumpi mun tuomte apatin a teutu (rebound/reflect) a, vânthawmzawl leh vânhawm langah a lêngmang (radiate) let hi.

Huikhuo sunga greenhouse gases (sâu-eng huizângte) Te kikul ziehin nisahu khu lih-li sunga kikhum bangin a khum u’a, tuachiin leitung a ul (warm up) u’a, leitung sâlevot (temperature) a khangsah uhhi. Huikhuo sungah huizângte’n leitung huikhuo a satsah sêmzawna dinmun khu Green house effect kichi ahi. Zohâm in, ‘Sâu-eng tohkhâhna’ ahilouleh ‘Sâu-eng uopkhumna ’ chia minvaw thei ahi.

Greenhouse effect vânga leitung pumpi huikhuo leh tuikângpite(oceans) sâlevot tângpi (average.temperature) khang khu Global Warming kichi ahi. Zohâm in Leitung Satna kichi ahi. Leitung huikhuo opdân (earth’s climate) kikhêlsahthei den ahi chi’n a ki-um hi.

Sâintiste’n leitung satna (global warming) chi sângin ‘huikhuo opdân kikhêlna’ (climate change) a chi nuomzaw uhhi. Aziehpên, leitung satdân mun khat ah a khang sah a, mun khat ah a kiemsah zêl hi. Huilângte (winds) leh tuikângpi luongte’n (ocean currents) leitung mun pawlkhat a votsah a, pawlkhat a sasah a, tualeh guotui leh vuakiehdân zong a kikhêlsah pha hi. Tuaziehin, mun tuomtuomte ah, huikhuo opdân tuom chiet ahing tung a, a’ng piengta hi.

Sâintiste’n A.D 1824 kum a panin Green house effect om ahi chithu khu a na mudoh u’a, tuami kum in zong Pu.Joseph Fourier in ‘leitung huikhuo om sih leh leitung pen a nâh votzaw dîng hi. Greenhouse effect ziehin leitung ah ganhingte a hingthei u’a, leitung huikhuo opdân a hunbep in a sasah hi. Tam bangin leitung greenhouse effect,na om tama sih leh pen,leitung satdân 60? F in a votzaw dînga,ganhingte hindân a hamsa mama dîng hi’ chi’n a na gênkha hi.

A.D 1895 kum in, Swedish kemist Pu. Svante Arrhenius in a na gênna ah, ‘mihing in carbon dioxide; greenhouse gas, siemkhie thei dînga tuachiin greenhouse effect a tungsah dîng hi’ chiin na gê hi. Ama’ mukhietna patin kum 100 sung vingveng huikhuo opdân (climate) suikhietna ziehin leitung satna (global warming) tungtâng thugil tamtah a’ng kitheidoh hi. Leitung tângthu suichiente mukhiet dânin, leitung pienkhiet zoua patin greenhouse gases(sâu-eng huizângte) dinmun a na kiemsuh let a, tuazaw chienginleh a na khangtou zêl hi, chithu a na mukhie uhhi.

Leitung pienkhiet apatin,kum a sâng a sîng a sim dîngin, nipi leh leitung kiheidân dungzûiin, leitung satdân leh carbon dioxide omza na kikhêl zêlzêl hi.

Khuziehin, vuakhangte (ice ages) a na tung a, a na mang let hi. Hinanleh zong, kum a tûl a tûl hun sungteng a greenhouse gases (sâu-eng huizângte) khu huikhuo in a na tawpzou (absorbed) zêl hi. Tuaziehin, leitung satdân leh sâu-eng huizângte a hunbep in a na om zing thei hi. Tam bang dinmun ahiziehin, mihing khanletna (civilisation), huikhuo opdân kihleng ngailou (consistent climate) sungah a na khanglien hi.

Khatveivei chiengin, sildangte’n leitung satdân a na tongkha let hi. Tamte ahileh; muolsou pâwhte in vutvâi a thêzâh let a, tamte nisa a dâl ziehin leitung a votsah let hi. Hinanleh, tahaw pen kum tawmnou sunga silpiengte ahiziehin,hun sawtpi leitung a votsah tuon sih hi. Sildangte; El Niño chi bangin zong hun tomnou khat sung adiîngin leitung a votsah pha hi. El Niño(Nâusên Jesu) kichi pen Chile leh Peru gam zûi a,tuikângpi luong huvot(current or wave) chi khat ahi hi.

Kum 50 peisa sunga leithaute(fossil fuels);meihol leh thâutui kihâl zieh,gammâng singkungte vâtmang leh phietmang zieh, louhlaw(agriculture) zieh in carbon dioxide(kâlbon dâi-oksâit) leh huizâng dangte khu huikhuo sungah a na lût zêl a, tuachiin a na pung sêmsêm a, tua huizângte pen Leitung satna(Global warming) pienna lienpênte(primary sources) ahi uhhi.

Tuhun chiengin khawlsilsiem kikhêlna(industrial revolution), patin, mihingte’n huikhuo sungah carbon dioxide sêthumsuosêni(2/3rd) sânga vâlzaw in a thunlûtzouta uhhi. Kum a tûl a sâng vâl lût dîng pen kum sawm sungin ahing tung thut theita mawh hi! Leitung khantouna lamdang mama hi.

Leitung huikhuo sunga carbon dioxide pungsah lienpênte ahileh; U.S.A,tumlam Europe leh Russia gam hâusate ahi uhhi. Amaute’n mawtaw leh khawlte a kuon in leithâute a hâltum u’a, khawlmeivâh siemnate (power plants) leh silsiemnate(factories,industries) a kuon in,huikhuo sungah carbon dioxide a pungsah sêmsêm uhhi. Gammâng kângtum,a kuon in,kumsiel a, huikhuo sunga carbon dioxide hinglût pen tam a tunga kigên kimkhat sângin zong a tawmzaw nalâi hi.

Leitung satna piengsahte:

I.Carbon dioxide(CO2)

Leitung satna piengsah greenhouse gas lienpên CO2 ahi. Anina ah, methane ahihi.

Greenhouse gas pipên ahileh; carbon dioxide ahi. Carbon dioxide kichi khu leithâu hâl apatin a silsâi(by-product)ahi;garithâu(petrol/gasoline) ahilouleh khawlmeivâh piensahna dînga kihâl suongmeihol patsa hing pawtdoh huizâng(gas) zât khat ahi. Singkungte a khan chiengun carbon dioxide huizâng khu huikhuo apatin a hîplût uhhi. A si chiengun,carbon dioxide a’ng pawtdoh kia a,tuachiin huikhuo sungah a kilekia zêl hi.

Carbon dioxide(CO2) leh huinieh(air pollution) te in leitung pen phawipi bangin a tuomlu a, tua ziehin nisahu in leitung a sasah sêm hi.

Carbon dioxide a’ng pienkhietna tam aneiate ahihi:-

1.Khawlmeivâh siemnate apat

Tv,khawlmeivâh leh kampiuterte pen suongmeihol hâlna patsa hing kisiemkhie ahi.

Khawlmeivâh i zah poupou chiengin greenhouse effect bêlap i hi uhhi.

Khawlsilsiem kikhêlna patsa’n leitung huikhuo sungah carbon dioxide zâlah ah 25(25%) a’ng kibêlapzouta hi. Tami kimkhat pen apeisa kum 30 sunga hing lût ahihi.Tunua kum sawm sungin aleni in pungva chi lam-et ahihi. Europe mikhat in Latin America mikhat 2.5(ni leh a kim) sânga tamzaw carbon dioxide a piengsah hi.

Suongmeihol hâl a,kibawl khawlmeivâh siemnate U.S.A gam sungah carbon dioxide piengsah lienpên ahihi. Kumkhat in, tan sângtûl(billion ton) 2.5 carbon dioxide a piengsah uhhi. 2002 kum in,USA ah khawlmeivâh pien thei nadînga leithâute hâltum ziehin a gam sunga 40% (zâlah a sawmli) CO2 meikhu(emission) piengsah hi. Natural gas in suongmeihol piensahza kimkhat a piengsah a,thâutui sângin 25% a tawm zaw CO2 a piengsah hi.

2. Mawtawte apat

Mawtawte ahileh carbon dioxide piengsah lienpên nina ahi uhhi. Kumkhat in,tan billion(sângtûl) 1.5 carbon dioxide a piengsah uhhi. USA gam a thâutui kihâlmang patsa’n zâlah a sawmni(20%) CO2 meikhu pawtdoh khu mawtawte apat ahihi.

USA gam in barrel sângza(million) 20.4 thâutui nikhat in a zangbei a,tuachiin leitung a thâutui zang tampên ahi. Leitung munchin apata mawtaw tâiteng in CO2 a piensah uh sim talei tam mama ve’n izawle?

3.Vânlêng thâutui kuóng apat

UNO na phukhiet IPCC tuotdân in lênnate’n zâlah a (3.5%) leitung satna a kum uhhi. Kum 2050 chiengin tam pen 15% tan tungta va chi thu a phuong uhhi.

4. Inn leh loute apat

Inn leh bilding te’n 12%(zâ lah a sawm leh ni) CO2 a piengsah uhhi.

5. Gammâng phietmangna (deforestation) apat

Mihingte silbawl bân ah,singkungte phietmang ziehin zâlah ah sawmni leh nga CO2 meikhu huikhuo sungah a’ng lût hi,ekal(acre) sângza(million) 34 kumsiel in a kiphietmang let hi. Italy gam chiepha guotui kiehna gammâng kumsielin i mansuo uhhi.

Gammâng votte’n(temperate forest)kumkhat in,tan sângtûl ni(2 billiions tons) CO2 a hîplût let hi.

Siberia gam a om,gammâng votte in ekal sângza 10 kumsiel leitung in a mansuo hi. Gammâng phietmangna zieh leh singkungte hâlna(wood burning)ziehin huikhuo sungah carbon dioxide meikhu omza(amount,level of emission) a pung sêmsêm hi. Tu chiengin gammâng phietmangna pen mihingte khâmzou guol ahita sih hi.

Etsahna in,1987 kum in U.K chie a lien;Amazon guokiehna(rain) gammâng a na kihâltum hi. Tuami ziehin,huikhuo sungah tan sângza(million ton) 500 carbon dioxide a’ng lûtbe hi.

Gammâng kiphietmang vângin carbon dioxide hîplût thei singkungte a tawmsah suh mama hi.

6. Mawtaw ginglâi khawl sung apat

1996 kum in America gam sunga om; New York leh Los Angeles khopite sung beh ah,mawtaw ginglâi khawl sungin thâutui lital(litre) sângza(million) 27,276 a kihlûtmang hi

chi’n mawtaw engineerte’n mukhie uhhi. Tam khopi ni maimai apat a,thâutui kihlûtmang tengin CO2 ton 7.5 sângza a piengsah zou hi chi’n a suikhie uhhi.

7. Huikhuo leh Tuikângpi sung apat

Huikhuo sungah tan sângtûl(billion) 750 CO2 a om a,tan sângtûl 800 pen tuikângpi tui sungah a kihal hi.

8. Vuakhalgam(Permafrost region) apat

Alaska,Canada mâllam,Scandivania leh Siberia gamte ah vuakhal toh kihal leisiet a om hi. Tam leisiet sungah loupate, singhûite, singkangte, chiengkangte leh singhûi-suonghûi sâ mama a, kum 30,000 vâl masangin a na kikulte leh kiphûmlûtte ahi. Tam munte ah,leitung pumpi CO2 14% (zâlah a sawm leh li) zâ a om hi. Tam gamte tunga inn,bilding,lampi lienpipi a’ng kilam a, tam munte a’ng thawp/nêm gawp a, bildingte a’ng tumsuhsah hi. Tua chiengin,khawlmeivâh siemnate,tuilawngte leh silsiem dangdangte a’ng kibawl a,leitangte a’ng chîmkhêthei hi. Leitung detlou ziehin leisiet a luongmang (erode) thei a, leitang a kengiemthei a, leikên a pieng thei a, suongphûmte leh adangdangte a susethei hi. Tam bang a’ng tun chiengin, huikhuo sungah CO2 nempi a’ng lût hi. Vuakhal zun(thawing) ziehin kum a sâng a sâng sim a,a na kikul CO2 leh methane huite a’ng pusuoh doh hi. Tam ziehin, greenhouse effect a’ng kinthei tham hi.

Vuakhal zun ziehin,tui tampi tuikângpi sungah a’ng luonglût thei a, leitung tuikângpite sândân a’ng khangtou hi.

Vuagam(Tundra) apat

Tundra gam ah pâpe leh louhing nam 400 a om a,singkung zât 1700 tuom a om hi.

Tan sângtûl 50 tuom CO2 vuakhal sunga kikul dînga gintât ahi.

1970 kum in Pu.Walter Oechel hingsuisiem(biologist),University of California in Tundra gam pen CO2 kikulna gam hi chi’n a na simzou hi. Ahivângin,1982 kum in CO2 kikulna gam ahita sih hi chi’n a na mukhie hi. Tua gam ah CO2 a kikul nawnta sih a,tua gamte sunga patin CO2 meikhu a’ng pusuohta hi chi’n a na mudoh a,ama’n lamdang a sa hi.

II.Hui dangte:

Carbon dioxide in zâlah ah sawmnga 50% Greenhouse effect a piengsah hi. Greenhouse hui dangte ahileh; methane,chlorofluorocarbons(CFCs) leh nitrous oxide(NO).

Methane huizâng

Carbon dioxide bân a greenhouse gas piengsah lienpên methane ahi.

Suongmeihol tawkhietna(mine) munteng a gammâng kiphietmang chiengin, leithâu suikhiet nadînga gammâng kihâltum chiengin leh singna-suongnate kihâltum ziehin methane hui a’ng pieng hi.

Louhlaw natohte khu methane hui piengsahtu lienpên ahi.

Tâng(bu) chînna tuiloute,bawng leh lawite apatin methane hui a pieng hi. Leitung mising pun dungzûiin louhlaw singpuoh a’ng pung a,tua mabangin,methane hui zong a’ng pung sémsém dîng hi. 1960 kum apatin methane hui 1% kumsiel in a pung let hi,tam pen Carbon dioxide(CO2) sângin alêni in a pundân a kinzaw hi. Methane in CO2 sângin 30 vei tamzaw in nisahu(sun’s heat) a hîplût zouzaw hi. Methane huizâng pen huikhuo sungah kum 10 sung tan a veiden thei hi.

Tuiloute tui in a hlup(tup=flooded) chiengin anaerobic conditions a pieng a,leisiet sunga louhingte a muot a,anaerobic bacteria te’n huikhuo sungah bu(tâng) tungtawn pansa’n CH4; Methane huizâng a pusuohsah uhhi.

IPCC tuotdân in methane in nisahu 20 vei tamzaw in CO2 sângin a khumthei zaw hi.

Tuiloute,bawng leh lawite veisan,tuikul sunga bacteria,suongmeihol leh leithâute tawkhietnate apat in methane a’ng pieng hi.

Leitung munchin ah tuilou bawlin tâng a kiphut chiet hi. Indonesia,China,India,USA gamteng ah tuilou ngen zang in tâng a kisuon hi. Tam munte apatin methane hui huikhuo sunga a’ng lût ahihi.

Nitrous oxide: Mihing silsiem leh huikhuo apatin nitrous oxide a piengthei hi.

Gammângte leh tuikângpite sung pan in nitrous oxide a’ng pieng hi.

Mihing siem nylon leh nitric acid siem,louhâlte zah ziehin,sing leh suong hâl ziehin nitrous oxide a pieng hi.

Leithâu kâhsah a kuon in,khawlmeivâh siemnate a kuon in,nitrogenous fertiliser(hâl) kimanna kuon in,gammâng kihâltum a kuon in,tualeh mihing leh ganhingte zun leh êh a kuon in nitrous oxide hing pieng ahihi.

Tutuin,Nitrous oxide in zâlah a guh(6%) greenhouse effect a tungsah hi.


Huivot-huisa sêmna khawl,tuivotsahna mesin(fridges),gimtuikâpte(aerosols) leh adgdg in CFCs a piengsah hi. Huikhuo sunga CFCs omza khu CO2 sânga a tawmzaw vângin nisahu(sun’s heat) a pen 10,000 vei tamzaw in a hîplût(absorb) zouzaw hi.

Huikhuo sungah CFCs kum 110 tan a veiden(survive) hi.Tuazieha,mite’n tam pen phietmangdoh dîngin a dei mama uhhi.

Leitung satna suhpungnate (feedback process)
Leitung a’ng sat deu toh kizawitawn in sâlevot suhpungna tuomtuomte zong a’ng pieng hi.

Leithâute kihâl apatin a’ng pawtdoh CO2 kimkhat pen tuikângpite’n a hîplût uhhi.

Tua bân in,tui ganhing nêute’n a hîplût u’a,ahisihleh tuiluong kivielte(circulation of water currents) tuikângpi thûhnate(depths) sungah a na kâilût uhhi.

A kimukhiet dânin,leitung a’ng sat deudeu dungzûiin tuikângpite’n CO2 a’ng hîplûtla sêmsêm dîng u’a,huikhuo sungah CO2 a’ng kilomviel dînga leitung satna a’ng khangtou sémsém díng hi.

Leitung satna a’ng sân deu dungzûiin Tundra vuakhal gam sunga methane huizáng kigawl(kikul) nempi a’ng pusuoh dîng hi. Leitung satna sân toh kizawt in,tuipi neia,methane huizâng kikhumte zong a’ng pusuohdoh dîng a, leitung satna a’ng khangsah sém dîng uhhi.

Sâlevot suhpungna khat kia lêulêu ahileh; hui sâlevot(air temperature) sân ziehin tui tamzaw tuihusuoh(evaporate) in, meilum a’ng tam dînga, a’ng sà(thick) mama dînga,tuate’n leitung hu(earth’s heat) a khum(trap) dînga, nisahu atung langah, a le lênmangsah(to reflect)tadîng hi. Leitung a’ng sat sémsém toh kizúiin,meilumte hu zieha kikulna a’ng úong deudeu dîng hi.

December,2005 kum in National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) ah Pu.David Lawrence lamkai in Pu.Andrew Slater,University of Colorado's National Snow and Ice Data Center toh feet 11.2 a sâ vuakhal khat huikhuo opdân etkhiehnate(models) a na bawl uh a,huikhuo opdân kihlenna(climate change)ziehin feet sawm(10) a sâ vuakhal a zung mangthei ahi chi’n a mukhie uhhi. Tam banga,mihingte’n nâtoh silbawl a bawl zing uh leh,A.D 2050 kum chiengin tuhun a,4,000,000 square mile vuakhal gam pen 1,000,000 square mile suohta dînga,2100 kum chiengin 4,00,000 square mile in a kiemsuhta dîng hi chi’n a tuotkhie uhhi.

Vuakhalgam tam chie a’ng zun chiengin greenhouse huizângte nempi a’ng pusuoh dînga,leitung satna a’ng uòngsah thei dînga,tu-a kituotdân sángin zong leitung satna a’ng huoise zawthei ahi chi’n a gên hi. University of Florida sânginnpi a sâintis Dr. Ted Schuur khu Siberia gam ah a va hawta a,feet 10 sâ vuakhal khat,a laboratory a’ng tut hi. Tuami vuakhal pen hitmêngte’n(microbes) a sim(attack) u’a,tuachiin greenhouse huizângte tuami sunga patin a’ng pusuohdoh(emerge out) hi. Leitung sâlevot a’ng sâng dînga,leitung satna a’ng khangtou dîng hi.

Greenhouse huite piengsah lienpen pawlkhatte

Gam(Country) CO2 meikhu(million tons) CO2 mekhu mi khat pawtsah(tons)

USA 6046 20.60
China 5007 3.8
Russia 1524 10.60
India 1342 1.20
Japan 1257 9.90
Germany 808 9.80
Canada 639 20.00
Italy 450 7.80
World 28,983 4.50

(Source: TOI articles on Global Warming,Earth on Fire dated November,28,2007)

Leitung satna bangchi kitheikhie ahiei ? Leitung satna kitheitheinate tam aneia teng ahihi:

i) Huikhuo sunga CO2 pung sémsém
ii) Leitung sâlevot limguong(graph) apatin
iii) Khuo(guozuh-nisat) huoise deudeu tam sémsém pien apat in,
iv) Vuakhaltângte zungmang kimukhie apatin,
v) Artic leh Antratic vuakhal tui zun zieh in,
vi) Greenland vuagam phêng zun ziehin,
vii) Leitung lâi lah a,natna tuomtuomte kithêzâh ziehin,
viii) Tuikeppâhte kisuhsietna zieh leh tuikângpite sat zieh in leitung satna a kitheithei hi.

NASAte Goddard Space Flight Center mukhiet dânin Greenland vuagam phêng sungah 8% leitung vuâkhal a om a(Antartica ah leitung vuâkhal 91% a om hi),tua pen a zung huoihuoita hi chiin a phuong hi. NASA high-tech aerial survey dungzûiin, Greenland tuipi pangteng ah kumkhat in 18 cubic kms(11 cubic miles) vuakhal a zungmang let a,tami in kumchin a,leitung tuipi sândân zâlah ah 7% khangsah(pungsah) hi. Kumzalom masa lâi apata tuipi sândân na kitê dungzûiin tuipi pen inchi 9(kuo) in a sângtou/khangtou a,huipi a’ng lân chiengin tuipi gam ngiemdeuna munte tui in a tum (tui in a hlum) thei dîng hi,chiin a kimukheta hi.

Tam bang dinmun pen Indonesia,Phillipines,Mauritius,Bangladesh leh tuipi ngiemdeuna gam dangdang ah a tung panpanta hi. Artic tuipi pen USA gam chie bang pha ahia,tam vuagam pen ekal sângza 250 in a neusuhta hi. Kum 50 peisa hun sungin Antartica gamkithum(peninsular) satlevot tângpi pen Fahreinheit digri 5 in a khangtouta hi. Greenland vuagam phêng zun ziehin,a vuakhaltângte tuipi zuon in suazaw tahin a kitawl hi. Wellingdon School of Medicine Health department a sêm zatoute gên dânin South Pacific tuikuogam a thoukâng khosih natna lân pen leitung satna zieh a sê(ngaw) uhhi. March 2006 kum in sâintiste’n Caribbean,Puerto Rico leh Virgin Island tuikuolgamte ah tuikeppâh simangthang huoisetah a mukhie uhhi.

Indian Ocean tunga om; Maldives leh Seychelles tuikuolgam sungte a om tuikeppâhte zâlah a 90% kum ni sungin a sigamta hi. Tam tuikeppâhte pen tuikuolgamte’a dînga kivâna lienpi khat ahihi. Tam tuikuolgamte pen guokiehna gammâng toh a na kitêkâh a,tuachiin tuipi nuoia guokiehna gammâng(under water rainforest) chiin a kiminvaw kêi hi. Tui ganhingte,ngate leh ganing dangdangte a dînga tuipi hinna biel ahia,nga leh tui ganhingte in nêh leh tâh muna mun a, a zah zing uh khu tuikeppâhte ahihi. Leitung huikhuo sunga Co2 punna ziehin tuipi sungah kalsiem(calcium) a’ng kitasamta a tuachiin tuikeppâhte a khan dîng bangun a khangtheita sih uhhi. Leitung tuikeppâhte kum 50 sungin a simang siengta dîng uhhi,chiin mipilte’n a gên uhhi.

Leitung satna ziehin bangteng a na piengzouta a ? bangteng a’ng piengthei nalâi e ? Bangzieha tami thute ngâikhâwh dîng ahiei ?

UNO Human Development Report dungzuiin, gam khangsate pen leitung mising sim in,zâ lah ah sawm leh nga(15%), ahi vângun leitung huikhuo sunga Carbon dioxide a thunlût zâ uh a sâng mama a,amaute’n zâlah ah sawmnga(50%) leitung huikhuo sunga CO2 omza a piengsah uhhi. Bangma a kibawl man sih leh, 2030 kum tun chiengin leitung sâlevot 1.5 apat 4.5 kikâl sungah a sângtouta dîng hi.

IPCC mukhietdân in,kum sa pênpên 12 te lah kum 11 teng khu 1995 leh 2006 kikâl sunga tung ahi chi’n a phuong uhhi. Kum 12 peisa sungteng lah ah,kum 11 sung mawngmawng leitung tângthu kikhum apata sapênpên kumte ahi uhhi.
Kum 50 sunga kitheikhiet dânin sun vot leh zân vot sângin,sun sat leh zân sat tam sémsém zaw chiin a na kichiemtê hi.

Greenhouse huizângte ziehin huikhuo opdân kintahin a kikhêlsahthei a, leitung hinna nei ganhing pawlkhatte’n a thuohla mama dîng uhhi. Huikhuo opdân thâ leh a kimagêntheilou sil mukhâhlou tungte pen hinna(nuntâtna) nei zousie’a dîngin thuohlahuoi mama ahihi.

Tângthu dungzûiin enta lei zong,leitung huikhuo opdân pen sat leh vot kikâh ah luoi kivei bangin a na om let hi. Tulâitah a,sâlevot leh vuakhal khanglâia ahing kitêkâh chiengin 5?C(9?F) beh, a kikhietna a kimuzou hi. Tam bang sâlevot kivei kawikawi pen, a muonmuonnou in, a tung a,kum a sâng a sîng a na lût zêl hi.

Leitung sâlevot digri 3-4? C tanpha hing khanbê taleh,leitung ah bangchi bang silsie leh sillamdang ahing piengthei diei ? chite sâintiste’n a’ng khuol chiengun tam a neia kigênteng ahing piengthei ahi chi’n a phuong uhhi.

i) Tuizînte’n mihing sângza(million) 330 a suonmang(to displace) dîng hi.
ii) Tuizînte ziehin mihing sângza(million) 220-440 thoukâng chithuopi(malaria) a vei dîng uhhi.
iii) Gammângte,loute leh khopite’n thoukâng chithuopi(dengue,malaria) leh thousi thatha a buoipi dîng uhhi.
iv) Ganhingte tênna kisuhsiet leh singkungte kisâtmang ziehin ganhing chî leh singkung chî tampite a mangthangta dîng hi. Leitung sâlevot 1.5 digri apatin 2.5 digri hing khangta leh, ganhing leh sinkung chí leh namte zâlah a,sawmthum (30%) a mangthangta díng uhhi.
v) Khopihuisie, Gamgawna, Gamkâhna leh silmukhâlou tampi piengthei ahihi.

Vuakhaltângte zung

Leitung gamkaipi(continent) guh sunga om vuakhaltângte zungmang u’a a manthâi sieng dîng kisata hi. Chimulthawhuoi silpieng nempi a piengzouta hi. Americate Presidentpu Taft in 1910 kum in Glacier National Park a na bawlkhie hi,tuami mun ah vuakhaltâng 50 a na om hi. Tu chiengin,vuâkhaltâng 30 maimai a omta bou hi. Tambanga,leitung satna a peitou zêl leh pen, 2030 kum chiengin tuateng a mangthang siengta dîng uhhi,chi’n Pu. Fagre in a magên hi.

Leitung satna ziehin Uganda(Africa) gam sunga om; Ruwenzori vuakhaltâng zungmang sieng dîng a kisata hi.

North America leitang sunga vuakhaltâng golpên; Bering vuakhaltâng khu adung mêl sagi(7) a zungmangzouta hi. 1963-1987 kikâl sungin Kenya gam a om; Kenya Tâng(Mt.Kenya) tunga Lewis vuakhal khu zâlah a sawmli(40%) zungzouta hi. Peru gam a om Qori Kalis vuakhaltâng zong a zungmang nâhta a,mit a muthei hiel in,nisiel in feet 2 a kitawtou(recede) hi. India gam sunga om,Gangotri vuakhaltâng zun ziehin kumkhat in metre 30 a kikhîntou let hi. Kum 50 malâi a, Sir Edmund Hillary leh Tenzing Norgay in Everest muol/tâng kâina a pansia gêl vuakhaltâng khat na om pen leitung satna ziehin tuinle mêl thum(3 miles) tandongin a sahtou lam ah,a na kikhîntou zou hi.

September 15,2000 kum a thusuo ‘Science’ hildânin Lonnie G. Thompson leh Ellen Mosley-Thompson(Ohio gam pan) tegêl in,Himalaya tâng feet 20,000 thûh sungpan in vuakhalte a toudoh uhhi. Tam vuakhalte(ice cores) a tawdohna pan u’a,a’ng mudoh uh pen ahileh; apeisa kumza(100 years) sungteng pen kum 1000(tûl) khat peisa sungteng lah pansa a sapênpên ahihi,chi’n a mukhie uhhi.

South America gamkai a om; Andean tâng tunga vuakhal omte zong a zung panpanta a, 2020 kum chiengin tuate a mangthangta dîng hi chiin sâintiste’n a gên uhhi. Tam vuakhal zungmang patsa ahing luongsuh luidung tuite sândân(water level) zong a ngiemsuh deudeuta a,muol leh tâng sânna munte nâhpitahin leitung satna a pungzaw sêm hi chiin a phuong uhhi. Vuakhalgam apat a,tuisieng a’ng luongte zong a mangthangta dîng hi.

Artic Tuipi vuakhal zung

Artic vuakhallu(polar artic ice cap) apata tuisieng luongte zâlah ah kuo(9%) kumsawm danin(per decade) in kiem zêl hi,ch’n sâintiste’n a mudohta uhhi. USA chie a lien Artic gam ekal sângzâ 250 tandongin a nêusuhta hi. California,Maryland leh Texas teng kigawm chie ahihi.

Nov 17,1999 New York times thusuo sunga sâintiste hildân in 1993 kum apatin 1997 kum sungin Artic tuipi vuakhal khu a sâdân feet guh(6) a phasuhta hi chi’n a gên hi. Tam pen 1958 patsa 1976 sungteng in a sâdân feet 10 na hi ahihi. Tami i chi chiengin Artic tuipi vuakhal pen kum 30 sungin 40% vuakhal a zungmang thangta hi chin a’ng kitheithei hi.

Norwegian mipilte gêndân in Artic tuipi vuakhal pen kum 50 zou tuom in a mangthang ta dîng hi,chiin a gên hi. Square mile 14,000 kumsiel in a zungmang zou hi chi thu pen Washington Post thusuo Dec 3,1999 in a na gên ahi.

Antartic Tuipi Vuakhal zung

Greenhouse huizângte a sâng deudeu a,leitung vuakhal phêng opna Greenland leh Antartica zong a zung panta hi. Kum sawmnga peisa sungteng in Antartica gamphêng ah sâlevot tângpi in degri 5 in a khang hi. Tam gam pen vuakhal sâtah opna gam phêngpi ahi. Ahi’n lah,1990 kum apatin vuakhalte zunmang a na kipanta hi. Vuakhallute zun ziehin leh tuikângpi sat dawm ziehin tuipi tung a’ng sâng deu a,kumsiel in mm 1 apat mm 2 tandong a sângtou hi.

New Zealand gam a om Tasman Glacier kumza sungin metre 100 vâlin a kiemzou(pazou) hi. New Zealand vuakhaltângte 1890 leh 1998 kikâl in 26%(zâ lah a sawmni leh guh) in a kiemzou hi.

Guòzuh-nisat huoisetah tam sémsém

Tuikângpi sândân a’ng khan sémsém,bân ah,khuo(guozuh-nisat) a’ng uóng deudeu hi. Tuachi’n,tuizîn leh gamgawna,gamkâhna,khopihûisie leh guòsie a’ng pieng tam sémsém hi. Tuazaw in,guòtui kelou ìn gam a’ng gawsâu theita hi. Hâichi chîngthei lou in,leitung mun tampi a’ng buoisezâhta hi.

Tuizînte,gamgawnate,gamkâhnate leh khopihuisete a’ng tam sémsém hi. Leitung satna ziehin tuikângpi sândân(level) a’ng khangtou sémsém dînga guozuh-nisat huoisetah tampi leitung mun tuomtuomte ah a’ng tunta hi. Tam tui zungte’n leitung tuikângpite nâhpitahin a khangsah sémsém thei hi. Leitung tuikângpite tunga tênna tuikuolgamte tui in a hlummangta dîng uhhi. Leitung tuipi sândân khan zieha tui in a tup(hlup) dîng tuikuolgamte leh tuipi pangte ahileh; Maladives,Marshall Islands,Kiribati,Fiji Islands,Solomon Islands,Papua New Guinea,Gulf of Mexico,Gulf of Florida,Gangetic Delta,West Indies leh adangdangte.

· 1993 kum in Mississippi gamngiem(basin) ah tuisânglêt in gamte a hlum(tum) a na sieng hi. Lelam khat ah,Carolinas gam ah gamgawna nasa a na tung hi.

· 1992-93 leh 1994-95 phalbi sungin California gam ah tuizîn thupi na tungzou a,ahiin lah,kum dangte; 1986-87 leh 1987-88 phalbi sungin tam mun ah gamgawna a na tung hi,chiin National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA) makâi Dr. Kevin Trenberth na gên hi.
· 1988 kum in USA gam sungin sahu(heat wave) huoisepên a tuoh hi.
· 1995 kum ngêlin zong USA gam central south ah gamgawna nasatah in a na pieng hi.

· 1996 kum in Midwest gam ah khâllâi tahin tuizîn huoisetah a na tung hi.
· 1997 kum September sung leh October kipat kuon lam in,Indonesia gam sungah gammâng pari sângza(million hectares) sânga tamzaw a na kângtum a,tuami in,leitung huikhuo sungah carbon dioxide a pungsah sêm hi. Tuami gammâng kâng in Asia suolang leh simlam huikhuo pen meikhusie(smog) toh a tuom pumlum a,mite a buoizâh sah hi.
· 1999 kum in pingpei nasatah khat a na pieng a, tuipi pang gamteng ah sietna leh manna lienpi a na tunzou hi.

· 2001 kum in Orissa gamkai 30 lah a 25 sung ah tuizîn a na tung a,mihing sângza 30 a buoizâhsah zou hi. Tuami kum sungin zong gamgawna huoisetah a na pieng a,gamkai selisuosethum sânga lienzaw a tongkha hi.

July hla 2005 kum in Mumbai khopi sungah tuizîn huoisetah khat a na tungzou hi.
Leitung satna in USA gam sungah silsie tampi a’ng tunzou hi. 2002 kum in Colorado,Arizona leh Oregon gam sungte ah gamkâhna lienpi a tung hi. Tuami kum sung ma in,gamgaw ziehin vutpi huisie Montana,Colorado leh Kansas gam sungah a lânse mama hi. Texas,Montana leh North Dakota gam sungah tuizîn nasahtahin a tung lêulêu hi. Sum leh pâi simsienglou in a mangthâi gawp hi.

USA gam sung guoh hilou in,Europe gam ah 2003 kum in, nisahu huoisetah(extreme heat waves) a na lâng in,mihing tûl sawmni (20,000) vâl a thatgam a,India gam sungah mihing tûl leh zanga vâl sizou hi.

Tuachi mabangin,Greece gammâng(2005) kâng in mihing tampi gentheina a tun a,sum leh pâi tampi na mangzou hi. October hla,2007 kum in California gam sungah gamkâhna huoise mama a na tungzou hi. Tami gammâng(2007) kângte in huikhuo sungah carbon dioxide a pungsah mama hi. California gammâng kâh ziehin mihing nempi leh flimstar minthang tampite’n buoina a na tuoh uhhi.

Gamkâhna opzou in,Jan 5-7,2008 kum in California mâllam tângte tungah vuakiehna huoisetah na tung hi. Phalbi huipi sie in US tumlam tuipi pangte a na sâtzâh a,mihing 3 a si a,mihing a sâng a síng in,a buoisezâh u’a,summêtbawlna lam zong a nâh suhsiet hi.

California,Oregon leh Washington sungah khawlmeivâh a si a,mihing sâng tampi buoise gawp uhhi. Mite’n inn leh lou tâisan uh heh chi’n USA kumpi in thupieh uhhi.

January 29-30,2008 sungtengin China gam sunga vuakiehna huoisetaha a pien ziehin, meilêngsaite,vânlêngsaite leh lampi tampi vua in a hlupta(tupta) ziehin mipi nuoi 5 vâl buoisegawp uhhi.

Ganhing chí leh zât tampi mangthang dîng

Khopihuite- Khopihuite leh pumpeite a’ng tam sêmsêm and a’ng sua deudeu,tuikângpite a’ng satdeu chiengin tui tampi tuihusuoh in a lêngmang hi. Mukhietnate apatin chimulthawhuoi mama hi.

Tuipi sat sémsém ziehin tuipi tung a sâlevot a khangsah sém dînga, pingpei(pumpei) nasetah leh huoisetah Atlantic tuikângpi leh Gulf tuipi pangteng ah a tungsah dîng hi.

Japan gam ah: September hla 1991 ku in Typhoon Mireille(huipisie) in Japan a sâtzâh hi. September hla 1993 kum in Typhoon Yancy in sâtzâh kia hi- 1993 kum adînga a sawm leh thumveina ahia,kum sawmnga sung adînga huoise tawpna vawt khat ahi.

North America gam ah: January hla 1993 kum Shetland ah khopihui a na lâng a,oil tanker Braer tunni a kisuo hi.

March hla 1993 kum in 'Storm of the Century' khopihui in America a na sâtzâh a, sum leh pâi a sim dîngin dollar sângtûl 1.6 pha Canada gam apatin Cuba gam tandong in mangthâisah hi.

December hla 1993 kum in pingpei huzâp ziehin Britain gam in kum 40 sunga tuizîn huoisepên a na tuoh hi.

2007 kum November hla sungin Bay of Bengal tuipi tungah pumpei a’ng kiviel a,Bangladesh tuipi pang gamzângteng ah tuizîn a na tungsah a,mihing tûl thum(3000) vâl a na shi hi.

Huikhuo opdân kikhêl phutthei ahi: Huikhuo opdân thakhat thu in a’ng kikhêlphut leh leitung mun lienpipite khu têntheilouna mun a’ng suohta dînga,kiel thupi,tui muzawlouna chinteng in a’ng bop chiengin mihingte pen gam tuomtuom ah a’ng pêmkhe dîng u’a,tuolgâl leh gimthuohna nempi a’ng piengta dîng hi.

Ozone phêng(layer) leh Ozone Hole

Leitung pumpi huikhuo khu Ozone huizâng in a tuomkhum ahi. Tami tuomkhumna khu Ozone layer a kichi hi;Zohâm in Ozone phêng kichi ahi. Tam ozone phêng(layer) in vânhawm,nisa leh âhsite patsa hing kipandoh hu hoiloute a dâl zêl ahi. Tam banga hing lêngkhie hui hoiloute ozone phêng in na khâmta sih leh,leitung mihingte’n natna hoilou; vun cancer,mittawtna adangdang a thuoh dîng uhhi.

Greenhouse huizângte; CFC huizângte,Methane leh adangdangte ziehin Antartic gamkithum tung sâng lam ah,ozone hole vang lien sémsém ta hi.

Leitung satna ziehin,kum 2002 leh 2004 kikâl in,mihing sângza 262 in gentheina, tuosietna leh silmukhâhloute leh liengvaina tuomtuom tampi a tuoh kha uhhi.

A.D 2020 kum tandongin leitung satna ziehin mihing sângza 120 apatin sângtul 1.2 tanpha in tuinéh mula un,hasatna a nga díng uhhi.

2050 kum tan chiengin cm 20 leh cm 50 kikâl sungin a sângtou dîng hi chi’n sâintiste’n a magên uhhi. Tam in tuipipang gamzângte leh luidung muate(estuaries) gêntêna in Bangladesh leh Nile Delta munte ah tuizîn a tun dîng hi.

Tam banga, leitung satna pen vuakhallute(poles) ah a sângtouzaw dînga,leitung lâi lah(tropics) a ngiemzaw dîng hi. Tunpi sângin phalbi a sazawta dîng hi.

1800 kum lâikim tuom apat a kisim toutou in,1999 kum pen,kum sa lahlah a,sim in angâna ahi.

1998 kum khu kum sapênpên ahihi.

Thomas Karl,Director of the National Climatic Data Centre(NOAA) mu dungzuiin,sâlevot khandân pen kumzalom khat sungin 5.4 apatin 6.3 degrees Fahrenheit tan in,a khang hi.

Apeisa kum 18,000 patsa 20,000 kikâl vuakhang tungsa toh têkâh in tu tandongin leitung sâlevot pen degree 5 apatin 9 tan a khangta hi.

Tambanga leitung satna sân deudeu ziehin kum 100,000 masang sângin leitung a’ng sazaw dîng hi. Tambanga silpieng zong a’ng kinaw sémsém díng hi. A theihuoi khat ahileh; vuakhal khang nuakhia sunga 3? satdân khantouna dîngin kum sâng tampi a na lût hi.

Tami kumzalom bei kuon chiengin leitung satdân dinosaur ganhingte hun lâi a toh a’ng kikim kha maithei ta dînga,mihingte a hingthei na dîng uoi? chipên ginmawhuoi mama hi.

Sâintis khenkhat gêndânin kum 80 zou chiengin leitung satna sân ziehin mihingte’n gentheina nempi a tuohta dîng uhhi,chi’n a magên uhhi.

Leitung greenhouse huizângte bangchi suhkiem dîng ahita ei?

Kyoto Protocol toh kizawitawn a,Leitung gam kumpi tuomtuomte chiemna dungzûi enta lei,leitung a CO2 pen 4-6 % beh a kiem dîng ahigiap hi. Leitung greenhouse huizângte suhkiemna dîngin tam aneiteng bawl ngâi leh kûl ahi:-

1. Mesin sieng deu leh thâutui tawmnêh deu mesin siem ngâi hi.

Mawtaw huiniehte leh khawlmeivâh siemna apata huiniehte suhkiem ngâi ahi. Mawtaw siengzaw leh khawlmeiâh siemna thâte zah dîng a kûl mama hi. Hydrogen fuel cell mawtaw siem kinkin a zah dîng a kûl mama ta hi. Hybrid gas-electric mesin in tuhun chiengin leitung satna sethumsuo seni in a kiemsah thei dîng hi.

2. Hui thahâtna(wind power),nisa thahâtna(solar energy) leh leisiet hu(earth’s heat) hâtangtah a siem leh zah poimaw mama hi.

3. Meivâh san(incandescent bulb) tângin meivâh ngou(fluoroscent bulb) i zah chiengun khawlmeivâh man i sukiem u’a,tam meivâh damsung in CO2 meikhu kilo 320 tuom huikhuo sungah a lût nawn sih dîng hi.

4. Suongmeihol leh leithâu tawmzah sêmsêm dîng ahi.CFCs piengsaht mesin zousie phietmang a ngâi hi. Gammâng phietmangna zong nâh suhkiem kûl ahita hi.

5. Suongmeihol sânga CO2 tawm piensahzaw Natural gas zahzaw a hoi ahi.

6. Gammâng phietmangna suhtawp a,gammâng suonkiana(afforestations)nasatah a,bawl a singkungte suon thâkia dîng a kûlta hi.

7. UNO tuotdân a,leitung huikhuo opdân a ngai banga i opsah dîng leh tam leitung a thâutui i zahte 60% a,a kinkin a suhkiem dîng ahi chi’n a phuong hi.

8. Nuclear Power in CO2 a piengsah sih a tuaziehin thahâtna(energy,power) piengsah dangte suonkhe dîng in a deihuoi mama hi.

9. Carbon credit i lei chiengin a sum pen singkungte suonna in a kimang a,greenhouse meikhu a kikiemsah thei hi.

10. Mawtaw a tâi sânga thâutui nelou tâitheinate;cycle,lêng chi tuomtuomte zah dîng ahi.

Kalbon Ketot(Carbon Footprint)

Vânlêng tuon,Mawtaw tuon,khawlmeivâh zah leh innsung vanzah tuomtuomte patsa mimal ahilouleh innsung khat in Carbon meikhu a piensah(pawtsah) khu Kalbon Ketot(Carbon Footprint) kichi ahi. Mimal khat in kalbon ketot kum khat in tan(ton) tampi a piengsahzou hi. Singkungte’n Kalbon dioxide a hîplut(atawp) ahi man in,tami Kalbon Ketot suhbeitheina dîngin singkungte suonna dînga sumtang a tuothei ahi.

Kalbon Credit(Carbon credit)

I kalbon ketot beitheina dîngin sum leh pâi sêngin kalbon credit a kileithei hi. Tami i nuom leh UN Agency tungtawn a, i min i khumlut ngâi ahi.

Kyoto Protocol 1997-98

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate(IPCC) mipilte(sâintiste) in a mukhiet dân un, greehouse huizângte ziehin leitung sâlevot tângpi(av.temp) pen 1990 kum apat 2100 kum tandongin 1.4? apatin 5.8 ? C,tan in sângzaw dîngin a na magên uhhi. Leitung pumpi a om gam tampite in leitung satna bangchi suhkiem dîng ahiei chi’n leitung pumpi gam tampite’n Japan khopi Kyoto ah Dec,1997 kum apat March 15,1998 tan in leitung huikhuo sunga greenhouse huizângte suhtawm theina dîngin kikupna a na nei uhhi. Tuami hun leh mun ah,Kyoto Protocol chi’n kithukimna khat a na bawl uhhi. July 2006 dongin,gam 164 in a pomkip chietta uhhi.

1900 patsa 2100 kikâl leitung sâlevot khandân magetna

UNO conference on climate change at Bali(Indonesia) 2007

Indonesia gam sunga om; Bali Khopi a ‘Huikhuo opdân kikhêlna tungtâng a UNO Khawmpi(UNO Conference on Climate Change 2007 at Bali)

Apeisa December 1-15,2007 sungin Malaysia gam sung a om Bali khopi ah leitung pumpi a gam 188 a na kisukhawm u’a,pallâi 10,000 vâl leitung satna suhkiem dîng dân a na kikumkhawm zou uhhi. Tuami hun ah,Bali Resolution chiin kithukimna khat lâisuo a na bawl uhhi. Tam kithukimna ah,mâllam(north)gamkhangsate in simlam(south) gamzawngte teknolozi(technology) siengthoute toh a panpi dîng ahi chi’n kithukimzou uhhi.

Mallâi apat a carbon dioxide meikhu pawtsahtuteng adiehin USA leh gamkhangsate’n huikhuo opdân kikhêlna zieha silpiengte gamgawna,tuizînte,tuinêh mulana leh adangdangte khu gamzawngte’n a nanzouna dîngun,gamkhangsate’n sum leh pâi,tha leh zung,pilna-siemna,khawlsilsiem siengthoute toh a panpi ngâi hi chi’n a kithukim kia lêulêu uhhi.

Tumlam khawlsilsiem lam a gamkhangsa kumpite/nampite in CO2 piengsah nalâi maleh uh zong,South America gamte leh Asia gamte’n zong CO2 sângtahin a piengsah u’a,kum 2010 chiengin tumlam gamte a khûpta dîng uhhi.

Gam khangpante’n gêndân ahileh amaute pen leitung satna piengsahtu ahi sih uhhi chi’n a pang têntûn u’a,gam khangsate mawpuohna in a sim uhhi.

India pallâi gênhâtna zâl a tam bang kithukimna hing pieng ahi chi’n Times of India thusuo in a gên hi.

Leitung mising toh têkâh lei,USA mising pen zâlah ah li(4%) ahi giap hi. Hinanleh,USA in suongmeihol leh leithâute a hlûtmang ziehin carbon dioxide nieh khu zâlah ah sawmni leh nga(25%) a piengsah hi. Leitung pumpi sunga CO2 piengsah tampên USA ahihi.

China,India leh Japan gamte kigawmkhawm a CO2 piengteng sângin USA gam sunga CO2 pieng a tamzaw hi. Tuazieha,gên sese lou a,USA in CO2 pien suhtawm theina dîng lamsang a,makaina a lâh dîng tangâi phamaw mama in a kigên hi.

Leithâutui piengsah gamte leh USA in zong a thâutui zuate uh a sukiem nuom tuon sih uhhi.

USA gam pallâi nuolhât ziehin tamza khumza greenhouse huizâng suhkiem dîng chithu a kithukimtheita sih uhhi. Hinanleh,Canada leh gam 36 te’n Kyoto Treaty namdetna a nei chietta u’a,tuachiin amaute kikâl ah kihoukhawmna nei a,tuachiin kitûhtâhna lienpi toh tup leh ngîm phatna nei kia dîngin zong a kihânchiem chiet ta uhhi. Tuachiin 2020 kum dongin meikhu pieng mawngmawng 1990 kum a sândân sânga zâlah a 25 patsa 40(25-40%) kiemsahzaw(tawmsah zaw) dîng chi’n a kithukim chietta uhhi.

Gam dangte; India,China,USA leh gam 150 te in vâng bangma kamchiem,tup leh ngîm a bawl sih uhhi.

Gammâng phietmangna in leitung ah greenhouse meikhu zâ lah a sawmni(20%) a piengsah hi.

Tuaziehin,Bali khopi a hing kikhawm gam pallâite’n gammâng phietmangna douna díngin dollar sângtûl tampi pekhe dîngun kamchiem a bawl uhhi. Tami i chi chiengin gammâng suonkiana dîngin,mâilam hun chiengleh gamkhangsate’n gamkhanpante dollar sângtûl 23 a pedîng uhhi,chi’n a kithukim uhhi.

Tam khawmpi lawchinna thupi bang e? i chi leh; hun peisa a USA gam na tel lou tam mun pan in a’ng telthei a, a’ng sunglut thei khu ahi.

Nobel Peace Prize 2007

USA gam Vice-president (kumpinêu) masa Pu.Algore leh New Delhi a om UNO phukhiet IPCC tegêl in Leitung satna toh kisai a,ngâikhâwhna leh veinatna a nei uh toh kituohin mukhietna leh pulahna a’ng nei zieh un, Nobel Peace Prize vâihawmte’n 2007 kum a Nobel Peace Prize pen, Pu. Algore leh New Delhi a om UNO phukhiet; IPCC tegêl a hawmpieh uhhi. Pu.Algore ahileh USA gam sunga huikhuo opdân toh kisai a,thu leh la gên hâtpên ahia, ama’n leitung satna toh kisaiin,flim minthang mama khat a na bawlkhie hi. Tutu a,IPCC Chairman Pu.Pachauri ahi.

Sources of reference and translations:

1 .EcoBridge website
2. Live Science website
3. Young People Trust for Environment website
4. Natural Resource Defense Council(NRDC),USA
5. Times of India 2007
6. Manaroma Yearbook 2007

Thuteng poimawte hâmbu(Glossary of important words)

Binghit=Anaerobic bacteria
Bíngmuotna=Anaerobic reaction
Dânin=As per
Dungzuiin=According to
Flim= Film
Gamkâhna=Forest fire
Gamkai= Continent
Gamkhanglou=Undeveloped country
Gamkhangsa=Developed country
Gammâng Phietmangna=Forest Clearance,Deforestation
Gammâng Suonkiana= Afforestation
Gammâng Vot=Temperate Forest
Gamzawng= Poor country
Ganhing namte=Animal species
Hawm= Vang. Hole
Hinna Biel=Ecosystem
Hlum=To flood,To cover with water
Huikhuo Opdân Kikhêlna=Climate/Climatic Change
Huikhuo Opdân=Climate
Huilân=Blowing Of Wind,Breezing
Huinieh=Air Pollution
Hui thahâtna=Wind power
Kalsiem= Calcium
Khawlmeivâh Siemna=Electricity Plant,Power Plant
Khawlsilsiem= Industrial
Khawlsilsiem khang= Industrial Age/Era
Khawlsilsiem Kikhêlna=Industrial Revolution
Kihleng Ngailou=Consistent,Permanent
Leithâu=Fossil Fuel
Leitung= Earth,Globe,Global
Leitung Hu=Earth’s Heat
Leitung sâlevot tângpi= Average global temperature
Leitung Satna=Global Warming
Luidung muate=River estuaries
Mesin= Khawl. Machine
Nisa thahâtna=Solar energy
Nisa=Solar,Sun’s heat
Nisahu=Solar Radiation,Sun’s Heat
Nisahu huoisetah=Extreme heat waves
Omza=Amount,Quantity of Level of a thing
Ozone phêng= Ozone layer
Pazou=Became thin
Phêng= Sheet,Layer
Phukhiet= Established
Piengsah= Source,Origin
Pienna= Source,Origin
Lienpên= Primary,Main
Pusuoh= Come out,Emerge
Sà= Thick
Sâintis= Mipil.Scientist
Sângtûl= Billion
Sângza= Million
Satdân= Degree,Heat
Satna= Warming,Heating
Sâu-Eng Huizâng=Greenhouse Gas
Sâu-Eng Suhkhâhna=Sâu-Eng Vielna. Greenhouse Effect
Sim= Attack
Singkung Hâlna=Wood Burning
Suhpunna=Feedback process
Tan=Ton,1000 Kgs
Tawkhietna= Mine
Thoukâng chithuopi=Malaria,Dengue
Tuikângpi Luongte=Ocean Currents
Tuiluong Kivielte=Circulation Of Water Currents
Tuomkhum= Envelop,Wrap,Cover
Vang=hawm. hole
Vânhawm=Outer Space
Veiden=Ever remain,Survive,Stagnate
Vuakhalgam=Permafrost Region
Vuakhallu=Pole; simlam vuakhallu=south pole,mâllam vuakhallu=north pole
Vuakhang=Ice Age
Zun=Zunna. Thawing