Saturday, September 01, 2007

ZDV Related News

ZDV GS tel in mi 2 thah in om; ZDV pawl 2 in thusuah bawl

Lamka Aug 31: Lamka Police apan thukizadan in Loklaiphai khua leh S. Kotlian khua kikal a lui ah meltheihlouh misi luang 2 om chih report amuh dungjui un tuzing dak 7:30 vel in Lamka Police in huai mun vapha in siluang vala ua Lamka Damdawi Inn Morgue tut ahihnung un ahihna uh theihchet hi uhi.

Misite bel Mr. Pumzapau @ Abraham (45) S/o. Tongzagin of Bible Hill, Simveng leh Mr. Kapsuanthang@ Thangboi @ Jetlee(18) S/o. Thawngmang of Langol Imphal hi ua, Post Mortem bawl zoh in a sungkuante uh kiang ah piakkhiat in om uhi. Misite bel a lu tuak uah thau a kapna ma muhtheih in om hi. Mr. Pumzapau @ Abraham bel Zou Defence Volunteers (ZDV) a General Secretary hihna lenlel hi a, Pvt.Thangboi@ Jetlee bel Mr. Abraham Body Guard hi’n leng thutut kingah hi.

Hiai thiltung toh kisai a KS Roony, Vice Chairman-cum- Deputy C-in-C in suai akaih thusuah tuni a abawl kimu in a taklat dan in ZDV in tuni apan in Kuki National Organisation/Kuki National Army (KNO/KNA) toh a kizopna uh tansak hita a, kizopna bangmah nei nawnlou uh hidan in taklang a ZDV te KNO/KNA khazaknuai a a om ua pan in KNO/KNA in sugenthei leh dikloutak a zangsek uh ahihdan leh KNA in ZDV General Secretary banah KNO a Jt. Secretary Pumzapau @ Abraham leh Pvt. Jetlee te August 30 zan a thahsak uh ahihdan taklang hi.

Hiai tualthahna a kihelkha ZDV Member Thangchinkap@ TCK Anthony, Chinzahao@ CZ Robert leh Haukhanthang@ RK te ZDV ahihna ua pan tawpsak ahihdan uh taklang in Mediate’n Vice Chairman-cum- Deputy C-in-C in suaikaihlouh leh theihpihlouh a ZDV min a thusuah omte suahlou ding a ngetna neikawm in ZDV Member tamzawte deihna bang in ZDV Office Bearer telthak ahihma tan tua omlel pen phiat/dissolved ahidan taklang hi. ZDV in Abraham leh Jetlee zahna pekawm in lusunna thak innkuante thuakpih ahihdan uh taklang uhi.

Tuabang kalah, ZDV letter Head zang a C.Z. Robert, Information & Publicity, ZDO/ZDV in suai akaih thusuah kimu in ataklat dan in Apaisa August 23, 2007 nitak a Mr. Chungkhojam, Defence PRO-cum- Jt. Secretary, ZDO/ZDV warning bangmah omlou a capital punishment piak ahihna ZDO/ZDV in a suizuina uah ZDV General Secretary Mr. Pumzapau@ Abraham in a cabinet pihte theihpihlouh a direct order apiakziak a August 31, 2007 zan a ZDO/ZDV kivaipuakna hoihzawksem na dia a Body Guard toh a thah uh ahihdan taklang kawm in hiai thiltung kuaman chi-le-nam thil a lalou ding in theihsakna bawl uhi.

Tuabangkal ah, ZDV pawl 2 kal a kitheihsiamna ziak a media te a ding a thil nuamlou khenkhat a om ziakin MHJU in emergency meeting kintak a sam in, kitheihsiamna kichiantak a om masiah hiai pawl 2te thu suah nawnlouh phot ding in MHJU in thupukna la hi.

Lamka Post

ZDV gen secy, aide killed in factional clash
By : A Staff Reporter 9/1/2007 2:56:47 AM

IMPHAL, Aug 31: The general secretary of Zomi Defense Volunteers along with an aide was killed in a factional clash in Churachandpur district, a report said Friday.

The police however could not confirm whether they were killed in a gunbattle, or executed by some rival group. The dead bodies were recovered from a spot at S Kotlian village this Friday morning.

A highly reliable source from Churchandpur said that the two were killed in a clash between two rival factions last night. Heavy firings was heard last night in the village, the report added.

It was only this morning that the two bullet-riddled dead bodies were detected by the villagers. Later, they were identified as general secretary of ZDV Pumzapau alias Abraham, 42, son of Tongpu of Simveng Bible Hill of Churchandpur and Kamsuanthang alias Thangboi, 18, son of Thongmang of Langol, Imphal.

M Kaimuanthang adds : Meanwhile a press communique issued by the Zou Defence Volunteers in the name of KS ROONEY vice Chairman cum Deputy C in C said the ZDV severed its ties with the Kuki National Organisation, KNO, right from today.

" Henceforth the ZDV has no more connection and relation with the KNO?KNA" it said. The communique further said that KNO/KNA has abused and harrassed the ZDV members since they have joined them and remain within their fold.

It further said it is quite pathetic that KNA have assassinated Pumzapau @ Abraham , General seceretay of ZDV and also the KNA Joint Seceretay along with Pvt Jeetlee on Aug 30

Stating that Thangchinkap alias TCK Anthony , Chinzahao alias CZ Robert and Haukhanthang alias RK remain suspended from the ZDV for their alleged role in the assassination of Abraham and Pvt Jeetlee it further said then thus no individuals/ organisation is allowed to used the name of ZDV.

It added that all the office bearers of it stand dissolved from today till a new one is set up. The ZDV salute Abraham and Jeetlee for their sacrifices and share the grieve and sorrow of their families

Source: The Imphal Free Press


ZDV a Gen Secy leh Pvt. Secy kikaplum

Police te’n S.Kotlian leh Loklaiphai kikal a Kotlian lui lampang ah misi luang nih om chihthu zak ziak in zan zing dak 8:00 vel in Lamka Police te’n huai siluang nih te gari a vapua in District Hospital a morque tunpih nung in Pumzaau@ Abraham(45) s/o Tongzagin of Rengkai Zion Veng tulle in M.Songgel khua a innluah a om leh Kapsuanthang@ Thangboi@Jetlee(19) s/o Thongmang of Langgol Imphal tulle in M.Songgel a om mah hi’n theikhia uhi. Pumzapau bel ZDV a Genenral Secretary len lellai hi a, Kapsuanthang bel Pumzapau nuai a sem a Private Secy hi’n gen uhi.

Source: Zogam Dot Net


MHJU Emergency meeting

ZDV toh kisai in Press te tung a gakna thu a tel ziakin Manipur Hills Journalists’ Union pawl a Executive Body pawl in zan nitaklam dak 5 in Emergency meeting nei uh a, ZDV sungthu a buai zawkmah toh thuthak om masiah MHJU nuai a newspaper te ah ZDV tungang thu suah hilou phot ding in thukimna nei uhi.

Source: Zogam Dot Net


Geneva Call Activities in 2006

On 9 September, the Kuki National Organisation
(KNO) and its armed wings the Kuki National
Army, the Kuki National Front (Military Council),
the Kuki National Front (Zogam), the Zomi Revolutionary
Front, the United Socialist Revolutionary
Army, the Zou Defence Volunteers, the Hmar National
Army, and the United Kom Rem Revolutionary
Army signed the Deed of Commitment, thus becoming
the second NSA from India to commit to
the mine ban after the National Socialist Council
of Nagalim-Isak/Muivah (NSCN-IM).



ZDV member 1 kaplup in om

Lamka Aug 23, 2007: Lamka Police apan thukizadan in zan nitak dak 11:00 vel in P. Kamdou Veng a innluah a om Mr. Chungkhojam (41) S/o. Janghao, Chief of Khuangkhaijang a innluahna ah pasal 5 vel tuansia a valut in thau in 8 vei kap ua, amah leng sipah ngal hi.

Hiai thiltung toh kisai tuni zing dak 10:30 vel in Lamka Police ah report piak pat hi a Police in leng siluang va la in Lamka Damdawi Inn a Morgue ah Post mortem bawl in om hi. Siluang Post Mortem bawl ahihzoh in a innkuanpihte kiangah a piakkkhiat hi a, a hausakna khua Khuangkhaijang vui ding in puak in om hi.

Thukizadan in Mr. Chungkhojam bel Zou Defence Volunteer a Finance Department a sem hi a amau pawlsung a kitheihsiamlouhna khenkhat ziak a kaplup uh hidan in kiza hi.

Source: Lamka Post

ZDV in Fin. Deptt. lem thak

Lamka July 18, 2007: Zou Defence Volunteers in thusuah a bawl tuni a Press a kimu in a taklat dan in, ZDV sung a sumsaina ah, Zone-I ah Mr. Mohan, Mr. Roland, Mr. Clay leh Mr. Gideon te collector ding a seh ahihdan uh taklang uhi.

Thusuak in a taklat dan in, demand leh ngetnate amaute min leh seal zang in hong pai ding a, tualoute’n kuaman kuaman kithuahpih lou ding in taklang uhi.

Source: Lamka Post

BSF ten ZDV member 1 man

Lamka, March- 23, 2007: Police apan kiza dan in 41Bn. BSF pawl in march 21,2007 nitak dak 9:00 vel in Light House Post a om 41Bn. BSF pawl in Light House kong ah ZDV Member 1 Mr.Kapkhanlun @ Kaplun s/o Goukholal of Allu Singtam Air Pistor khat tawh man uh a, zan nitak dak 6:00 vel in Lamka Police Station ah pekhia uhi. Kapkhanlun bel Police Custody ah ni 5 sung om ding in gen uhi.

Source: Lamka Post

ZDV in election toh kisai thupuan bawl

Lamka Feb 6, 2007: Zou Defence Volunteer pawl in thusuah abawl uh Press akimu in ataklat danin, 9th Manipur State Legislative Assembly Election om ding toh kisai in mipi leh candidate te theihding in thupuan poimohtak bawl uhi. ZDV/ZDO thusuak in agendan in, India Constitution in angaih thupi mahmah Fundamental Right toh kisai a mimal vote neite kuamah in subuailou ding in theisak ua, phetlou in, mahni vote chiat ki zahtaksak chiat ding in ngen uhi. Candidate leh worker khempeuh in Nampi min zang leh thagum a vote zon phal louh hidanin taklang ua, candidate leh party khat guptuam ziak a kimat/kithah leh kivaulau himhim phal hilou in taklang ua, a ching penpen in mipi adia theihtawp suah a panla ding in leng theihsakna bawl uhi. Mipite khualna ziak a hiai thupuan om ahihman in kuapeuh in zahtak a zuichiat ding leh a talek te tung ah ZDV/ZDO in a kituah pih bang action la ding uh hi’n leng vauna bawl uhi.

ZDV in Hilhchetna bawl
Friday, 16 February 2007

Lamka Feb 15: Zou Defence Volunteers (ZDV) local newspaper leh Sangai Express a kisuah ZDV member mat a omte toh kisai in thuchian taklang hi.

Thusuak in a taklatna ah, February 14, 2007 a Imphal West Police Commando ten a mat uh 2nd Lt. Langpok lakpam Binoy @ Lakpa (30) of Kwakeithel Konjang Leikai leh ZDV cadre Corporal Ginkhansuon Zou @ John (27) of Sugnu Zou Veng leh Paolun Zou @ Reuben (19) of New Zou Veng, CCpur chia kisuah pen KNO Arms Wing khat leh SOO group a um ZDO/ZDV member ahi kei ua, ZDV pen KNO Arms wing khat a om nung a Party President Kamkhanpao @ Joseph @ Khupzouthang in ZDV dankalh a kum paita a President hihna apan paihkhiak a omte’n, MPA joint uhi. Thusuak in a taklatzelna ah, hiai bang mite ZOO group nuai a om organization kuamah in kibukna pelou ding a ngen kawm in tua bang pia a om leh a kituahpih gawtna piak hidi’n leng taklang ngal hi.

Our Source of Zogam Informations :Lamka Post kum 6 chinna a ahon Ngaina leh deihsaktute thukupte

(SMS leh internet tamtak honglut tam law mahmah a, space kidaih louh ziakin, hiai anuai a teng kituak sak phot a, na hon theihsiam uh kingen hi) staff te apan:

Lamka Post in kum 6 bang meel muthei diing chih i ngaihtuah chiang in a kipahhuai a Toupa Vaanglian min i phat ahi. Lamka Post a khan kumkhua hongsawt heenla, khang seemseem heen! Tualou in, hiai news deihthoh huaitak mai vaisaitu te pahtaakna sangpen i khaak bok ahi. Tulai khovel changkang gawpta, kidemna sang gawpta, ahni summuhna di ngen ngaihtuah a kibuai hita. Mahleh, huaibang kaal ah, Lamka Post te, leh a diak in Heutupa Khamkhanthang Valte ngeei in, gamdang a imi-isa omte, innlam thuthak thei ut a dangtaak tenten te honkhual man a, niteng a, kitatsat lou hial a, news eite simtheih dia a hon khahkhiat gige ziak in, i paakta a, i ngaisang a, amah(amau) bang a i gam ah mi kitam leh i Zogam lei hong paalluun ngei di'n a gintaak huai hi.

@Editor Lamka Post

I news deihthoh mahmah kum 6 ching ding dinmun na na tut manin nang leh Lamka Post a na teamte k'on kipahpihna uh leh k'on pahtakna uh Zogamonline in ka chiamteh uhi.News tatsatlou a na suahtouhna u'ah haksatna chi tuamtuam om tham mahleh huaite palsuak tou zel na hihna u'ah thupi ka hon sa uhi.

Leitung mun tuamtuama imi-isate leh ei pau simtheite a ding khualna a i news tatsatloua Zogamonline a tuansak dinga na hon khak zel manun mun tuamtuama om mi tampi in na banzaal uh zou thei ahihna ah minphatna nou kiang ah om hen. Lawkna omlou pi a hiai noua dinga extra burden hiding pen poisa loua na hon khak zel man un ka lungkim mahmah nawn uhi. Hichibanga i hih theih khomkhoma a i pankhawmna in i nam, i pau tawisangin khovel muhin hong kilawm thei hi.

Hun paisa a na sepgimnate uh ka hon pahtawi kawmun mailam a i sep khop touh thei zel ka lamen uhi.


@Lamka Post saitu te,

Lamka Post in kum guk a phakna lohchingtak a mu thei ta ding chih kazak in kipahhuai kasa mahmah a,ei pau a thukizakna adia leitung mun khempeuh a muhtheih om masa pen ahih na ah,haksatna leh taksapna tampi te lak a, tatsat lou a, simtute lamet bang a,Lamka News niteng a pe khe gige a semtu teng teng pahtawina sangpen mutak uhin ka ngai hi.Hichibang kaan a mihin pihte adia phatuam hihtheihna tawm mahmah hi.Huchibang ding a hon bawl Pa Pathian vualzawlna tang zom jel ding leh atamzaw kipahna toh sem khe zel ding in hong pang un chih, a semtu tengteng kiang, ka vaikhak hi.

Lamka Post zalzou gige,

South Block,
New Delhi.

@Executive Editor pu,

Lamka post in tuni tan, niteng simthu non mail ziak in mundang/gamdang omten na thilhih ka hon kipahpih mahmah uh hi.Maban ah leeng na hon sutzop zel ka deih uh. Lamka post a hong lohching zel ka hon deihsak uh.

Ar. Lun Ngaihte

@Dear Editor, Lamka Post

Every day, I check to see what's in my email from you (Lamka Post). I would never miss a day! Not only do you inspire me with your lovely local news, but you also brighten my day. Your newspaper allows me to start my day with a smile. A very, Very HAPPY 6th ANNIVERSARY, & I wish LAMKA POST the Best Life can bring.

-With Best Regard : Naulak Siam (Mumbai)

From Palam

@ Naupang leh upat hu in, pilna om ahi kei a, dinsang ziak leh dinniam ziak in leng pilna a om bok kei, Lamka Post kum 6 ching pan mah leh, Editorial staff te felna ziak in, State paper te toh lemlak kibang, thusuah kibang a na om mawk pen uh thil lamdang tak ahi. Happy Birth Day to Lamka Post.

-From: Pa Lam, Imphal

@ LP Editorial Staff te chibai aw, Mizoram, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, B’lore, US, UK leh mun tuamtuam a Zosuante vai a thiltung tuamtuam kapkhetu Lamka Post ahi. Latest Information pekhetu na hi ua, na khuak uh a sa mahmah ding, himahleh Nam leh Gam ading in hong pang semsem un aw. Noute lohchinna I mi Nam lohchinna ahi.

-From: PH.Laldawnglian President PTC MZR.

@ Lamka Post kum 6 chin toh kiton in, Editorial staff te chibai ka hon buuk a, a biiktak in Editor te nupa co-operation kipiakdan phat tham ching ka sa a, huai ban ah, staff te’n feltak leh informative tak a current news a update ziak un phat tham ching ka sa.

-From: G Ngaihte. Editor Horeb Prayer Mountain.

@ Amasa in Lamka Post kum 6 chinna bang muhtheih a a om ziak in kipahhuai kasa a, semtute tengteng TOUPA min in chibai ka hon buuk hi. I News hih sim nop ka sa a, maban ah leng chi taktak a hon semtou zel ding in semtute tengteng deihsakthu ka hon puang ngal hi. TOUPA’N A thupina in hon vuk tou zel hen.

-From: 9856115899

@ Editor Pu aw, Haksatna tampi kawmkalah LP kum 6 cinna mel hong musak I Pasian lungdam thu puak masa hangh. Hunpaisa kum 6 sung a, nisim a thusia, thuphate dot theih/ettheih a a om man in, gamkeu gam a ciktui leh khuamial lak a meivak bang in ka ngaihsun a ka lung a dam mahmah a, Nang leh I news kong lung dam pihna lai kong khak hi. Toupa Pasian in thupha hong pia hen.

-From: Nang Khan Suan, Local Pastor. CBA Central Church. N Lamka (G)

@ Looking Forward to Ist September 2007 i.e, 6th Year of Excellent LP reading! Many happy returns of the Day.

-From: 9862010890

@ Congratulations! Regular tak in news ka na ngah zel a, agent pa zong fel kasa mahmah uhi. May God bless you richly Lamka Post.

-From: Eldanheros, Pangzawl.

@ I gam thuthangte thei ut a dangtak a a ki omlai in LAMKA Post in internet tungtawn a non udate ziahziah ziakun kin a vaak tuan mahmah hi.Saitute kon phat a, kon pakta mahmah, Na tlawmngaihna uh hon sun zom zellai un, Midangte sang in I advance zo chih theikawm kawm in spelling hong aware zek un.

-From: 9999758228 Delhi

@Dear LP Saitute (C/o KK Vaigam gamla tak a pan in, LP makaite phatuamngaihna ziak liauliau in Lamka leh Zogam thuthang kana mu gige ua, kei leh ka Innkuanpih te'n LP Kum 6 achinna ah Heartiest Congratulations kahon thon uh hi. LP hong lawhching seemseem in, thu kizaakna poimawh tak hong hi heen ! Makaite na felna uh pahtaaktham ahi chih kei mimal in mu in ka phuang hi. Pathian in honpi in hong bukpha seemseem un.LP ziak in khual gamla tak ah le, naichih a om kisak in omthei ! Vualzawlna tamseem in honvuk heen !

LP ngaina leh simnuam sa gige,

-Lian Ngaihte
vasant vihar
new delhi

@Dear Editor,

Please accept my appreciation and congratulations on completion of it's 6th years of Binding the crack and rugged land of Zogam. Lamka Post may be young, but its publication binds not only the Zogam but the Zomis all over the world.

We, the outsiders eagerly waits for posting of Lamka Post in, when it is delaid - we used to shout to the admins, what the hell is wrong with Lamka Post.
Publishing a news paper or a monthly journal is not an easy task in our Zoland as most of us are still unaware of the mights and power of the media. We need to volunteer ourselves and sacrifies our treasures for so many years. You did it now, you bind the Zo nation. May Lamka Post continue to florist.

-sincerely yours: Tungnung, Zamlunmang Zou

@The Editor, Lamka Post

Lamka Post kum 6 chingta chih thu kana za a nang leh na staff teng teng Kipahpihna thu kon khak hi.Thudik thutak puangzaktu hi thei zel dingin Toupan hon makaih zel hen!

Khualgama omte a dinga Zogam tanchin zakna hoihpente laka na hi uhi.

With best wishes,
-Rev. S. VungMinthang, South Korea

Ethnic relationship of different communities in Manipur

By W. Nabakumar

August 28, 2007: Manipur, though small in size, is unique in respect of its ethnic composition, for the unnaturally situated, oval shaped valley that constitutes approximately 10% of the State is populated mainly by the core community – the Meiteis and also sporadically doted with the villages inhabited by the Kabuis and Manipuri Muslims.

Whereas the hilly regions that are administratively divided into five districts have poly-ethnic populations comprising twenty-nine recognized Scheduled Tribes and some other tribal communities who are still seeking for the official recognition of their ethnic names.

The twenty-nine Scheduled Tribes of Manipur, as per the Constitution with regards Scheduled Caste and scheduled Tribes Lists (modification) Orders 1956, Part X Manipur, are Aimol, Anal, Angami, Chiru, Chothe, Gangte, Hmar, Kabui, Kacha Naga, Koirao, Koireng, Kom, Lamgang, Mao, Maram, Maring, Lushai tribes, Monsang, Moyon, Paite, Purum, Ralte, Sema, Simte, Sukte, Tangkhul, Thadou, Vaiphei and Zou.

It is worth recalling that the aforesaid list of Scheduled Tribes of Manipur is the modification of the constitution (schedule tribes) [Part C State] Orders, 1951, the scheduled Part VI- Manipur where in included only umbrella terms like any Naga tribe, any Kuki tribe and any Lushai tribe as scheduled Tribe names without the specific ethnic names of the different tribal communities of Manipur.

Among the tribal people who have recently asserted their separate ethnic identities and demand the inclusion of their ethnic names in the list of Scheduled Tribes of Manipur, mention may be made of the Mates, the Paomeis, the Chongthus, the Kharams, the Taraos and Inpuis. It may be mentioned here that the term Inpuis is the ethnonyme preferred by the people in hive of the ethnic name Kabui Naga already enlisted in the Scheduled Tribes list of Manipur.

The different tribal communities inhabiting Manipur and their total population as per census operations of 2001 are given below (table-1) in order to give a comparative perspective in terms of their numerical strength.

Sl. No. Name of the Tribe/Total Population

1 Aimol 2,643
2 Anal 13,853
3 Angami 650
4 Chiru 5,487
5 Chothe 2,675
6 Gangte 15,100
7 Hmar 42,690
8 Kabui: (i) Puimei (ii) Rongmei 62,216
9 Kacha Naga: (i) Zemei (ii) Liangmei 20,328
10 Koirao 1,200
11 Koireng 1,056
12 Kom 15,467
13 Lamkang 4,524
14 Mao 80,568
15 Maram 10,510
16 Maring 17,361
17 Any Mizo (Lushai) tribes 10,520
18 Monsang 1,635
19 Moyon 1,710
20 Paite 44,861
21 Purum 503
22 Ralte 110
23 Sema 25
24 Simte 7,150
25 Sukte 311
26 Tangkhul 1,12,944
27 Thadou 1,15,045
28 Vaiphei 27,791
29 Zou 19,112
30 Un Specified Tribe 75,768
Total 7,13,813

One interesting fact in case of Purum is that the census operation 1971 and 1981 reported no Purum individual as if it were vanished tribe. But, this small tribe was again found having a population of 503 individuals as per record of 2001 census operation. When investigated the matter it is revealed that the

Purum, through not all, like to call themselves as Chothe. Purum, as interpreted by them, is not the name of their community but the name of the places they inhabit. Unspecified tribes, in the contextual specific connotation, may include those tribes who are not yet scheduled listed in spite of their strong political effort as well as the cognate groups of the Thadou, such as the Lunkin, Lenthang, Changsan, Misao, Luphang, Touthang, Baite, Lamhao, Changloi etc. etc. who do not politically assert their identity for inclusion in the scheduled Tribes list of Manipur.

The blanket categorization of the tribes of Manipur into the Nagas, the Kukis and the Mizos merit a brief academic discussion as the matter bears upon the study of the ethnic relationship of the different communities inhabiting in Manipur. Several attempts have been made by different scholars particularly anthropologists, historians and local intellectuals (Hutton, 1912; Mills, 1937; Hudson, 1911; Grierson 1903; Eluen, 1959, 1960 and Shimray, 1985) to trace the origin of the word “Naga”.

As Varrier Eluen pointed out four decades ago the derivation of the word is still obscure and the problem is not yet solved. Though no final word has been said about the derivation of the label “Naga”, it is certain that the name was given by the outsider – the inhabitants of Brahmaputra and Barak valleys and later popularized and enforced by the British colonial authorities for their smooth and convenient administration. The issue has become more complicated owing to the continuing movements of identity assertion, formation and expansion masterminded by the select few Naga elites and leaders.

The same holds true in case of the derivation of the term “Kuki”. Grierson (1903) and Hatchinson (1978) are of the view that the table is of exogenous origin and used by the outsiders for their ever easy reference. The fact that the people who are referred to as “Kuki” in Manipur are ethnically designated as “Chins” in Myanmar from where they are believed to have migrated to their present habitat who has indirectly borne out what the aforesaid scholars said.

Col. J. Shakespear (1912), on the basis of the time frame of the migration, divided the Kukis of Manipur into two: the Old Kukis and the New Kukis. According to him and other earlier British ethnographers influenced by his scholarship identified the Anal, Aimol, Purum, Chothe, Lamgang, Kom, Vaiphei, as Old Kukies taking the linguistic and cultural similarities of the tribes into their consideration. However, the Moyon and Lamsang who live side by side with the Anals in addition to their close linguistic and cultural affinity with the valley are found escaped from the academic purview of Shakespear.

That might have happened because the tribes at that time might have been overshadowed by the Anals (Ranjit 2001:95). Of the twenty nine scheduled tribes of Manipur, according to the classical classification of the earlier British ethnographers, twenty two tribes, namely Aimol, Anal, Kom, Lamkang, Monsang, Moyon, Mizo (Lushai), Paite, Purum, Ralte, Sukte, Simte, Thadou, Vaiphei and Zou are Kukis the remaining seven tribes such as Angami, Kabui, Kacha Naga, Mao, Maram, Sema and Tangkhul are Nagas.

The advent of Christianity was an epoch making event in the socio-cultural lives of the tribes of Manipur, for it brought about a sea-change in their life style and world view. Modern education has followed on the hull of Christianity and a select few tribals who got the light of education under the guidance of the Christian missionaries spread political consciousness among the general mass.
The formation of ethnic based political association among the non-Naga tribals, is found as early as 1946, when Kuki National assembly (KNA) was formed with the primary objective of fast consciousness of common identity and making a single political unit of the Kukis. The constituent tribes of KNA were the Thadous, Paites, Vaipheis, Gangtes, Simtes, Zous, Anals, Koms, Hmars, Guites, Chirus, Monsang, Koirengs etc.

Not pleased with the Thadou dominancy and supremacy, the non-Thadou ethnic groups started searching for a more democratic organization as an alternative to KNA. This gave birth to Khulmi National Union in 1947 with one Mr. Teba Kilong (Kom) as its President and the tribes like Vaiphei, Gangte, Simte, Paite, Zou, Manlum Manchong, Kom, Chiru, Aimol, Purum, Tarao, Moyon, Anal, Maring, Baite Hrangchal, Khongsai (Lukim, Chengsan, Hlangum, Len-thang) and Saum Dongel who are believed, as their folk history records, to have originated from Khul meaning cave became the constituent ethnic groups of the canopy term Khulei.

As a pan Naga tribal political organization KNU contested in the 1948 election of Manipur State Legislative Assembly and seven of its members became victorious in the said election. There was, however, a problem as to the nomination of its representative to the Council of Ministers of the Manipur State as there were two aspirants, namely Mr. T. Tiankhom and Mr. Teba Kilong from KNU. The matter was settled with the allocation of speakership to Mr. Tiangkhom, for it resulted to the nomination of Mr. Teba Kilong for the Minister of Forest unopposed.

The Kuki National Assembly, however, raised objection to the nominations of the above mentioned two persons on the ground that the former represented the Paites whereas the latter represented the Koms and consequently the Kukis remained unrepresented. The KNU inspite of the political challenges from the parallel organization KNA, settled on smoothly and in 1949 Teba kilong in the capacity of Forest Minister submitted memorandum to the Hon’ble Dewan of Manipur State requesting to insert the name Khulmi in place of Kuki as the latter was the label used by the British administrators for their convenience whereas the former was the preference of the people themselves.

The late forties were characterized by hectic political activities of the tribal people of Manipur. In August 1947, the Kukis and the Lushais made a political pact with a view to making a unity between them. It was a political strategy on the part of the KNA to face the challenges of KNU. The pact signed between the President of KNA and the Secretary of Mizo Union did not last long and collapsed owing to the mutual distrust. The year 1947 also witnessed the birth of another socio-cultural- Association called, Kom Rem Association and the tribes Kom, Aimol, Chiru, Koireng, Purum and Kharam are the member tribes of the Association.

The efforts of the different non-Naga tribes to unite themselves under an umbrella term reflected the desire of having a common identity at the pan tribal level but could not be materialized owing to the lack of mutual trust and a common ideology that could bind them together. Quite a contrary picture was found among the Nagas. Major Khathing was nominated by the Naga representative as Hill Minister without much controversy to the Council of Ministers of Manipur State.

It is very much evident from the contents of the memorandum submitted by Mr. Teba kilong, the then Forest Minister of Manipur State to the Dewan of the Manipur that in the pre-independence period the people of Manipur were ethnically categorized into three main groups, namely, the Khulmis, the Kukies and the Nagas.

With the dawn of Indian Independence, Manipur also became free from the yoke of British colonial administration. But that did not last long as Manipur was formally annexed to Indian Dominion on the 15th October, 1949 by the execution of an “agreement” signed between the Maharaja of Manipur and the Government of India on 21, September 1949. As mentioned earlier the Government of India, following the legacy of British colonial administration, in its Constitution (Scheduled Tribes Part C State ) Orders, 1951 notified the Scheduled Tribes List of Manipur as 1) Any Kukies Tribe II) Any Naga Tribe III) Any Lushais Tribe without making any mention off the ethnic names of the different tribes.

This again resulted to the polarization of the tribes into two extreme poles- the Nagas and the Kukies, for the constitutional compulsion made the tribes to identify themselves either the Naga or the Kuki so that they could get constitutional safeguards. The unification of different tribes under the general level Khulmi referred a dead blow as the name was not recognized by the Government of India and the idea of being a Khulmi also did away slowly along with the extinction of KNU. As described earlier the so called Kuki tribes, despite their linguistic and cultural similarities, remained and still remain ununited.

Many tribes such as, the Hmars, the Paites, the Gangte, the Vaiphei, etc. have disowned the name Kukies and have averted their even ethnic identity. Such an act has led to the formation of splendid groups like the Hmar National Union, the Paite National Council, the Gangte Tribal Union, the Simte National Council, the Vaiphei National Council and Mate Tribal Union. This is primarily because of the lack of common ideology and partly because of the dominant attitude of the Thadous.

The Nagas, on the other hand, expand their ethno-cultural boundary by way of bringing the other non-Nagas ethnic groups, either through coercion or cultural level or both, to their ethnic fold. For instance, many Old Kuki tribes such as, the Anals, the Moyons, the Monsangs, the Langangs, the Taraos, the Chothes, the Chins, the Koirengs, the Koms etc. have joined the Nagas and identified themselves as Nagas at the pan-tribal level. The ideology of Naga nationalism is strong enough to engulf the small tribes who are in constant search for a protective and supportive coverage from the larger groups.

It is, however, noteworthy to make a mention here that Zeliangrong is an organization of four Naga tribes – Rongmei and Puimei who are collectively known as Kabuis and Liangmei and Zemei who have a collective name of Kacha Naga – who all have closer cultural affinity. Though it is an intermediary identity between the individual ethnic level and pan-tribal level identities it always works in the interest of the latter.

The history of inter-ethnic relationship in Manipur reached a turning point when the ethnic clash between the Nagas and the Kukis broke out in 1992. The conflict, from the perspective of ecological view point, may be explained as the violent expression resulted from the completion turned fight between the two communities who have exploited the same economic resource in the same ecosystem. It may also be viewed as an attempt made by a larger, stronger group to make its cultural habitat and ethnically homogeneous area by way of clearing the minority groups inhabiting the area.

The conflict continued for about five years and came to a halt in the early part of 1997. Another bloodshed also occurred at Churachandpur as a result of ethnic conflict between the Kukis and the Paite-Zoumis. The conflict started in June 1997 and continued till the early part of 1998. Such ethnic conflicts have brought about changes in the ethnic affiliation of some minor tribes such as, the Koms, the Chins etc. who at present, inspite of their earlier Naga affiliation have maintained neutrality without taking side either with the Naga or the Kukis.

The Meiteis, by virtue of their being a core community of Manipur, are the reference group of the other communities inhabiting Manipur. Their relationship with other groups particularly the hill people is worth analyzing. The history of Meitei, though rich in records of assimilating hill people at the individual level, has no substantial evidence of en masse absorption of other groups into the mainstream of Meitei society.

As evidenced from historical records it is beyond doubt that the Meitei kings carried out frequent raids on different hill peoples and collected tribute from their chiefs who also made counter attacks to the Meitei kings. It is not an exaggeration to say that the history of the relationship of the Meitei with the neighboring hill tribes centers around the frequent wars fought between the Meitei Kings and the Chief of hill tribes. However, the Meitei kings were always at the upper hand.

Such an historical reality has paved the way for establishment of the conveners-convenore d relationship between the Meiteis and the hill people. In the long process of history the value of this relationship has been inculcated in the mind of the people and the majority group has possessed the historically derived superiority that has been expressed in the farm of cultural arrogance.

When the Meiteis became the followers of Vaishnavism, this historically given cultural arrogance, according to the value system of the new faith, has been expressed in the frame work of pollution-purity relationship and has alienated the non-Hindu tribals. The tribes, who have embraced Christianity, also have alienated themselves from the Meiteis. This social gap resulted from the mutual alienation become wider and wider with the metamorphosis of the colonial subjects into free citizens of independent India became political democratization has stimulated primordial sentiments.

Manipur is characterized by ethnic diversity. But none of us is very much conscious of our diversities. The need of the choice is to know our diversities so that we can understand our commonalities that reach very much present in our folk history and cultures. If we make a triangular translation of the cultures of the Meiteis and other ethnic groups putting the former at the vertex of the triangle and the latter at the base, we will be able to understand the similarities shared by the groups.

Only when we can perceive our common part and present we will be able to lead a harmonious and peaceful life. Here, the role of the majority group is also very important. The Meitei, being a majority group should give up their cultural arrogance so that they can provide protective and supportive coverage to the minority groups. Only then we will be able to reorganize the cracking structure of our society and we can think of a multi-layered society in terms of cultural autonomy and co-existence.


1 Elwin, V.R. 1963, A New Deal for India, New Delhi, Ministry of Home Affair.
2 Geertz, Clifferd, 1971, Old societies and New states; Quest for Modernity in Asia and Africa New Delhi etc. Amerind Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
3 Grierson, G.A., 1903, Linguistic Survey of India. Vol. (iii) Part (ii) (Reprint 1967). Delhi. Banarashidaas,
4 Hatchinson, RHS, 1978, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Delhi Viveck Publishing Co.
5 Hudson, T.C., 1911, The Naga Tribes of Manipur. (Reprint 1974) Delhi, B.R. Publishing Company.
6 Hutton, J.H., 1912, The Sema Nagas, London Macmillan.
7 Hutton, J.H., 1912 The Angami Nagas, London Macmillan.
8 Mill, J.P., 1937, The Rergma Naga (Reprint. 1980) Gauhati Spectrum Publication
9 Ranjit, R.K., 2001. “Ethnicity of the Small Tribal groups of Manipur: An anthropological analysis” in Journal of Anthropological society of Manipur vol. 3 pp. 83-106.
10 Shakespear J., 1912, The Lushai Kuki clans (Reprint 1985), Delhi Central Publishing Home.

The author is associated with Manipur University, Manipur, a northeast state of India.


1947 did not fulfill the dreams of the Kuki people

By Luntinsat Kipgen

August 31, 2007: As they were born a free people, the Kuki defence against British colonialism was a reaction in spontaneity, for safeguarding their freedom and liberty, and can be understood from the three struggles; the Great Kuki invasion of 1860, the Kuki Rising of 1917-1919 and the fight for independence under two powerful forces.

These forces were the Indian National Army (INA) led by Nataji Subhas Chandra Bose and the Burma Independent Army (BIA) led by Boyoke Aung San.

1) The Great Kuki invasion of 1860

The British interference with the Kuki territory and the latter's opposition began back in 1777.[1] It was during the time when Warren Hastings was the Governor General of India (1773 to 1785). In 1860, the Kukis, in order to prevent future attacks, invaded the British Tipperah [Tripura], and the following year a large body of police marched to the hills to 'punish and avenge'.[2]

‘In 1845, 1847-1848, 1849-1850, and 1850-1851 there were raids culminating in what is called the Great Kuki Invasion of 1860s.’[3] Determined as they were, the Kukis did not give up defending their dignity. In early 1860, they assembled numbering about 500 at the head of the River Fenny, sweeping down the course of the River, burst into the plains of Tipperah at Chagulneyah, burnt or plundered 15 villages, butchered 185 British subjects, and carried off about 100 captives.’[4]

2) The Kuki Rising of 1917-1919

i) Introduction of the Rising: The Kuki rising of 1917-1919, epitomises Kuki nationalism. It is a reminder of the spirit of nationalism exercised by our forefathers. This fact is recounted in Zale’n-gam: The Kuki Nation.[5] In present-day context, Kuki country covered by the event ranges broadly from the upper Chindwin, Burma, in the East; the hills in Manipur; and Aisan, Nagaland, in the West.

The leaders were Chengjapao Doungel, King of Kuki; Pache Haokip, Chief of Chassad, Tintong Haokip, Commander-in-Chief of Kuki Army; Enjakhup Kholhou, Dy Chief-in-Command of Kuki Army, Khotinthang Sitlhou alias Kilkhong, Chief of Jampi, Vumngul Chief of Tujang, Ngulkhup Haokip Chief of Lonpi, Ngulbul Haokip Chief of Longja, Southern Commander and Nohjang Kipgen Chief of Saisem, Eastern Commander.

The magnitude of the national movement of 1917-1919 is evident in the words of Lt. Col. RS Chhetri: to handle the ‘Kuki Rebellion’, ‘an Assam Rifles Brigade under Col. LW Shakespear, the newly appointed Deputy Inspector General, set out with a strength of 2,600 men assisted by a contingent of Burma Military Police numbering 400.’[6]

A Minute Paper refers to ‘23 principals involved, 13 in Manipur under Assam, 10 in the Somra Tract under Burma.’[7] Military columns, commandeered by British officers Coote, Hebbert, Higgins and Clocte, ‘criss-crossed the area and fought a number of actions to successfully suppress the Kuki rebellion. In the process, they won 1 CIE, 1 OBE, 14 IDSMs, 1 King’s Police Medal, innumerable Mentions-in-Despatches and Jangi Inams.’[8]

ii) Immediate Cause of the Kuki Rising: On 27 June 1919, Webster wrote to the Secretary, Government of India, ‘the province of Assam was asked to furnish a quota of “labourers” for employment with the Army in France’.[9] The implication here is that the Labour Corps drive was the cause of the Kuki rising. Various scholars, including some journalists, have propagated this view as the only cause, to downplay the actual significance of the event. Nevertheless, Lobour Corps Drive was the immediate cause that led the Kuki Rising of 1917-19, is clearly indicated in Webster’s report:[10]

Soon after the actual recruiting began, however, some of the Kuki chiefs in the outlying hills adopted an obstructive attitude. It was reported that the chief of Aishan, Chengjapao, who is “Piba” [Pipa] or head of all the Thado Kukis, had sent orders to all the leading Thado chiefs to resist recruiting with force if necessary. Other influential chiefs were reported to have taken similar steps.

iii) Actual cause of the rising: From the Kuki point of view, the event was a culmination of the ongoing acts in defence of their land and liberty, triggered by the Labour Corps drive. It is a preposterous notion that the cause of such a movement against the imperialists, sustained for nearly three years, could be merely because the Kuki people wanted to resist working as labourers.

It was a natural and spontaneous resistance against their inalienable rights and liberty inherent in them. On the other hand, it is a historical landmark of Zale’n-gam: it demonstrates Kuki’s relationship to their land, and is a veritable reminder of their legitimate status as a nation. The enormity of the event is self-evident in the official letter of the Chief Commissioner of Assam:[11]

The ‘Kuki rising, 1917-1919’, which is the most formidable with which Assam has been faced for at least a generation … the rebel villages held nearly 40,000 men, women and children interspersed … over some 6,000 square miles of rugged hills surrounding the Manipur valley and extending to the Somra Tract and the Thaungdut State in Burma.

iv) Result of the Rising: A confidential despatch of Sir HDU Kerry, General Officer Commanding, Burma Division, shows how the British reacted to the Chief of Aisan’s call: ‘I therefore decided to put an end to the Kuki revolt by force of arms, break the Kuki spirit, disarm the Kukis, exact reparation and pave the way for an effective administration of their country.’[12]

The Kukis were inferiorly armed, and after a long drawn out war that lasted nearly three years, had no choice but to concede their defeat as they were surrounded on all corners, and both the supply of arms and food had been cut off. The British Government also adopted administrative measures to keep the Kuki people suppressed. Kuki areas were brought under civil authority.

The first Sub-Divisional Offices were opened at Tamenglong, Ukhrul and Churachandpur,[13] which are now hill districts in Manipur. In Dr. T.S. Gangte’s[14] words, these new administrative posts successfully achieved two planned objectives: a) ‘containment’ of Kuki activities to prevent another rising and b) ensure Naga domination especially in Ukhrul and Tamenglong sub-divisions.

The British Advisory Committee passed recommendations to subject the prominent leaders to a ‘period of restraint’, each for fifteen years, with the exception of the Commander-in-Chief Tintong Haokip of Laijang, who received a penalty of twenty years.[15] The main Kuki chiefs were arrested and put in different jails in Assam, Burma and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.

Warrants dated 8 December 1919, Delhi, signed by RE Holland, Secretary of the Government of India in the Foreign and Political Department, were issued to arrest Kuki Chiefs. They were to be restrained at Sadiya Jail in Assam.[16]

Chengjapao [Doungel], Chief of Aishan

Khotinthang (or Khilkung) [Sitlhou], Chief of Jampi,

Pachei alias Hlukhomang [Lhukhomang Haokip], Chief of Chassad

Pakang [Haokip], Chief of Hinglep [Henglep]

Tintong [Haokip], Chief of Laiyong [Laijang]

Ngulkhup [Haokip], Chief of Mombi [Lonpi]

Leothang [Haokip], Chief of Goboh

Heljashon [Haokip], Chief of Loibol

Mangkhoon [Manglun Haokip], Chief of Tingkai

Semchung [Haokip], Chief of Ukha*

Ngulkhokai Haokip of Chassad**

Enjakhup [Kholhou] of Thenjol***


Kamjadem [Kamjahen Haokip, Chief of Phailenjang I]

Tongkwalun [Tongkholun Haokip, Chief of Phailenjang II]

Letkwatang [Letkhothang, Chief of Khotuh]

Semkwalun [Semkholun Haokip, Chief of Phaisat]

Zahlun [Jalhun Haokip, Chief of Molvom]

Shuku [Tukih Lupheng, Chief of Tonglhang]

Vumnul [Vumngul Kipgen, Chief of Tujang]

Haokwapao [Holkhopao Kipgen, Chief of Molvailup]

Natzang [Nohjang Kipgen Chief of Saisem]

Ngulkolun [Ngulkholun]

3) Kukis fought under INA and BIA for Independence in 1947

The Kukis, in fact, lived only for about 30 years (1919-1947) subjugated under colonial rule that ended in 1947. The Kukis in eastern Zalengam joined General Aung San, who founded the Burma Independent Army (BIA) in 1942 in Thailand, after he returned from Japan. The Kukis of western Zalengam joined Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, the leader of Indian National Army, who also mobilized all the regional indigenous people to join the fight against the British. Out of the hundreds of Kukis who joined the INA cadres, the few who are still alive today are living proof of our participation in the struggle for freedom in 1947.

However, after independence, our sacrifices made during the struggle were clean forgotten by both these two apathetic nations, India and Burma. When the Indo-Burma border was drawn, passing right through the middle of our territory (Zalengam), these two new nations also dashed our long cherish dreams to the ground: our dreams of the restoration of our land, rights and liberty. Like other northeast ethnic entities, our hope for self-governance, which was the source of inspiration for our forefathers who bravely fought to the finish in 1947, has been suppressed so far.

4) Post 1947 historical events of the Kuki peoples in Eastern Zalengam, Burma:

i) 1968 Indo-Burma border demarcation: The said borderline, drawn running right through the middle of our territory (Zalengam), has minoritized indigenous and ethnic Kuki people in their own land on both sides of these countries. Before this demarcation or artificial partisan in 1968, the year in which the border pillars were erected, minority was never a term relevant to the Kukis. They lived by themselves and sovereign as they were.

ii) 1967 Khadawme Operation: Government of Revolutionary Council of Burma led by Gen. Newin dislocated more than 20,000 Kukis from the eastern to the western territory of Zalengam on the pretext that the later had no Burmese National Registration Card, which, truly as it was, irrelevant to Kukis whose census, as a new member of the Independent Burma was yet to be taken.

iii) 1995 military sponsored Influx of Burmans into Zalengam: State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) brought Burmans in large numbers from Burma proper into our territory and have been given settlement. This was a measure taken to by SLORC in retaliation to the defeat of the SLORC candidate by a Kuki in the 1990 parliamentary election. Many Kuki villages such as Kundong, Myothit, Tanan, Nungkam, etc. were uprooted for the purpose of Burman settlements besides the establishment of many other new villages. The motive behind the move was to minoritize the Kukis, Burmanise them through different measures such as intermarriage and finally wipe out the Kukis' political space from the surface of the earth.

iv) 1999 Environmental Invasion: State Peace Development Council fell all the big Teak and Sal trees in our erstwhile thick forest for sale on the international market. In the process, other young trees were killed too and this resulted in our thick forests being deforested and turned into a desert.

v) 2006 Thamanti Dam Construction: This dam, which is still under construction, has robbed the Kukis of more than 70, 000 acres of fertile farmlands altogether along with the standing crops that provide a livelihood to more than 60 villages which have been dislocated without any compensation. The construction work on this dam has been undertaken by India's National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC) after numerous rounds of talks and agreement signed by GOI and SPDC of Burma.

The affected people, who once were prosperous farmers, are now living without hope, as they have to fight for their daily bread. While the farmers in Gurgoan were offered Rupees 20.75 lakhs (US$ 48, 000) per acre by Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Corporation (HSIIDC) for setting up a SEZ in the region, the Kukis in Thamanti region of Burma get nothing more than scraps of our homes.

vi) 2007 Teijang-Tung Kyaw land usurp: More than 77, 666 acres of the Kuki land that spreads between Teijang and Tung Kyaw villages have been usurped by local SPDC Burma. The land was sold to an armed group of Burmese Palaung ethnic nationals, who recently signed a Ceasefire agreement with the military regime. This group has now begun to completely clear the thick and virgin forest for the extraction of timber and for other purposes. Therefore, the clearing of the forests poses a threat to the forest environment of the region that provides sanctuary and habitats to very rare species of both animals and plants.

5) Post 1947 historical events of the Kuki peoples in Western Zalengam, India

With the attainment of independence in 1947, the Kukis in the western Zalengam were too confident in trusting the new government of India that they would get what they rightfully deserved. However, to their great surprise, the right to govern their own affairs within their traditional territory has been denied, whilst it has long been extended to other ethnic entities in the Northeast. As a result, the Kuki inhabited areas of the Manipur Hills, Karbi-Anglong and the North-Cachar Hills of Assam and Tripura remain grossly underdeveloped and the people live in abject poverty.

Fair developmental programs have consistently been denied to Kuki inhabited regions by the state machinery dominated by the interests of majority communities. The long years of neglect and sufferings of the Kuki people under these state governments have rendered the Kukis economically, socially and politically backward and deeply vulnerable. We should note that ‘Unity in Diversity’, the basis of Indian Polity, would work only when the diverse communities are on the same pedestal and can relate to each other with mutual respect.

The summary of what the Indian state has failed the Kukis so far may be given below:

i) Kuki Genocide of 1992-95: Sufferings and grievances of the Kukis in India compounded when a faction of NSCN (IM) led by Th Muivah launched a Kuki genocide campaign following the 'Quit Notice' served to them by United Naga Council (UNC). Later, it culminated into the Naga-Kuki ethnic clash (1992-95). As a result, over 900 Kuki people's lives ended, 350 villages were uprooted and more than 50,000 people displaced. Nevertheless, a close observation reveals that the term 'Naga-Kuki ethnic clash' is but a misnomer, which otherwise the Kukis in Nagaland would by no means have survived through it.

Believe it or not, it was the NSCN (K), which protected us from the NSCN (IM) in Nagaland, and not the Indian Army. Now, even the people of the United States have accused their president for not preventing the September 11 attacks on World Trade Centre, which happened in a few seconds of time, why should we not blame the Indian state for its failure to protect the Kukis from the NSCN (IM) whose onslaught campaign lasted for about four years? Was the Indian state sleeping?

ii) Victimisation of the Kukis by UNLF's Landmine: Since 1999, Manipur valley based or a Meitei nationalist armed group – United National Liberation Front (UNLF) has been forcefully occupying Kuki land, particularly Chandel and Churachandpur districts of Manipur. In Chandel, landmines laid by this armed group have ended 33 local Kuki lives while many more have been maimed for life. In Churachanpur, they (UNLF) not only killed the local people by the same landmine but also committed mass rape of 25 Hmar Kuki women on the fateful night of January 16, 2006 at Lungthulien and Parbung villages in Tipaimuk sub-division. This enquiry report has so far not been released.

iii) Development that exists only in paper: In Manipur, all the development programmes in the Kuki areas are being carried out only in papers of government files at Imphal. The MLA of Henglep sub-division, for example, makes his visit to the division headquarter only during election time (i.e. once in five years). The reason cited is the inaccessibility of Henglep either by car or bus. A truck or a jeep is the only means of transport available there. Despite this, there has been no effort to construct the said road. Additionally, the condition of roads in Saikul and Thanlon sub-divisions is the same, if not worse.

The government school buildings and sub-division offices in the region shelter milkmen's cows or the army. Now, we can imagine how life would be in such unattended and neglected Kuki areas. In the absence of good drinking water supply, health centres and primary education, the people easily fall victims to air- and waterborne diseases. In addition, Moreh is the only town on earth that bears the name "International Trade Centre" but without a market, without drainage system, etc. What a shame it is! The international market constructed there is a mere vegetable market and nothing else.

iv) AFSPA, the special gift from GOI: The fact is: the non-creation of a Kuki state within the federal union of India is all that matters. Since the 1950's and 1960's, the Kuki people have submitted numerous memorandums demanding a separate state and have also appealed for the protection and restoration of their uprooted villages, but to no avail. Unfortunately, when the Kukis took up arms for self-protection and security, GOI, instead of feeling sorry for failing its statutory obligation, branded them militants, insurgents, rebels or extortionist gangs and branded their land a disturbed area.

On this 'disturbed area' pretext, the centre has been enforcing there the draconian law, the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act 1958, that empowers both commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers of the army to shoot to kill anyone on mere suspicion. Is the government of India, the head of the largest democratic nation in the world, a soulless institution?

v) Fratricidal Killing: Also due to the 'divide and rule' measure adopted by the centre and its machinery, the army, there is factionalism and fratricidal killings, almost on daily basis among the Kuki armed groups. If, at the time of drought effect crop failure, the Prime Minister pays a visit carrying rehabilitation packages to save farmers of the mainland India from committing suicide due to debts and shattered hopes, there's no valid reason why the Kukis, who are no less bona fide citizens, should be snubbed for so long.

The GOI that plays a divisive game on one hand blames that the disunity among the Kuki armed groups is what obstructs the peace negotiation for their demand. Are the lives of the Kukis less precious? What is the standard by which the Indian state measures the value of human lives?

The above given facts on the plight of the Kuki people are not exhaustive information yet. However, these are hints that clearly indicate that the Indian state, which makes tall claims of development in different sectors in the national newspapers, has completely failed in performing even it's primary task (i.e. the protection of it's citizens' lives and providing their basic needs). Forget about a welfare state; even a police state has not yet been achieved for the Kukis. How then, does the former president, A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, envision India as a developed nation by 2020?

Is 'India' referred to here exclusively of the mainland consisted of UP, MP, Delhi, Karnataka, WB, Gujarat, Orissa, Panjab and Kerala? Thus, the one word description for what the Kukis only achieve from the Independence in 1947 is INSECURITY. The Kukis therefore, have nothing to cheer about the Independence Day celebration or 1947, from which year, our high hopes of freedom, polity, social and economic security, all grow thinner with time.

Given this backdrop of Kuki history and its present predicament, it would be in the interest of not only the Kuki people, but also the Indian nation, to establish a stable political state for the Kukis (Kukiland or Zalengam). It is therefore important that through dialogue initiation, Kuki political aspirations are fructified at the earliest possible date. In this regard, all conscientious individuals, especially those eminent personalities present on this August Occasion of marking the sesquicentennial year of India’s first war of independence, are urged to take up the issues concerning the Kuki people and their political aspirations.

To conclude, let me say: 1947 did not fulfil the unfulfilled dreams of the Kukis of 1777 and 1917. By 'the unfulfilled dreams of the Kukis' here I mean a separate administrative Kuki state called Kukiland or Zalengam within federal union of India, where the Kukis, by being a federal unit of India, would administer their own affairs based on the existing democratic set up. As John Stuart rightly said, 'the wearer knows where the shoe pinches'; one knows himself and his own needs better than another person.

If this is the reason why we, the people of the Indian subcontinent, sent the British back to Britain in 1947, it is time that the mainland Indians in turn looked closely into the demands of the Kukis and extend all possible help and support to fulfil the dream of a separate Kuki state. The Kukis' demand is genuine and not out of proportion to the contribution they had made during the freedom struggle. They therefore should not be deprived of their share.


[1] Chakravorty, BC (1964, 53), British Relations with the Hill Tribes Bordering on Assam since 1858, Calcutta

[2] Carey, BS & Tuck, HN (1976, first published in 1932)), The Chin Hills, Vol. 1, Firma KLM Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta

[3] Elly, EB (1978, 8 (first published in 1893)), Military Report on the Chin-Lushai Country, Firma KLM (P) Ltd., Calcutta

[4] Mackenzie, A (2005, 342 (first published 1884, History of the Relations of the Government with the Hill Tribes of the North-East Frontier of Bengal)), The North-East Frontier of Bengal, Mittal Publications, New Delhi

[5] Haokip, PS (1998), Zale’n-gam: The Kuki Nation, Published by Kuki National Organisation (for private circulation only)

[6] Guardians of the North East: The Assam Rifles, 1835-2002 (Op.cit, 19)

[7] Minute Paper, Secret Political Department, Government of Burma, Rangoon, 23 December 1919

[8] Guardians of the North East (Ibid, 20)

[9] Political Department, From The Hon’ble Mr. J.E. Webster, C.I.E., I.C.S., Chief Secretary to the Chief Commissioner of Assam, To The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign and Political Department, Shillong, the 27 June 1919

[10] Ibid

[11] Burma and Assam Frontier, L/PS/10/724, Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC), British Library, London, ‘Resolution on the Late Kuki Rising’, Extract from the Proceedings of the Chief Commissioner of Assam in the Political Department, NO. 8856 P. dated the 27 September 1920

[12] Op.cit CONFIDENTIAL, File No. 4895 Field Operations, Simla, Despatch On the Operations Against the Kuki Tribes of Assam and Burma, November 1917 to March 1919, From Lieutenant General Sir H. D.U. Kerry, General Officer Commanding, Burma Division, To The Chief of the General Staff, Army Headquarters, India, Simla. (Diary No. 69190) No. 1762-K.P.M., Maymyo, June 1919

[13] Political Proceedings, Oct. 1920, No. 13: Extract from the Proceedings of the Chief Commissioner, Assam, in the Political Department Number 8856 p, September 1920

[14] Gangte, TS (1993, 10), The Kukis of Manipur, Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi

[15] Foreign and Political Department Notes, Secret – I, January 1920, Nos 4-12, Submitting, for orders, proposals for dealing with the leading rebels concerned in the Kuki rebellion

[16] Burma and Assam Frontier, L/PS/10/724, Oriental and India Office Collections (OIOC), British Library, London
* WARRANT to the Superintendent of Jail, Tezpur & Dibrugarh, to be detained in Tezpur Jail, Foreign and Political Department Notes, Secret – I., January 1920, Nos. 4 – 12.

** Webster’s letter to the Secretary to the Govt. of India, Foreign and Political Dept., Shillong, the 27th June 1919, p.10

*** WARRANT to the Superintendent of Jail, Tezpur & Dibrugarh, By order of the Governor General in Council, 18 May 1919

[17] Foreign and Political Department Notes. External – A, October 1919. Nos. 7 – 12. p.2

* This paper was presented at a public discussion on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the 1857 Ghadar and the 60th anniversary of India's independence on August 12, 2007 in New Delhi.


The Kukis? Contribution to Manipur State Integrity

By: Dr. Angam


The scene of world?s panorama, the tiny state of Manipur in the North East India is never regarded as the least attracted tourist spot. The tourist attraction mainly lies in its natural beauty and this could have brought potential mainstay in the economic bolster of the tiny state. What happened at Jammu & Kashmir had a similar effect to this princely state. The army?s excessive theatre plays against human rights compounded with ultras absolute reigned signal the death knell of foreign attraction. It will be recollected and remembered in time to come as the dark era of Manipur history. Five decades ago, the princely state of Manipur was highly acknowledged and acclaimed by high caliber of the country elite politician Jawaharlal Nehru, who commented as: ??Jewel of the country,? and for the Japanese army, this place was, ?a flower on the Hill top,? so as to the Meiteis, it is cherishingly termed as ?Sana Leipak,? which means, ?The Land of Jewel.?? (Hawlngam Haokip, Goodnews for Manipur, pp. 8, 9).

Dwindling Manipur State Integrity!

The annals recorded of Manipur from its golden eras till the present?s matrix, one would have perhaps agreed along with Avorook Sen and Udayan Namboordiri when they snapped a questions: ?What has led to this situation? Governance that has been practically taken over by insurgent outfit.? (India Today, February, 1998, p.48). But today, ?Chaos and confusion? erupted and reigned among themselves finding no solution to break the parasite like social sickness

The state and central government were adamant in finding the root causes of brutality to the once tinsel town like Lamka and Imphal city, perhaps due to the old games of ?Divide and Rule Policy.? Herein is a legitimate conglomeration, with political whim of ?non-compos mentis? orchestrated operations taken by the Indian elite armies under the banner of Assam Rifle, Rastrya Rifle, Central Reserve Police Force, and Indian Reserve Battalion and other on its freedom fighter of yester year?s colonial country. In view of national and state interest, here is the proposed thesis, which the writer will pursue, and shortly christened as, the Kukis contribution to Manipur state integrity.

The Vanguard of Manipur territorial Integrity

Manipur, particularly the present Churachandpur city and the adjoining area in its earlier day was a virgin land. Before the colonialist British regime took the scene in the North East India, patronizing, British East India Company, (from 16th century A.D.) the vast Landscape were under the ?Lousal? controlled of the Haokip Kukis. It was neither the suzerainty of the Maharaja of Manipur nor the King of Ava, but of the Kukis. History revealed that while Kamhao (Sukte), was the landlord of most part of tiddim conclave, having mombe as its headquarter, Raja Nehlam Haokip resided (Choose) at Thingbung muol (present mountain range, east of khuga river). The annals of ?narrated history or verbatim heilgichte? recorded the living legend around the second half of the 18th century A.D. i.e. 1832-1877. Raja Nehlam had encompassed his pals and had a very good relationship with the King of Ava, which made suspicious and nervousness to Maharaja of Manipur. The ill fate happened, when the then Maharaja, Nar Singh enticed Chassad chief (king) at Imphal for a colossal feast as a traditional ties between the Haokip-Kuki and Manipur Raja family. Yet his intension was otherwise, and the Raja of Manipur, thereby treacherously murdered Him in cold blood in the year 1877.

This evidence has cemented by C.U. Aitchitson, as follow.

The Khongsai or Thado Kukis with other allied clans were gradually driven north into Manipur by the Suktes and Lushais, the migration commencing in the reign of Raja Nar Singh. For the most part they (Kukis) lived at peace with their Manipuri neighbor, being unwilling to provoke hostile attack from the north as well as from the south. Indeed the Manipur Administration armed many of them (kukis) and utilized them as ?Sepoy villages? against the Angamis in the north and the suktes and Lushes in the south.? (A collection of treaties?p, 111)

From which, it is learnt that the Kukis were the vanguard of Manipur state for rendering utmost loyalty to Manipur Raja not as subordinate rather as equal powerful allies in the state of Manipur. This historic event of vanguardship and guardianship had been undisputedly displayed during Maharaj Chandrakirti Singh?s campaigned, which to this day is famously known as ?Kohima expidition,? 1879, also in 1891. In his second expeditions, Maharaja was conferred ?Knight Commander of the star of India? (KCSI) by British Government. (KUKI STUDENTS ORGANISATION, MAGAZINE, 1972-73, Vol 1, Issue-1, p.19)

The Kukis in their Father land

The aftermath of Raja Nehlam Haokip, the cross border within the Haokip clan had taken place, some into the far eastern side of Manipur, inhabiting kabaw valley (now Myanmar). In fact there was no geographical account limiting the Kuki movements, which depict the Kuki full control of the land between Brahmaputra in the west and Chindwin in the east. Patkai hill in the north, Bay of Bengal in the south. As the Chassad family grew larger, by and then, they settled down at Thangting ranges- Songpi, Shijaang kholui, or Thinghangjaang, Teiseng, Vaison, Loikhai, Henglep, Saitu, Laijaang (Present Tamenglong), Lonpi (Manipur south ), Chassad (Manipur east), Maokot, and Sita (to cite few) in the eastern Manipur state.

Some other clans who were close kins to Haokip were also residing at various places, such as, Jampi (Sithlhou), Dullen, Joupi, Aisan (Doungel), Leikot (Kipgen) etc. in the north of Manipur. Senvon (Singson), Leisen, Parbung, Phengjol, Patpi, and Khopuibung in the the south of Manipur. Behiang and Singngat, Muallum in the southern tip of Manipur were also inhabited by the Zou tribes, Hmar in Tipaimuk areas, Paite in Thanlon areas, Vaiphei in Kailam ranges, they all were living in close relationship with their neighbours. The Gangte in Saichang areas and prominent places like ?Mualpi, Sailhem, Songbem, Songlhuh Lasan, Twithang were earlier inhabitant of Singsuan clan.? (Tualchin Neihsial, Guite Kuala?a lutna, p. 24)

Christianity was not yet introduced into these remote areas. But by sheer luck the 19th century A.D. brought few dedicated missionaries who came into two fronts, one from the southern Manipur other from the North. Those new waves of the Gospelization brought the regions into a new era of history.

Age Old ties between Kuki Chiefs and Manipur Rajas

Pu, Semthong then married to Pi, Hoikhochin, the daughter of his uncle (songphute chanu). He established himself, the ablest chief in his family history as well as the history of the Haokip. The man, known for his witty remarks and valor with his nobility had prepared the royal acceptance as one of the great courtier in His Highness, Maharaja Churachand Singh. Under His Leadership and chiefship, the villager obtained highly praised. He was given a royal entourage, whenever a Durbar had to be held in Raja-Palace, Imphal. He was given a white Horse, to offend the royal highness meeting, devising, and socio-political atmospheres of the time, along with Political agents of the time.

Prior to the disruption of the British colonialist design on the Kuki Country, which the Kukis accounted it as their independence movement and maintained it as the second Kuki War of Independence, (PS Haokip, Zalengam, p.7), the first being, ?The sepoy mutinee, wherein the Great leader who partook the struggle was interpreted him as ?Kuki Raja Mangjahau?? (Helkholam, In Defence of Kuki, KSO, Megazine, 1972-73, vol 1, Issue 1, p. 5). The tiny princely state of Manipur was waging war or tribal wars with suktes (kamhao) and Lushei (Poites). To seal off the possible entrances of these intrusion, the king of Manipur curbed out, ?Village sepoy,? taking due advantage of the Kukis openness and integrity, posting at different place to check the invaders or intruders.

The Raja of Manipur codified with the Kuki chiefs, to strengthen the age old relationship, issued out, 17, Double gun to Pu, Semthong, 1 Double gun to Pu Tongjalet and other chiefs got their due share to outstand the onslaught immanency of the Suktes and Poi?s intrusion. Pu Semthong Haokip was a great hunter and wild sport lovers. Time and again, he frequently brought the tusks of wild elephants, skins and teethes of lion and tigers presented the raja as trophies. It is an elderly recorded that, once, the Raja was presented a young Tiger, by Pu Semthong Haokip and His teams, the most brave one in the Raja Palace fled in fright, which made the teams child like laughter. The relationships were unscathed and unshattered till their last breathes. They became like one mother?s begotten sons. It was this loyalty and comradeship, that Pu Semthong decreed, the name Suongpi be named ?Churachandpur? in commemoration of his royal friend, Maharaj Churachand Singh in the later year.

Manipur Princely State and the World War-I

The First World War was a shocking event in the history of the entire world. The repercussion waves reached even up to the peaceful hillocks in the princely state of Manipur. Compulsory recruitment of British Labour corps was made to serve the British stationed in France (Chinkhopao, Churachandpur-District, 1995, p.36). While this event has known to some as tuitaw galkap, for the Kukis in a larger park embraced it as-?the first kuki war of independence,? (P.S. Haokip, Zalen Gam, 1996, p.10), which was the opine of many kukis? scholars and researchers ?the second kuki war of independence.?

The misconception of Pu Vumkhohau would not be great significant as per his indignation toward the term Kukis. It was an open rebellion culminating into the true reputation of one ?egoism? and a shame to scholar like him in his misgiving to history. The comment of J.H. Hulton sufficed the worth of the thadou-Kukis who said, ?I have seen the thadou, the more I have respected him and the better I have like him, for puck, intelligence, straightforwardness and cheerfulness, he stands high among his neighbours.? (Vumkhohau, History of Zomi ( Chin) Race, 1990, p.19)

In this great struggle for the preservation of Fatherland, the thadou speaking group and Zou speaking group partook to defense the advancing sporadic attacks of well armed British sepoy. One of the main reason for not responding the labour corps?s recruitment was due to the Old religious belief that, ?The God of the Fore Father (Pu-Sa Pa-Sa) would not accompanied the lad that gone across the great ocean. Therefore the only option was, ?better death with dignity in the Fatherland than in foreign land with self heaping shame. ?The second reason was, ?never in the life of a man, Kukis would not be coerced to do a manual job, which was regarded, the abstraction of one?s liberty and independence, better death than interred into estrange slavery.?

Manipur in the Post World War-II

The world war I came to ceded by 20th May 1919, with a larger lost of wealth and arms even men from the British side. As recorded by L.W. Shakespeare that 86 villages had been destroyed that crystalline the waging effort of Kukis? Heroes (P.S.Haokip, Zalen?gam, p. 10). The war with the Kukis brought more understanding from diverse angles. Dr. Crozier acted as a Government medical officer had came out with amore burdening vision to work among the Kukis. He started the first missionary dispensary and leper asylum at kanggui mission station on 7th November, 1919, (Kim Vaiphei, The Coming of Christianity in Manipur, p. 24).

In the political scene of South Manipur, the tide of enormous campaign against the British armies was waged. However, the two paramount chiefs, Pu. Semthong Haokip chief of Songpi and Pu. Tongzalet Haokip, Chief of Teiseng admittedly accorded with other Kins and relatives at Loikhai-Aggreement, on which Pu Tongjalet was the one who initiated the thwarting efforts by cutting mithun?s tail had later shrinked back knowing the British forces could not be evaded easily. Both are being the knightly reserved battalion had greatly shocked, the accords signatories (J. Haokip, Manipur?a Gospel leh Kukiho Thusim, 1984, p. 20). Some of their contemporary?s chiefs called them ?a coward and womanliest acts? in abstaining from the independence war effort. However, in the present retrospection, Pu Semthong Haokip and Pu Tongjalet Haokip were wiser enough then their contemporary chiefs.

The ballad that insulted to Pu Semthong Haokip was: ?Phung golla lang nadasah, chahtoi nou boh in bong in lunggin toi Sumthong.? The interpretation could be ?You have been given a great difficulty to all your tribesmen, be broke like Chah trees, O respected tender Semthong.?

Another ballad had composed on Pu Semthong behest. ?Veicha dalang saikon?a chen nih nasuhkhai ham mo, songpipa Semthong.? It nearest meaning ?When on waging war the British army, you songpi chief have continually dress like a royal Durban attire.?

The ballad insulting, Pu Tongjalet Haokip run as; ?Lamtuol cheng selmai satkon manglai long?e na ti me, teiseng Tongjalet.? It means ?Don?t you promise to wage war against the British By cutting mithun?s tail, O Teiseng Tongjalet.

Another ballad for Pu Tongjalet: ?Teiseng Tongjalet in bon mitin penna chassadpa, mang lamkai ja bol,? which says, ?That, evan Teiseng Tongjalet himself prompts Chassad Chief who is the eldest of Haokip Clan, to wage war was against the Bristish, while he abstained from it.?

The wiser Haokip?s Chiefs got an invitation from the then S.D.O., B.C. Gasper in the year 1921 asking what treatment be given, owing to allegiance loyalty to him while others resisted the British force. He got the said, Landlord ship of Thangting ranges and Khuga valley, the vast land comprising-Khuga river in the east, Koite River, in the north, Thangting range in the west, Paldai in the south. Across the Koite River, it belonged to Pu Semthong duly recognized by the then British political agent at Imphal as well as the Raja of Manipur.

Manipur State Merger

History can never be erased. The meiteis in general and the Kuki in particular would not forget the discord about Manipur State Merger agreement. While the din of noises thronged the heart of Imphal city, calling attention to Raja Buddhachandra to sign the merger agreement, even threaten their king in consequences, the Kukis chiefs and warriors helped him guard his royal palace to oust the vox populi demand of signing merger accord. Who sold out Manipur princely state to the then Indian Union? Was it not Manipuri/meiteis? The Lhangsam in its editorial column noted that, ?In the 1949 state merger issue it was the Kukis Chiefs who send 250 warriors to guard the palace gates to keep away Maharaja Buddhachandra from signing the merger agreement, which clearly indicates that the Kukis were the undoubted masters of Manipur Hills? (Lhangsam, September, 2003, vol.I, No.2).


In the present political scenario in this state, truth seems to wrap up and thrown in the deep blue sea. The princely state is disintegrated by some vested selfish organization in the name of Nationalism and self-determination. June 18 has become the apartheid tragedy in this political game, while September 13 had been totally discarded. The ratio of the death tool taken in these two incidents indicated that both the political clods of the separatist design to Manipur state disintegration. If June 18 can be potentially seen as heroic memoirs and had such a celebrated attention, then, September 13 is no less significant. Therefore, Manipur state government seems to acknowledge and consider the former of greater significant discounting the later as though the oozing blood of 87 Kukis innocents were brutally and inhumanly chopped off in Nagalim not in Manipur! This literate ignorance will further dissimilate and segregate Manipur national and state integrity rather than amended when it is amendable. Who will be the loser? Time and history will reveal the truth, if this delicate issue of September 13 is not carefully accounted by the present government. The Great and Mighty Kukis are at the brink of their breathe and the foul smell might entirely alter the ever thinning relationship and fragile trust between the Meiteis and Kukis in near future. It might become beyond toleration and which could be an Achilles? heels of Manipur capsizing trauma in to the deep blue sea of social chaos and unbridgeable. "Manipur mapan da leiba nataraga manungda leiba ichin-ineo eikhoi loinamak hangnase:" Who are the sons of Manipur and who sided with Manipur State Integrity?

The writer is a United States based research scholar. He can be reached at

Zomi Revolutionary Organisation


The Zomi Revolutionary Organization (ZRO) was formed in 1993 and its armed wing, the Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA), was formed in 1997 following an escalation of ethnic violence between the Kukis and Paites in the Churachandpur district of Manipur.


The purported objective of the ZRO/ZRA is to protect the interests of the Paite community from the ‘onslaught of any community or group’. It further attempts to bring all the Zomi people, divided by artificial State boundaries in various countries, specifically in Myanmar (Chin State), India (Manipur and Mizoram) and Bangladesh (Chittagong Hills Tracts), together under one administrative unit, a ‘Zogam’, which means ‘land of the Zomi’ under the Indian Union.

Leadership and Cadres

Thanzlianpau Guite, reportedly a former Member of Parliament in Myanmar, is the ‘President’ of ZRO and Judgeson, the ‘Defence Director’. K. Marx Vaiphei functions as the 'Information and Public Relations Secretary' of the ZRO.

Phanznianpau Guite is the ‘President’ of the ZRA. D Kamsuanthang is the outfit’s ‘General Secretary’ and Jimmy Suanpu is its ‘Information and Publicity Secretary’.

Its cadres are mostly from the Paite community.

Areas of Operation

The outfit primarily operates in the Paite-dominated areas of Churachandpur district in Manipur, especially the Singnat sub-divisional headquarter bordering Myanmar. Its activities have also been noticed in the bordering areas in Mizoram and Manipur.

Source of Funding

The ZRA funds its activities primarily through extortion and collection of ‘protection fees’ from the civilians in its areas of operation. According to a June 2004 Frontline report, ZRA cadres, in return for a small toll fee, ensures that travellers are not looted, abducted or shot at by other armed groups.

The ZRA, according to media reports, in June 2004 alleged that some of its cadres were paid only partially by the Mizo National Front (MNF) Government in Mizoram for having campaigned for its candidates in Champhai constituency bordering Manipur. Opposition leader in Mizoram, Lal Thanhawla, alleged on June 12, 2004, that the MNF ‘owed money’ to the ZRO from "services rendered" and since a part of the money is yet to be paid, ZRO activists had resorted to collecting money from the people of Mizoram.


The ZRA maintains close links with Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL), a valley-based outfit of Manipur, and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak Muivah (NSCN-IM). The ZRO also has maintained fraternal ties with the Kuki Liberation Organisation (KLO), each providing the other "full cooperation in all spheres with the objective of strengthening the blood ties among the Kuki-Chin-Mizo-Zomi people." A ‘memorandum of understanding’ was signed between the two outfits on December 17, 2002.

Similarly, the ZRA ended its hostilities with the Hmar outfit, the Hmar People’s Convention-Democracy (HPC-D), by signing a peace agreement on April 8, 2004, at Lailam Veng, Lamka in Churachandpur district. According to terms of the agreement, both outfits agreed to work closely "in the spirit of mutual understanding and cooperation for the welfare of the people and for achieving their shared objectives."

Peace Negotiations

A statement by the ZRO on August 9, 2005 said that the outfit has reached a cease-fire understanding with the security forces for a period of six months, beginning August 1. The statement said that the outfit "viewed the steps taken by the Indian government in this regard as a positive approach towards better understanding of our unique history and realisation of the need for permanent solution to the long standing aspirations of the Zo people."

However, the ZRA, in spite of the announcement, continues to indulge in terrorist activities in the targeted areas.



May 20: SFs arrested two ZRA cadres, identified as Lutkhomang alias Michael and Moirousang, at an unspecified place and recovered ten live rounds of 9-mm pistol and a motor-cycle from their possession.

March 7: The dead body of a former militant of the Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA), identified as Siamthianmuan alias Benjamin, is recovered from Nghathal village in the Churachandpur district. He was reportedly abducted by ZRA cadres from his residence at New Lamka.


September 21: Three ZRA cadres, Lamneimang alias Sanahal, Pukhalam alias Niuroad and Biaklian alias Biaka, were beaten to death after being abducted by rival cadres of the KNA at Sielmat in the Churachandpur district.

The ZRF in a statement claimed its involvement in the killing of three ZRA cadres, in association with the KNA at Sielmat. The outfit alleged that the ZRA cadres were involved in the killing of V. Hanglunthang, 'general secretary' of ZRF, on September 29, 2005.

August 20: Two civilians are killed, while four others sustained injuries when a group of ZRA cadres opened fire towards a crowded church targeting a patrol party of the Assam Rifles at Vengnuom in the Churachandpur district.

July 12: An exchange of fire between rival cadres of ZRA and United Socialist Revolutionary Army (USRA) take place at Lamka in the Churachandpur district.

July 10: An exchange of fire takes place between the rival cadres of ZRA and USRA at a spot between Phailen and New Lamka in the Churachandpur district.

June 29: ZRA kills a youth, Ginpithang Kipgen, at a place between Nengthal and Ngathan in the Churachandpur district.

June 27: One UNLF cadre, T. Naobi, is arrested from Tera Amudon Leikai in the Imphal city.

June 23: A ZRA cadre, Pauminlun, is killed during an encounter with the security forces at Lailam Veng in the Churachandpur district. One AK-47 rifle with nine live rounds of ammunition is recovered from the encounter site.

February 19: United Socialist Revolutionary Army accuses ZRA of showing disregard and contempt to the Vaiphei tribe and reportedly asks them not to take part in the coming Zomi Namni celebration. The outfit says: "As our tribe identity has been challenged, USRA believes the Vaipheis need not submerge themselves in the so called community 'Zomi."

January 31: The six-month cease-fire agreement earlier concluded between the Army authorities and eight militant outfits, including the KNO, KNA, KNF-Z, KNF-MC, KLO, KLA, ZRA and ZRO expires.


September 19: One ZRA and six ZRF cadres are killed in an internecine clash at Loibual village in the Churachandpur district. A girl suffered a stray bullet injury in the clash. The ZRA cadres also decamped with the weapons of the deceased ZRF cadres.

September 1: Central Reserve Police Force claims that a vehicle recovered from the ZRA cadres at IB Road in the Churachandpur district on August 29 belongs to a son of the chairman of the Manipur Assembly’s hill areas committee, identified as Songchinkhup, who has admitted that the vehicle belongs to his son Tual Minthang and has been taken away at gunpoint by some militants a few days ago.

August 29: Six ZRA cadres were arrested along with a consignment of arms and ammunition by a Central Reserve Police Force patrol party at IB Road in Churachandpur. A vehicle belonging to the son of a Congress party leader in the State, in which they were travelling, was also seized.

August 20: Suspected ZRA cadres kill a civilian, identified as Khaikholien, at Bungpi village under Thanlon police station in the Churachandpur district.

August 9: ZRA announces a six-month long cease-fire with the security forces with effect from August 1.

June 9: A civilian is killed and three others sustain injuries after being caught in the crossfire during a clash between ZRA and Zomi Revolutionary Force cadres in the Sumtuh and Mualpheng areas of Churachandpur district.

June 9: The police arrest a ZRA female sympathiser, identified as Niyangmuan Kim, from Lamka in the Churachandpur district. 62 live bullets of AK-47 rifles, six receipt books of the outfit along with a sum of Rupees 72,900 was recovered from her possession.

April 19: Suspected ZRA cadres kill Jamkhothang alias Thang-boi alias Joy Vaiphei, 'operational commander' of the United Socialist Revolutionary Army, a breakaway faction of the ZRA, at Rengkai in the Chandel district.

January 13: ZRA cadres kill two of their former colleagues who had deserted the outfit at an undisclosed place in Manipur.


December 26: ZRA terrorists kill a civilian at Ngathal village in the Churachandpur district for alleged ‘anti-ZRA activities’.

December 16: ZRA cadres kill a former president of the All Tribal Students Union-Manipur, identified as E. Vungkholian Paite, and another person at Lamphelpat in the Imphal city for "conspiring against the outfit".

July 1: The ZRA, in a statement issued by its ‘commandant 201 battalion’ T. Romeo, denies involvement in extortion in Mizoram’s Champhai town near Myanmar border. Further, it alleged that the extortionists were from ‘Zothon faction’ "a bunch of gangsters having their base in Champhai who have come together without the knowledge of ZRO."

June 1: Bishnupur police commandos arrest nine ZRA insurgents, including the outfit’s ‘town commander’, from Bengnom New Lamka in the Churachandpur district.

June 1: Three ZRA cadres are arrested from a passenger bus at Kha Potshangbam in the Bishenpur district.

May 29: Security personnel belonging to 19 Garhwal Rifles arrest one ZRA cadre, identified as Tulianthang Baite of Bungmual village, from his residence in the Churachandpur district.

May 9: Security force personnel kill a ZRA cadre, identified as Liankhosin, at New Bazaar in the Churachandpur district.

April 8: The ZRA and Hmar People’s Convention-Democratic (HPC-D) terrorists sign a ‘peace truce’ during a meeting held at the residence of L B Sona, ‘chairman’ Zomi Council, to settle the misunderstanding between the two groups.

March 31: ZRA militants kill two HPC-D cadres and a civilian at Rengkai village in the Churachandpur district.

March 28: Three ZRA cadres are killed in a fresh spurt of internecine killings with Hmar People’s Convention–Democracy (HPC-D) group at Rengkai village in the Churachandpur district.


November 14: Eight armed ZRA cadres are arrested from the Mizoram-Myanmar border town of Champhai. One 9mm pistol, one US made M-16 assault rifle and 40 rounds of ammunition were recovered from their possession.

June 13: The ZRA claims that a Government vehicle bearing registration number MN-01-G-0068, belonging to the electricity department, had been provided by Power Minister T Phungzathang, hailing from Churachandpur, along with a sum of Rs. 2.6 lakhs, to a ‘captain’ of the ZRA without the knowledge of the organisation.

February 16: ZRA cadres shot at and wounded a person, namely Thangkhanlian Paite, in the New Lamka area. Reports claimed it was in retaliation to extortion of money from the public in the name of the outfit.

January 5: Boder Security Force personnel arrest two ZRA terrorists from Churachandpur district. One 9 mm pistol, six live rounds of cartridges and one magazine are recovered from their possession.


December 17: ZRO and Kuki Liberation Organisation (KLO) sign a ‘Memorandum of Understanding’ for providing full co-operation between these two groups in all spheres with the objective of strengthening the blood ties and as a step towards unification and confederation of all Kuki-Chin-Mizo-Zomi group of people in South Asia.

September 7: A ZRA cadre, hailing from Lalhenkha village of Jiribam sub-division of Imphal East district, surrenders to the Border Security Force (BSF) at Kwakta in the Bishnupur district of Manipur.

June 1: ZRA terrorists kill six People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) cadres during a shootout at Kaimunnon village in the Churachandpur district.

March 13: Four ZRA terrorists are killed in an encounter with the Assam Rifles personnel at Thanlon village in the Churachandpur district.


August 27: Three terrorists were killed in an encounter between two rival groups at Tokvum village in the Churachandpur district. One group suspected to be the ZRA attempted to intercept another consisting of Kuki National Front (KNF) and United National Liberation Front (UNLF). While the first two are reported to belong to ZRA, the third deceased was a member of the KNF.



The Kuki National Ogranisation and Kuki National Army, its armed wing, was formed in 1988. PS Haokip is president of Kuki National Organisation, and supreme commander of the army. Anton Kuki is the Home Secretary. KNO’s armed wing is the Kuki National Army, of which the late Brigadier Vipin Haokip was the first Chief of Army Staff. Colonel S Robert became the Chief of Army Staff of KNA in January 2005. The other Cabinet Members of KNO are Khaikholun, vice-president for Eastern Zale’n-gam in present-day Burma, Lalminthang Vaiphei, vice-president for Western Zale’n-gam in present-day India, SNG Haokip, Secretary Public Relations, Amitabh TS Haokip, Defence Secretary, Zale’n Kuki, Foreign Secretary, Joshua Haokip, Secretary Education & development, TH German Haokip, Secretary Intelligence & Analysis, David Thangboi, Trade & Commerce, Kamkhenpao Zou, Art & Culture Secretary, Thangboi Karong, Forest & Environment Secretary, Thangsang Hmar, Medical Secretary.

KNO's armed wing comprise the following organisations:

Organisation Name Desig

1. Kuki National Army S Robert Haokip CAS
2. Kuki Naitonal Front (MC) TH German Haokip C-in-C
3. Kuki National Front (Z) Joshua Haokip C-in-C
4. United Socialist Revolutionary Army Lalminthang Vaiphei C-in-C
5. Zomi Revolutionary Front David Thangboi C-in-C
6. Zou Defence Volunteer Kamkhenpao Zou C-in-C
7. United Komrem Army Thangboi Karong C-in-C
8. Hmar National Army Thangsang Hmar C-in-C

KNO operates in northeast India and the Northwest Myanmar (Burma). In post-independent Burma, the Kuki leaders appealed for Kuki statehood. Burma offered to create a Kuki-Naga state, which was unacceptable. In India the Kuki National Assembly was formed on 24 October 1946. Initially the organisation proposed sovereignty for the Kukis, but decided to demand statehood. However, their appeals to Government of India went unacknowledged. Thereafter, Kuki joined the Mizo National Front movement in the 1960s to integrate their inhabited areas into what is presently known as Mizoram. Regrettably, when MNF and Government of India signed the Mizoram accord in 1986, Kuki areas were not included.

Betrayed by MNF and GOI, in the early the late 1980s a group of Kukis – who later formed the KNO – went to Kachin state in Burma to be trained by the Kachin Independent Organisation. After completing their training in Kachin, Mr Thangkholun, the leader, convened a conference at Jangmol-Dingpi. Kuki elders and leaders attended the conference from both India and Burma to formalise KNO as the provisional government of Zale’n-gam, the Kuki nation.

KNO’s objectives

KNO’s principal objectives concern the resurrection of Zale’n-gam, the Kuki nation. In the first instance this relates to the nation-states India and Burma, within which the British colonialists forcibly included the greater parts of Zale’n-gam. In this regard KNO’s immediate objective is two-fold:

a) the historicity of Zale’n-gam’s territorial integrity and sovereignty be recognised;
b) if India and Burma want to integrate parts of Kuki territory within their respective nation this needs to be done by way of according statehood in each country.

KNO is open to dialogue along the stated objectives with the concerned governments. This view, for example, has been stated in the Bangkok based The New Era Journal (June 2002):

If amalgamation of Kuki territory is viewed as problematic, in the least, creation of two Kuki states is essential: one within Burma and the other within India.

In keeping with its objectives, KNO has adopted different strategies with regard to India and Myanmar. In India, they follow the policy of appeal and petition. Till date, no armed struggle has been launched against GOI. Memoranda have been submitted to the GOI since 1995 include the following:

• 2 October 1995 to Shri PV Narasimha Rao, former Prime Minister
• 4 October 1995 to Shri AB Vajpayee, leader of the Opposition party
• 17 June 1996 to Shri HD Deve Gowda, the Prime Minister
• 27 January 1997 to KR Narayanan, President of India
• 30 July 2004 to Manmohan Singh, the Hon’ble Prime Minister

In Myanmar, KNO have had to resort to violent means. KNO’s armed cadres of Kuki National Army have waged guerrilla warfare against the Military Junta between 1991 and 1999, mainly targeting patrol parties. Steamers have also been attacked along the river Chindwin. The reasons are as follows:

• The Burmese government have disregarded the fact that Kukis live on their ancestral lands
• Kuki village boundaries have been removed
• Traditional form of governance, i.e. haosa (chieftainship) system has been abolished
• Ethnic Burmese population, extricated mainly from Rangoon and Mandalay, have been transplanted to Kuki areas with a view to rendering the indigenous people a minority
• Development in Kuki areas is virtually non-existent

KNO’s external associations

The Kuki National Organization maintains association with Kachin Independent Organisation (KIO); National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K), Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB), and particularly with Wa, Palaung, Lahu and Pa-oh peoples. In 2000, as a bulwark against infiltration of alien groups into their areas, KNO initiated the formation of the Indigenous Peoples Revolutionary Army (IPRA). IPRA is comprised of KNA, Kuki National Front (KNF), Zomi Revolutionary Army (ZRA), Hmar People’s Council (HPC) and Kuki National Front – Military Council (KNF-MC). Representatives of KNO have also met the Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB), an umbrella organization, with a view to becoming a member. The current membership, totalling twenty-six, consist of political parties, including ethnic Burmese, and armed groups from various ethnic backgrounds.

KNO is also a member of Federation of Ethnic Nationalities of Burma. FENB membership also include Palaung State Liberation Front (PSLF), Wa National Organization (WNO), Lahu Democratic Front (LDF), Pa-O People’s Liberation Organization (PPLO), Chin Liberation Organisation (CLO) and Democratic Alliance of Arakan (DPA). FENB’s objectives are twofold: statehood for all ethnic nationalities, and setting up a union of democratic Burma based on principles of federalism. Accordingly, FENB have appealed to the United Nations Organisation through Ismail Razali, Special Envoy of the United Nations to Burma to intervene in Burma regarding creation of statehood for Wa, Kuki, Palaung, Lahu and Pa-oh, who are currently unrepresented ethnic minorities in the country.

Popular support

KNO is active in most part of Kuki areas in India and Myanmar. The organisation takes the responsibility of co-ordinating different Kuki insurgency groups. They have also exercised concern over socio-religious issues, such as church unity, campaign against social evils such as narcotics, theft, exploitation and smuggling of local natural resources, etc. Consequently, KNO have earned respect and support from the Kuki community. By virtue of their inclusiveness and the democratic principles they upheld, the organisation also enjoys the support of other ethnic groups settled in their areas of operation.

KNO publications

KNO have published three books authored by PS Haokip, the president. The publications in English are Zale’n-gam: The Land of the Kukis (1995, revised and reprinted in 1996), Zale’n-gam: The Kuki Nation (1998), The Kuki National Organisation rejoinder (see ) to National Socialist Council of Nagaland – Isak & Muivah’s article KUKI AND THE NAGA PUBLIC CLASHES, posted on the website Eastern Zale’n-gam (2000) has been published in the Burmese language. These publications deal with Kuki history, customs, traditions, issues of conflict, and articulate the organisation’s ideology.


The designs of British colonialism dealt a devastating blow to Kuki. Efforts made by Kuki National Assembly and Kuki leaders in Burma to seek redressal in independent India and Burma have proved futile. KNO’s aim, whether it is the realisation of Zale’n-gam or Kuki state: one in India and the other in Burma, seem to have been interrupted by the violent activities of National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak & Muivah (NSCN-IM). In the existing circumstances, PS Haokip, in a video recording, expressed a view pertinent to the organisation’s stand:

In the 1990s, the NSCN-IM inflicted tremendous atrocities upon Kuki: over nine hundred lives have been lost, three hundred-and-fifty villages uprooted, and fifty thousand people rendered refugees. The deracinated Kuki villages are mainly in Manipur, in the districts of Ukhrul, Tamenglong and Senapati. In this scenario and particular juncture, it is immensely ungratifying that GOI should engage in dialogue only with NSCN-IM (after all Naga have already been given statehood in 1963) – the Kukis have not only been blatantly ignored in this instance, their concerns and plight have never been adequately addressed either.

GOI seems to have forgotten that the British forcibly took Kuki land and handed it over to India. This is the ancestral land for which the Kukis fought the British Imperialists in both WWI and WWII. Now, in the context of India, if Kuki is to remain a part of the union, the Kuki land, ‘Zale’n-gam’, needs to be accorded statehood. Kuki does not demand anybody’s land; they only make claim over their own. So far, the deliberations of GOI have been contrary to the expectations of the Kuki people. This is extremely disappointing, especially given the fact of Kuki’s peaceful association with India, and notwithstanding their history of opposition to colonialism.

Despite the odds that the Kuki people face today, KNO is committed to persevere towards achieving the organisation’s objectives. KNO will hold steadfast to the values and traditions of our forefathers and not compromise on the integrity of Kuki territory. To this end support from the Kuki community and others concerned, such as human rights groups and Non Governmental Organisations are respectfully solicited.




The Kuki National Organisation (KNO) and its armed Wing, Kuki National Army (KNA), were formed in 1988. The first batch of the cadres, under the command of Thangkholun Haokip, was trained by the Kachin Independent Army (KIA) in Myanmar.


The main objectives of the KNA is to bring together all the Kuki-inhabited areas separated by artificial boundary created in 1935, specifically in the Kabaw valley of Myanmar and the Kuki inhabited areas in the hill districts of Manipur under one administrative unit called ‘Zalengam’ (Land of freedom). In case of the eventuality of such integration not materializing, the KNA aims at the creation of two Kuki states: one within Burma i.e. ‘Eastern Zalengam’ and the other within India, ‘Western Zalengam’.

The KNA’s relationship with other Kuki and Zomi militant outfits, however, remained hostile. On December 29, 2005, three Kuki militant outfits, the Kuki Revolutionary Army (KRA), United Kuki Liberation Front (UKLF) and the Kuki National Front-Samuel (KNF-S), merged under the banner of the Kuki National Council (KNC) to carry out operations against the KNA. A decision to this effect was announced by the ‘commanding officer’ of the KRA, Maj Max, at Sadar Hills area in Manipur.

In Myanmar, the Kuki National Army waged guerrilla warfare against the Military Junta between 1991 and 1999, mainly targeting patrol parties and also Steamers along the Chindwin River.


P. S. Haokip is the ‘president’ of the KNO and ‘supreme commander’ of the KNA. Anton Kuki is the ‘Home Secretary’. The other senior members are Khaikholun, vice-president for Eastern Zalen-gam, Lalminthang Vaiphei, vice-president for Western Zalengam, S. N. G. Haokip, Public Relations Secretary, Amitabh T. S. Haokip, Defence Secretary, Zalen Kuki, Foreign Secretary, Joshua Haokip, Education and Development Secretary, T. H. German Haokip, Intelligence and Analysis Secretary, Benjamin Paite, Trade and Commerce Secretary, Kamkhenpao Zou, Art and Culture Secretary, Thangboi Karong, Forest and Environment Secretary and Thangsang Hmar, Medical Secretary.

The KNA has an estimated strength of 600 cadres armed with an array of weapons like AK-Series, G-series, M-series and 60mm mortar.

Areas of Operation

KNO/KNA operates in the hill districts of Manipur and adjoining areas in Assam. It also has marginal presence in the Kabaw valley in the Northwest of Myanmar.


The KNA primarily depends on extortion for financing its activities.


The KNO/KNA maintains strategic linkages with the Kachin Independent Organisation/ Kachin Independent Army, the Democratic Alliance of Burma, an alliance of pro-democracy exile organizations and ethnic insurgent organizations in Myanmar and the Federation of Ethnic Nationalities of Burma. It is also known to have close working relationship with the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K). Earlier, it maintained links with outfits such as the United National Liberation Front (UNLF) and Assam-based United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA). However, such linkages have weakened over the years. KNA is also an affiliate of the Indo-Burma Revolutionary Front, an umbrella organization of several militant outfits, including the ULFA, UNLF and the NSCN-K.


KNA has avoided confrontation with the security forces and have made appeals and sent petitions to the Union Government and other high-level officials in New Delhi for fulfilling their objectives. Memoranda submitted to the Government of India since 1995 include:

1. October 2, 1995: Memorandum to P. V. Narasimha Rao, Prime Minister.
2. October 4, 1995: Memorandum to A. B. Vajpayee, Leader of the Opposition.
3. June 17, 1996: Memorandum to H. D. Deve Gowda, Prime Minister.
4. January 27, 1997: Memorandum to K. R. Narayanan, President of India.
5. July 30, 2004: Memorandum to Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister.

On September 22, 2005, the Union Defence Minister Pranab Mukherjee informed in the Manipur capital Imphal that at least eight militant outfits (including the KNA) in Manipur have declared informal ceasefires' with the Union Government. However, on January 31, 2006, the agreement expired.



July 15: Two labourers, identified as Yumnam Ibungo and Keisham Inaobi, are assaulted by unidentified KNA cadres at Samusong village in the Senapati district.

July 14: Police arrested the ‘army chief’ of KNA, Seikhojang Haokip alias Robert, from Imphal airport. He is arrested from the passengers’ lounge of the airport waiting to board a Delhi-bound flight. "We took the KNA leader into custody because the state government does not recognise the outfit’s arrangement with the army. We are interrogating him," Imphal West superintendent of police Clay Khongsai said.

June 8: Police arrested two KNA cadres, Kangjam Chittaranjan alias Taton alias Jack and Arambam Bhagat alias Dudu, at Langol Game Village in the Imphal West district.

May 23: Police personnel arrested two KNA cadres, identified as T.S. Chochon and Paolun alias Helun Haokip, at Hatta Golapati area in the Imphal East district.

April 24: Two suspected KNA cadres, identified as Haokhmang Haokip and Lhunminlan Khongsai, are shot dead by its rival KNF-P at Sapermaina Bazaar in the Senapati district.

March 13: Six militants belonging to the KNA are killed while one sustained injuries in a factional fight with the KNF at Phaijang village in the Senapati district.

February 5: A KNF militant belonging to the President faction, identified as Hengoumang Kipgen was killed and another cadre was injured in an internecine clash at Koubru Leikha under Sapermaina police station in the Senapati district.

February 5: A Kuki National Front (KNF) militant belonging to the President faction was killed and another belonging to the Kuki National Army (KNA) was injured in an internecine clash between two outfits at Koubru Leikha under Sapermaina police station in the Senapati district. The killed KNF militant was identified as Hengoumang Kipgen


December 23: The Kuki National Organisation (KNO), the political wing of Kuki National Army (KNA), asked the UNLF and its armed wing, Manipur People's Army (MPA), to stop operating in Kuki areas, stating their presence and activities have caused serious harm to the Kuki communities.

December 4: A civilian, Hoichong Haokip, is killed in crossfire between security force personnel and the Kuki National Army cadres at Sipiyang village in the Senapati district .Police sources said one M-16 rifle, two magazines, several live rounds, eight number of letter heads, photographs, dresses, magazine pouch and shoulder badges bearing KNA logo were recovered from the incident site.

November 30: The 'public relation officer' of the Samuel faction of the Kuki National Front, 'captain' Namjapao, was shot dead and another cadre, Henjapao, sustained injuries when they were attacked by the rival Kuki National Army cadres at Bijang in the Churachandpur district.

November 21: A civilian, identified as Hatneo, was injured in a crossfire that followed the attack on a camp of the KNA by a rival unidentified outfit at Muolvailup village in the Ukhrul district.

November 9: The Kuki National Army militants reportedly seized seven grams of heroin No. 4 from at least 15 alleged drug traffickers at various places in Tuibuong and Hmar Veng areas of Churachandpur district.

November 7: Suspected KNA militants shot dead a woman, Nemkhohoi alias Hoineu, at Tuibuong Hmarveng area in the Churachandpur district. District police recovered the dead body and also recovered a few grams of heroin from her possession.

October 21: Three suspected KNA cadres are killed in an attack by militants belonging to the KRA at Ekou under Saikul police station in the Senapati district.

September 21: Three ZRA cadres are beaten to death after being abducted by rival cadres of the KNA at Sielmat in the Churachandpur district.

August 2: KNA kills a civilian, R.K. Pratap, at Saparmeina Bazaar in the Senapati district.


September 22: Union Defence Minister Pranab Mukherjee informs in Imphal that at least eight militant outfits (including the KNA) in Manipur have declared informal ceasefires' with the Union Government.

March 6: A KNA cadre is killed at Kanglatombi in the Imphal West district

January 20: KNA cadres abduct Additional Chief Engineer of Irrigation and Flood Control Department from Khumanom village in the Churachandpur district.

January 12: A combined team of the United Kuki Liberation Front (UKLF) and Kuki Revolutionary Army (KRA) militants kill the ‘chief’ of Kuki National Army (KNA), Vipin Haokip, during an internecine clash at Bijang in the Churachandpur district.

January 12: Security force personnel kill a suspected KNA militant, identified as Zangkhopao Kuki, during an encounter between Panshang and Molnom villages in the Ukhrul district.

January 7: KNA cadres kill a student, identified as Tongthang Khongsai, at Molnom Kuki village in the Ukhrul district .


November 16: The Imphal East district police during a search operation arrested a KNA cadre, identified as Hegin Lupho alias Paogin, from Mahabali Kabui village in the Imphal East district.

September 21: Security forces arrest two militants belonging to the Kuki National Front-Military Council (KNF-MC) and the KNA during cordon and search operations at New Checkon in the Imphal East district.


January 20: KNA militant abducts the Additional Chief Engineer of Irrigation and Flood Control Department from Khumanom village in the Churachandpur district.


September 1: Manipur Police arrest two KNA militants at Pureilomba in the Imphal East district. They had allegedly come to collect an extortion amount of INR 2.7 lakh from a local businessman.

April 8: The KNA declares a cease-fire with the NSCN-IM.


June 13: Fifteen Myanmar security force personnel and 10 civilians are killed as the KNA ambushes an Army truck at Thenjen village of Myanmar bordering the Chandel district of Manipur.


October 23: Chief of KNA, Hanglen, in a press statement, ‘vows to establish’ a ‘Kuki State’ within Burma (Myanmar).


April 15: KNA militants kill four Naga militants and set ablaze their houses in the Parouland and Kutal Khunthak villages of Chandel district.