Friday, November 23, 2007

Helen Ruolsingpui Keivom | Elected Member of Paekakariki/Raumati Community Board in New Zealand's Loveliest Coast - Kapiti District


On the 17th Oct 2007 Helen Ruolsingpui Keivom (7B Wellington Road, 049057178), the second daughter of Mr L. Keivom (Rtd. IFS) was elected as a Deputy chair to the Paekakariki/Raumati Community Board, Kapiti District Council(district) elections in New Zealand. Helen Keivom is not just a first Zo woman (Zohnathlak/Zosuon) to hold this rank but the first ever among Asian women. The Council and their decisions have a very high profile impact on the National Level (The New Zealand). There are 4districts in New Zealand.

The Role of the Kapiti Coast District Council

The Kapiti Coast District Council is responsible for managing one of the fastest growing districts in the country – a trend expected to continue. People from all walks of life are coming to live in Kapiti and it is seen as an area with a bright and long term future. The Kapiti Coast: Choosing Futures – Community Plan has an overall vision that ‘reaffirms the Kapiti lifestyle – with a sustainable emphasis.’ The Community Plan is the Council’s framework for sustainable growth management. It provides for a programme to improve the quality of the urban environment and town centres, provide more choice in housing and greater protection of the natural environment. It is based on a series of sustainable development principles. In response to growth the Council will, over the next 10 years, be upgrading major essential infrastructural assets as well as building key community facilities.

About Kapiti

The beautiful Kapiti Coast District is located 50 minutes drive north of New Zealand's capital city, Wellington.

Wellington is a thriving and culturally-diverse city at the bottom of the country's North Island.

The Kapiti Coast District Council's neighbouring authority to the south is Porirua City Council and Horowhenua District Council to the north.

The District is settled around the coastline townships of Paekakariki, Raumati, Paraparaumu, Waikanae and Otaki. The major commercial and retail centre is Paraparaumu and its distinct rural areas - Te Horo, Waitohu and the Hautere Plains - are intermingled with the township settlements to the north.

Kapiti has had around 400 new dwellings built annually since 2001, and has a mix of large rural holdings and small lifestyle properties.

It is popular for:

• lifestyle factors such as environment and climate
• proximity to major employment centres
• relatively low cost housing (the average price of houses sold in the year to January 2004 was $198,100).


The Kapiti District covers 40 kilometres of coastal plain. Its natural boundary to the east is the Tararua Ranges and to the west the Tasman Sea. The District strongly identifies with Kapiti Island, a national wildlife sanctuary, which is located five kilometres offshore from Paraparaumu.


The Kapiti Coast District had a usually resident population of 46,200 at the time of the last Census on March 6, 2006.

It is one of the fastest growing population areas in New Zealand. Usually resident population increased by 8.8% from 2001 to 2006 following a 10.0% increase in the 1996 to 2001 period. This compares with population growth of 5.9% for the Wellington Region and 7.8% for New Zealand over the 2001 t0 2006 period.

For a detailed analysis of population, age, marital status and other demographic information see the Community Profile.

Trends and detailed statistics are also available.


Apart from the significant rural sectors, major contributors to the economy are the retail trade and tourism, house construction and related trades, education, aged care and some niche manufacturing industries.

The retail sector led employment with 20.8%, followed by construction 12.5%, health and community services 11.6%, and property and business services 10.1%.

The Kapiti Coast District Council and Horowhenua District Council jointly fund NatureCoast®, an economic development agency for the combined region.
The District's gross domestic product in the year ended March 2003 was an estimated $721 million, representing 0.6% of the New Zealand economy. The largest contributors were finance and business services (including property services), retail trade, construction and manufacturing.

Kapiti has had a shift in land use to more diverse horticultural uses such as grapes, olives, feijoas, asparagus and nashi pears ventures alongside the more traditional market gardening pursuits.

It also has a small but growing tourism sector with activity-based ventures including trips to Kapiti Island and ventures based around Paraparaumu Airport and the river and forest parks at Otaki Forks and Maungakotukutuku Valley.

Visiting Kapiti Coast?

Just a step way from Wellington lies an area of spectacular sea vistas, glorious sunsets, untouched native forest and dramatic hillscapes.

As you enter the coast, just 40 minutes drive from central Wellington, and see the magnificent Kapiti Island and the beaches stretching along the coast any thoughts of the city are left behind as the more relaxed, refreshing atmosphere of our coastal region takes over.

This is the Kapiti Coast, home to the Kapiti Island nature and marine reserves and a host of activities ranging from exhilarating outdoor adventures to a superb variety of shopping.

Add in New Zealand's top golf course, a world class car museum, magnificently restored trams, easily accessible nature reserves and arts and crafts that match the best in the country, the Kapiti Coast has something for everyone.

A day trip, a weekend away, or a stopover en route further north or south are all very viable options for visitors to Kapiti region - just a step away from Wellington.

Trade and commerce of Manipur under the Political Agency 1835-1891

By:- Usham Dhananjoy Singh *

In the annual report dated 1st July 1868, Assistant Surgeon, R Brown FRCS, Political Agent, Manipur, wrote about a merchant, a native of Samarcand in central Asia who came to Manipur 12 or 13 years ago with a venture of cloth etc worth about Rs 3,000.

He proceeded towards Burma but while at Samjok the Rajah of that place offered to dispose of the goods and became responsible for the price thereof. This was agreed to, but after the goods had been parted with, much difficulty was experienced in realizing cash for them.

The name of the merchant was called Bahadoor Khan. Thus we see that merchant from far off countries even came to Manipur for trade and commerce.

During the cold season, number of Bengali traders, chiefly from Cachar and Sylhet pass through Manipur and enter Burma, they chiefly trade in buffaloes.

R Brown further says,

"parties from the Punjab - on one occasion 15 men - came in company and passed into Burma, they were by their own account, hakeems and intended practising medicine in Burma.

"Tea seed, which is found plentifully in the hilly tract north-east of the valley is eagerly sought for by the tea-planters of the Cachar and Sylhet district and commands a good price".

The value of the Manipur trade with Assam during the year 1877-78 was as follows:-
Exports, Rs 45,362 and imports, Rs 70,716. The actual revenue derived from custom duties is estimated by Colonel Johnstone as about Rupees 3,500.

Mc Culloch, the second Political Agent of Manipur (from 1844 to 1862 and from 1863 to 1867 and who married a Meitei girl named Thotpi) wrote in his 'An account of the valley of Manipur':

"The Principle import into Manipur is sooparee or betel nut of which the Manipuris consume a great quantity. It is paid for chiefly in rupees. Coarse cloths are exported but their manufacture decrease with the gradual increase in demand for cloth of English manufacture.

A very profitable trade in buffaloes might be established but the Manipur govt by interfering has driven the trader in buffaloes to Kubbo from which they have during the last seven or eight years drawn a very considerable supply.

Even with great disadvantage of an expensive land carriage the valley of Manipur is very favourably situated for commercial purposes, but the system of Govt is opposed to the development of commerce and the insecurity of traders in the Burmese territory is so great that I fear commerce must for long be confined to the present restricted scale. Private enterprise will effect much, but the obstacles opposed by half civilised Governments are not easily overcome."

Again RB Pemberton in his 'The Eastern Frontier of India' wrote:

"During the reign of Chourjit Singh a very brisk trade was carried on with the Burmese inhabitants of the frontier through the Kubo valley and Chinese merchants from Yunan used sometimes to visit Manipur for purpose of traffic bringing with them the same description of articles they take to Ava and carrying away in return the wax, ivory, clothes, cotton and ponies of the country."

BC Allen and others in their 'Gazettur of Bengal and North East India' also wrote
"At one time there was a brisk trade in tea seed, a considerable quantity of which came from Burma and merely passed through Manipur. The trade has, however, been killed by the depression in tea industry which has checked any tendency to extend the area under cultivation and big the unscrupulous conduct of the contractors who injured the reputation of Manipur seed by plucking and selling it before it was ripe.

Cattle and buffaloes are exported in considerable numbers, but restructions are from time to time imposed to prevent the state from being denuded of its live stock.

The principal articles of import are mineral oil, betel nuts, dried fish, salt and cotton pieces goods and yarn. Dried fish, oil and tea seed come from the Burma frontier, but the bulk of the state trade is with Assam.

Although the Manipur women are keen and energetic shopkeepers most of the whole sale business is in the hands of the Marwari merchants, who have practically monopolised the trade of Assam. The dealers in cattle and forest produce are generally Muhammedans from the Surma valley."

In 1868-69 ponies were not allowed to be exported from Manipur on account of a scarcity of grown up ponies.

The trade between Manipur and Burma was almost confined to the importation of small qualities of gold, precious stones (chiefly garnets of small size) and a little earth oil. In return the Burmese took away raw silk (this in rather large quantity) and clothes of various kinds. [Annual report dt 1st July 1868.]

On the occasion of the outbreak of cattle disease in 1870-71, the trade in cattle with Burma, buffaloes and ponies was completely stopped. However the trade was freely allowed in other articles such as gold, silver, wax, Burma boxes.

Occasionally Nagas from the Angami country passed through the valley on their way to Cachar for the purpose of trade. In 1872, a small trade sprung up in ponies purchased by the Angamee for convergence to Assam and for which they obtained remunerative prices [Annual administrative report 1873].

In 1873-74, the pony tax increased from Rs 20 a head to Rs 23-4 annas to Rs 23-8 annas. The Manipur authorities held a monopoly of the two articles: tea seed and India Rubber.

The following articles were not allowed to be exported from Manipur as these were meant as presents for services rendered to the state

Khamen chatpa - coloured silk dhoti
Namthang Kokyet - Laced Puggari
Ningthou Phi - Shirt like Garnet
Lai Chatpa - coloured sheet

[Annual Administration Report 1873-74].

In 1873-74, a number of Khamptee men from upper Burma passed through Manipur reaching Assam through Samuguting. They stated that they had gone from their country to Gauhati trading in metal article boxes from Burmah and were returning having crossed Khashi hills and passed through Sylhet and Cachar [ibid].

In 1877-78, some Naga horse dealers arrived and altogether 72 ponies had passed out of the valley in this direction. Besides these, iron, spirits, salt, cloth etc had been exported. The Angamis preferred to buy Manipur salt at two seers per rupee instead of 4 surs per rupee at Samuguting. Spirits were also brought by them to be carried away. The Angamis brought large quantities of brass vessels from Assam and also cornelians.

During the year 1978-79, the monopoly of four articles i.e bees' wax, tea seed, Ivory and Indian rubber were abolished, but the monopoly was again established in 1885.

The Administration Report of the Manipur Political Agency for 1889-90 wrote:

'The Darbar levies duties on everything which is imported or exported for trade... but probably it is not more than Rs 8000. I don't think even if willing to do so, the Darbar could give the figures, as it is the interest of every official not to disclose the exact amount of money passing through his hands, as not being in receipt of pay, a Manipuri official has to make his livelihood out of what he can pick up irregularly'.

'The betel palm will not grow in Manipur and as the Manipuris eat a great deal of the nut, it has to be brought from Cachar. On the Kohima road, the principal imports are atta, ghee, dal, and salt for the use of the troops. The Kohima Nagas also during the cold weather buy a good many clothes and yarn in the Manipur market.'

* Usham Dhananjoy Singh wrote this article on The Sangai Express. This article was webcasted on 22 November 2007. The Sangai Express

People’s war against terror

By Joginder Singh

In a unique effort of its kind, the first European “terrorism survival course” for the common man has been planned in the UK. It’s a day-long course, which is not free. It will cost each participant £ 150, which is roughly equal to Rs 12,000. The course includes suicide-bombing scenarios, 9/11-style hijacking of aircraft and attacks with improvised explosive devices. The British no longer view terrorism as other people’s problem. One recalls that a few years ago, when then British Prime Minister Tony Blair came to India, he made it clear that Jammu & Kashmir was not a priority in the US-led war against global terrorism, of which the UK is a part. The terror attacks in London and Glasgow have demonstrated that terrorists will not spare the British.

A report by the US Department of State has revealed that terrorist acts have increased by over 25 percent and fatalities have increased by 40 percent this year. Some 74,543 civilians were targeted and 20,498 killed in 2006. If there is one country that needs a training programme to involve the man in the street in the fight against terrorism, it is India. In this country, the Government and citizens must fight the battle against terrorism jointly.

According to the Government, two prominent Pakistan-based terrorist organisations — Lashkar-e­Tayyeba (LeT) and Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM), have been responsible for several major attacks in major Indian cities. On July 11, 2006 terrorists set off seven blasts on packed commuter trains in Mumbai, killing at least 209 people and injuring more than 700. On March 7, 2006 terrorists bombed Varanasi, killing 21 and injuring 62 people. On September 9, 2006 terrorists set off a series of blasts outside a mosque in Malegaon, killing 38 people and injuring more than 50.

On October 27, 2006 Karnataka Police arrested two suspected terrorists in Mysore, who allegedly belonged to the terrorist group AI-Badr. Police believed the suspects were employed as an advance team to establish a base in southern India from where they would facilitate terrorist attacks on ‘high-value’ targets, especially in nearby Bangalore, a high-tech hub.

Maoists, meanwhile, launched several attacks, expanding the profile of insurgency and expanding the rural territory under their control. On July 17, 2006, 35 people were killed, 80 injured, and approximately 250 people were missing following an attack by some 800 armed Naxalites in the Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh.

The United Liberation front of Asom conducted multiple terrorist attacks against civilians and security forces in Assam, causing numerous deaths and injuries. In one of the more violent series of attacks attributed to ULFA, on November 5, 2006, several bombs exploded in a crowded market and at an oil refinery in Guwahati, killing 12 people and injuring a few dozen.

Our efforts are hampered by the outdated and overburdened law enforcement and legal systems. In fact, there is no law to combat terrorism and the Indian Penal Code, Indian Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Evidence Act passed in 1863 are still the laws ruling the roost. Democracies in the West, on whose pattern our governance and legal system are based, have jettisoned their old systems and have brought in new framework to deal with the changed circumstances and changed tactics of criminals.

This state of affairs highlights the need to involve ordinary citizens in the fight against terrorism and to change the laws. The only involvement of the Government in educating the citizens in the fight against terrorism so far has been the advertisements of certain dos and don’ts in English language newspapers by the police. But there is no specific attempt to train or educate citizens about their role in the fight against terrorism.

While terrorists carry unlicensed sophisticated weapons, it is nigh impossible for average citizens to get a license from the Government for possessing a non-prohibited bore weapon. A suitable training programme could be devised wherein all gun licensees are asked to participate in a training programme. A special obligation could be laid on them to come to the help of fellow citizens in need whenever terrorists strike. Apart from the licensees, interested citizens could be invited to join this training programme where right to private defence could be a subject.

The law in India recognises the right of a citizen to private defence. While defending one’s life even causing death can be justifiable in some circumstances. Causing the death of a terrorist, who is out to get you, is fully justified. Other topics to be discussed in the workshop could include how citizens can help collect information on suspicious persons who might be trying to mix with the local population and whose mode of dressing, conversation and conduct may appear out of ordinary. Terrorists always use quicker means of transport and communication and stay in rented houses under false names.

Participants would also have to be sensitised to use of computers and mobile phones in terrorist activities. They have to be briefed on the necessary steps to take in case of a terrorist attack - like preserving the scene of crime till forensic experts arrive, cordoning the area, summoning medical aid and ambulances to transport the critically injured to the nearest medical centre. Familiarisation with the latest tactics of the terrorists of moving away from hurling grenades and indiscriminating firing to using mobile phones to trigger IEDs could also be a part of the course for the common man.

Mobile phones were used on May 18, 2007, to trigger the blasts in Mecca Masjid, Hyderabad, which led to the killing of 14 people and injuries to over 50. Also, two bombs connected to cell phones, kept in lunch boxes, were recovered. A similar modus operandi was adopted for the bombings on August 25, 2007 in Hyderabad’s Lumbini Park and Gokul Chaat Bhandar.

Involving concerned citizens in the fight against terrorism is going to help the country. Some trained citizens could also be appointed as special police officers to help the law enforcement agencies. A provision to this effect does exist in our laws.

The British course is being organised by a private organisation. It is time we encouraged voluntary organisations to come forward with such programmes to make citizens conscious and responsive to the problem of terrorism and supplement Government’s efforts. —(Courtesy Asia Defence News International)

The Writer is a former Director of the CBI.

The Sangai Express

Migration in Manipur: As per place of birth 2001

By Dr MM Meetei


Movement of the population from one place to another is simply known as migration. Broadly it can be divided into two major classifications as – 1) Immigration - migrated into a country as a permanent resident and 2) Emigration - means out-migration from one country to settle in other country. Nepalis who are residing in Manipur (India) is considered as in-migrant population and they will be treated as out-migrants in Nepal.

When a person is enumerated in Census as a different place other than her/his place of birth, she/he is considered a migrant. To capture such movements of population, census collects information on migration by last residence and duration of residence as well. Migration arises out of various social, economic or political reasons. Migration may be due to marriage, which is the most common among the females or works as generally among the males.

In the early period, migration took place either in the form of war captives or war prisoners in Manipur. For instances, in 1606 A.D. king Khagemba of Mani-pur fought with Cachar rulers and imprisoned about 1000 Muslim sepoys and finally they settled in the kingdom. The invasion of Khagemba against China and Awa kingdom of Burma in 1630 A.D. also brought in many war captives to the kingdom. King Khagemba raided Takhel (Tripura) and brought in about 200 captives during 1633-34 A.D. (Singh, L.I. & Singh, N.K., 2005). In other instances of the history, many Manipuris numbering about 30,000 populations were carried out by the Burmese (Myanmarese) troops during Seven Years Devastation (1819-1825 A.D.) as war captives (Singh, L.J., 1995). It is stated that such migration type may be known as forced migration.

Objectives: Nowadays, the Census of India reports are extensively used in many fields. The Census of India 2001 has collected 33-information/data based on census houses, households and their family assets in the house-listing operation during 5th May to 4th June, 2000 and 24 questions for about 40 information/data dealing with individual particulars in the population enumeration which was conducted between February 9-28, 2001 (both days inclusive).

The collected information/data is published mostly in table format with or without the analytical notes. Some maps and charts are also incorporated supplementing the data presentation in the publication. Most of our general public are not well versed/aware about the census’ technical term/word which is framed in the table/annexure for which the present study attempted to highlight the Census 2001 results particularly on migration to a much larger audience than present available in the publications.

Some of the definition belonging to technical term(s)/word(s) used at the present study are highlighted as follows:

Migrant and Migration - Migrant means person to involve and migration means to process it or calculation. A migration is defined as a move from one migration defining area to another that was made during a given migration interval and that involved a change of residence. Area of Origin - For migration, the area (or place) from which a move is made is the area of origin. Area of destination (arrival)- For migration, the area (or place) in which a move terminates is the area of destination. Immobile - People, who are seen living their entire lifetime in the same village/town in which they were born, are defined as immobile or non-migrant. In-migrant - A person, who crosses the boundaries of a village/town for the purpose of residence at the place of enumeration, is an in-migrant. Out-Migrant - If a person moves out from the place of enumeration (village/town) to another politically defined area (village/town) for usual residence, she or he is termed as an out-migrant. Intra-District Migrant - When a person moves out from his place of usual residence or birth to another politically defined area (village/town), which is within the district of enumeration, she/he is termed as an intra-district migrant.

Inter-District Migrant - A person who in the course of migration crosses the boundary of the district of enumeration but remains within the state of enumeration, is termed as an inter-district migrant. Intra-State Migrant - Migration within the state. Intra-district and inter-district migrants both constitute the intra-state migrants. Inter-State Migrant - Migrants from across the state/union territories within the country are known as inter-state migrants. Inter-Country Migrant- Migrants from across one country to another country is defined as inter-country migrants.

For the Census of India 2001 purposes, there are two types of migration namely 1) migrants by place of birth and 2) migrants by place of last residence.

Migrants by place of birth

For every person there can be one and only one place of birth. A person is considered as migrant by place of birth if the place in which she/he is enumerated during the Census other than her/his place of birth. The information/data of the place of birth will be collected in three categories as – i) Country ii) State and iii) District.

The Census of India 2001 collects the information/data of birth place for all the person irrespective of their ages except a temporary visit to their relatives, pilgrimage, tour, etc.

To be continued....

Source: The Sangai Express

Sycophants will be known

By : Oken Jeet Sandham

Indian Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh’s keenness to resolve Naga political issue cannot be questioned. It was he who had invited the “collective leadership” of the NSCN-IM to visit New Delhi and also allowed them to visit Nagaland to have a wider discussion with leaders of various civil societies. Nagaland Chief Minister Neiphiu Rio and his Cabinet colleagues, leaders of other political parties and even Naga politicians from neighboring States held discussions with Isak Chishi Swu and Th Muivah of the organization in their Camp Hebron. This is a big achievement on the part of the organization as they needed to study the environment on the ground and Prime Minister Singh had been certainly credited for this.

Prime Minister Singh has again gone further by fulfilling the demand of the NSCN-IM that the bureaucratic-level talks which were a mere get together to keep the ceasefire alive had been upgraded to the level of “political one” by constituting a Ministerial Team headed by Union Minister Oscar Fernandez. In fact, Indian interlocutor K Padmanabaiah to the Center-NSCN (IM) peace talks played crucial role in striking balance even in the face of severe criticisms for spelling out about the talks. He was vehemently condemned and even called him as a mere government servant who knew nothing about the Naga political issue and at times he had to retract his statements. Many doubted his continuity as New Delhi’s interlocutor, when the BJP-led NDA lost its power at the Center. But he survived the change of guard, as the new Congress-led UPA Government required his experience in pushing the peace process forward. It also proved that the new Government had genuinely wanted to solve the Naga problem and not interested in political vengeance.

One of the significant steps Congress-led UPA Government has done is they have extended the ongoing ceasefire with the NSCN (IM) indefinitely. This, according to them, was necessary to concentrate more on the substantive issues as both parties had been wasting precious time on working out mostly for truce extensions. Even to show Congress-led UPA Government’s keenness to resolve the Indo-Naga political issue, the Indian Representatives led by Oscar Fernandez came down to Dimapur in a special Air Force Plane for signing that historic ceasefire extension on July 31. Therefore, the integrity of Dr Singh and his Government’s seriousness on the Naga political issue is beyond doubt. This is rather a breakthrough as far as peace process is concerned. It is also reported that out of the 30-Point Charter of Demands put forward by the NSCN (IM), the Government of India has reportedly agreed to 70% in principle and only 30% remains to be settled which perhaps includes the critical areas of foreign policies, separate flag, currency, defense, etc and of course the contentious issue of the Naga integration.

Many political analysts and pundits have candidly suggested that since large portion of the demands put up by the organization has already been agreed upon and therefore the leadership of the outfit should not keep the process hindered and instead move ahead to enter into final agreement. After all negotiation means “give and take,” and they have to be prepared to “lose something.” In reality, many positive things are taking place and the coming general elections in the State will be seen as one of the most crucial ones as the ongoing political issue will once again become central for all parties. Nobody can deny it. From the very beginning, it was Congress Prime Minister PV Narasimha Rao who had publicly declared that the “Naga issue is political and it should be solved politically.” His declaration had given the political status of the complex Naga political issue and this was translated into reality today by Prime Minister Dr Singh by formally constituting Ministerial Team for holding political negotiation to end the longstanding issue. This is also what the collective leadership of the NSCN (IM) has been demanding all along. What will be more interesting to see is the collective leadership of the NSCN (IM) will be witnessing the ensuing general elections in the state and testing real taste of the electoral politics being played by state politicians? And they will know the reality on the ground how far those shouting at the top of their voice are serious in finding solution to the protracted Naga political issue. “Who is sycophant and who is working for solution?”

The Imphal Free Press

Conflict Resolution in Respect of Manipur

By : AK Chishti

While acknowledging the Second Administrative Reforms Commission for reposing confidence in the Association of Premier State College Seniors of Manipur (APSCS) and giving the privilege of making an effective representation of the people’s interest about the State of affairs and the “Conflict Resolution” thereon by extending the time when the commission heard us at Imphal on the 28th July 2007, we wish to begin with a few words about our own Association, perhaps the first of its kind in the country. It is a Body of the retired State Govt. employees who served the Premier State Colleges of Manipur academics of which were recruited on the recommendation of the UPSC and later the Manipur Public Service Commission. The Association was founded in the year 2005 with the main object to preserve old values and spirit of fraternity amongh the members and to further promote the Academic and Social causes by formulating and presenting views to the State or Central/Statutory Bodies etc.

In consonance with our objective, the Association made it a point to submit a Memorandum to the President of India during his visit to the State on the 16th Oct. 2006 highlighting the issues involving social and economic life of the people of Manipur that have been on the wane. As a result, the Ministry of Home Affairs expressing its concern sent its letter (No. 6/35/2007-NE. I dated, 11th June, 2007) to the Chief Secretary of the State for appropriate necessary action and the submission of a report thereon. The Association is really grateful to the President for his concern for ht eplight of the people of this frontier state. A similar response also came from the Prime Minister; for that we are grateful to the Prime Minister too.

As is the common psychology, we have a deep sense of consternation over the issues involving discomfort, fears and negative associations that we generally do not address the issues in time. However, in reality, the issues weigh heavily onour psyche and public life as well, and it becomes too high a price to pay later. Hence, the demand for an effective and timely addressal. These two vital elements as we presume, are accounted for extending their adequate attention to the vexing issues the Association placed before them. Let is serve as a good beginning in the search for an answer to the problem.

And now with the Second Administrative Reforms Commission in conformity with the terms and spirit of the objective, we feel as though a new dimension is in the offing that would ultimately help in addressing the difficult issues in the best interest of all concerned. We have every reason to repose our faith in the Commission as much as it has in us.

As our representatives of the Association apprised the Commission already of some of the major problems afflicting the State, we now with a vigour, wish to submit this representation to highlight some of the major issues involving the present conflict that requires adept handling with a priority treatment. We begin with the diagnosis of the conflicts.

Symptoms of the conflicts

The present scenario-portrays a chaotic situation-a murderous atmosphere shaking the norms of society we live in at the root in an unprecedented manner with no sight of relent. All the symptoms of an anarchic State, a long spell of disorder, conflicts, visible and invisible have all appeared for all to see. Where is the room for development for that the Centre is pumping huge amount of money unlike in the past when the State was normal and needed money most? Development of anti-incumbency sentiment for bringing about this situation and all can be comprehended in full only by an in-depth study of Manipur and her case is made at first.

Land and people of Manipur

Nestled between Assam and Burma (Myanmar), Manipur as a kingodm experienced a long tumultuous course of about two thousand years of history. The central valley which is about 1/10th the Stae size, is the hub of activities while the remaining comprises the mountainous region surrounding the valley and since time immemorial the mountainous range has been the home of medley of tribes. The history of human habitation of Manipur is a continuous one since the Pre-historic Stone Age. For the last two thousan years Manipur existed as an independent kingdom with an uninterrupted record of the rein of kings, Maharajah Budhachandra Singh being the last. The territory of Manipur extended as far as the Southern China in the North; Thibomei (Kohima) and Sibsagar (Assam) included, Loijri in the South and Chandrapore (Cachar) in the West and Ningthi River (Irrawadi) in the East.

Manipuri is the language spoken by the valley and hill people in general and is the lingua franca of more than 30 tribes of Manipur speaking different dialects. The Manipur language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman group of language. To-day Manipuri stands for different communities living in Manipur namely the Meetei/Meitei community, the Pangal (Muslim) community, the Naga tribe and the Kuki tribe etc.

(The writer is the General Secretary, APSCS, Thangal Bazar)

The Imphal Free Press

Flowers of Doom

By : David Buhril

The gregarious flowering of bamboo pushed the distressed Tipaimukh villagers to confront famine-like situation, which could have been averted if the Government of Manipur had come to their aid with the funds that was allocated by the Centre to combat the phenomenon.

Rat frequently crossed the muddy Tipaimukh road as our struggling jeep negotiates the untarred and slippery National Highway 150, which shows of abject neglect. The National Highway can be mistaken for a stream, if not a pool, or a plough fields.

Pastor Lalrochung told us that with the bamboo flowering the multiplying rats population has severely invaded the rice fields, which left the agrarian population despaired. For the farming population in Tipaimukh and its adjoining areas who still practised the traditional slashed- and-burned forest slopes to grow rice, the bamboo flower is seen as the bloom of death. The rats on the long isolated road were signs of fear and hopelessness, which the impoverished sub division in Manipur’s Churachandpur district is confronting today. The gregarious flowering of bamboo produces large quantities of seeds, which were consumed by rats resulting in sudden population explosion in rats and rodents. The resultant short supply of bamboo seeds on the one hand and a large population of rats on the other compelled the rats and rodents to resort to the farmlands causing widespread loss to the crops. In the past this chain of events has caused severe famine. The natural phenomenon of bamboo flowering has been recorded to have happened in 1862, 1881, 1911-12 and 1959 too. All of them resulted in severe famine.

According to the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Science and Technology, Environment and Forests 159th Report, the 1959 famine claimed between 10,000 and 15,000 lives in Mizoram, Tripura, Manipur and Barak Valley of Assam. The food insecurity and unrest in the midst of the bamboo flowering during 1958- 60 gave birth to the Mizo National Famine Front in the year 1960, who then took to arms under the banner of Mizo National Front (1961) waging for more than twenty years of arms struggle for sovereignty. While farmers distress in other parts of the country have resulted in farmers suicide, the North-East has a different experience where the despaired farmers took to arms movement asserting sovereignty. Manipur’s Tipaimukh sub-division and Mizoram are the epicentre of the dreaded natural phenomenon, the gregarious bamboo flowering, which also occur in other states of the North-East. However, for the cut-off, deprived and marginalised sub-division who are living without government, road, health centre, electricity, transport and communications, public distribution system, etc., the cyclical flowering of the Muli bamboo species that occur after every 48 years is a grim threat. The chronic poverty afflicted sub-division remains untouched by scientific and technological revolution or green revolution. In the face of that the apprehension of the population is worsened as the bamboo flowers with a clock like certainty. The people of Tipaimukh called it the return of horror or the death flower. Fear, apprehension, and anxieties grow bigger for the villagers with the gregarious bamboo flowering (Mautam) threatening them. Fear of hunger is immense. Insecurity grows taller and bigger than their hills and mountains. It gnaws them day and night when immediate alternatives and solutions, though desirable, are out of sight. The situation is worsened by the absence of any form of governance to assist the agrarian population who are already undergoing near famine situation.

Today the ghost of the death flower returns to render the distress and fear ridden Tipaimukh villagers hopeless. Singneikhum of Parvachawm village said, “I harvested only 20 tins of grain for the year’s toil. Before the bamboo flower I used to get 250 tins of grain from the same jhum field. I don’t know how my family would stand the test of our worst fear.” Lalchawilien of Leisen village said, “After the long toil we battled with rats, rodents and birds over our rice field. But there is no way to guard and protect them. We tried every little thing we could, but it was all in vain. That day my family members and I left our field late in the evening with a prayer. I had a bad dream that night. The next morning I reached to find my rice field standing without any sheaves. It was a very dark and disturbing sight. I went back home barred and heavy hearted and every step I took was like a move to an end that I did notwant to remember.” Leisen villagers were made to realize their unfortunate turn as the rats and rodents destroy their field one after the other.Hrangtlunglien also had his share of nightmare when he was left to collect share of his labour that was spared by the rats and rodents. “But they spared me too little that will not last my family for even a month. With whatever little we manage to reap it is our desire that we celebrate Christmas in October”, Hrangtlunglien said.

Zarzolien of Tipaimukh’s Leisen village said that the bamboo flowering did not only destroy their food security but also negates the man in himself. He said, “The bamboo flower reduced me like nothing else could. It is a shame that my toil would not allow me to feed my family. It is very shameful. I could not feel like a man anymore.” Zoawi of Senvon village said, “The bleak future is too dark for us. There is nothing left to hold on to. We are living our worst nightmare.”

Lalmanlien of Leisen village also said, “Rats and rodents plagued our rice fields at night. They came like angry and hungry ghost. It took them just few hours to spoil our year’s toil and left our rice field like useless grass. Many of us in the village did not even reap two tins of grain. It is alarming.” Sangneitling of Senvon village felt that the year’s harvest has no meaning at all. “Our toil was in vain”, she said, “ We knew much in advance about the bamboo flowering, but we could have no choice at all. What alternatives do you think is here in this god-forsaken place? We toil with hopes and fears. But we were made to realised fear bigger than we could ever imagine.”

The bloom of despair has driven many young men like Lalhmingmawi, Lalditum, and Siema of Sipuikawn village to look for work in Mizoram and Assam. But they move out of their homes to realise the limited avenue available for them. “We have been working all our lives in our jhum fields and we are not really good for other jobs. We came back to our empty homes looking for something like hope to keep us going. The bamboo flowering has created uncontrollable chaos within us and our homes”, Lalhmingmawi said. Siema said that he guarded his jhum field with burning torches for many nights. “I did my best, but the rats won. Today I am left with nothing. They even came to our house and gnawed our blanket, shoes and chappal, which never happen before. I was afraid. I thought they were angry with me.”

Darkung of Senvon village filled his rice field with traditional traps to get rid of the invading rats and rodents. “It is a vain effort. But what can I do? I did that with a hope, which was shattered in one dark night”, Darkung said. The trapped rats were again consumed by the distressed Tipaimukh villagers, which further exposed them to the threat of various epidemics. “They eat our rice and we also eat them if they are trapped”, Darkung said.

The plights of Manipur’s Tipaimukh villagers is deteriorated in the absence of any form of proactive intervention from the government to aid them despite the near famine situation they have already confronted. Despite the pilot-like project that was initiated by the Centre to combat the impact of bamboo flowering, not a single paisa reached the affected villagers. No government officials have visited the Tipaimukh villages to take stock of the situation in the hills and mountains where death looms large. It is shocking that food insecurity and the near-famine situation continue unabated despite the Central Government funding to bail out the region’s distressed farmers. None of the measures adopted at the power corridors to alleviate the plights of the distressed farmers made an impact. The visible insecurity has already reached a crisis situation where the rosy special packages that were announced for securing that right to food and livelihood has no meaning and relation to the distressed lot. Taking into account the money that was allocated to combat the bamboo flowering, the farmer’s distress and the near-famine situation in Tipaimukh is rather man-made than a result of natural calamities.

Hrangtlunglien of Leisen village said that no one in the village is aware about the Centre’s policy to bail them out of the near-famine situation, which the sub-division is helplessly going through. “We never knew that the government would act in such situations as we have been living without any form of government for many decades as far as my memory could remember. There is no motorable road inside our village. There is nothing, but just us. We are independent and self-reliant people. We never knew that there is something called the government to represent us. Manipur government has no meaning for us”, Hrangtlunglien said. Chala Shakum of Lungthulien village also said, “We never expect anything from the Government of Manipur. We never even count on it. It has no meaning in our lives till today.” Sangneitling questioned what a government is for the distressed villagers. Zarzolien also said that the Manipur government does not exist for them to be trusted. He said, “We are forgotten people.”

In many Tipaimukh villages the prices of rice and other basic commodities have skyrocketed beyond their reach. While the issue price of rice at Public Distribution System by the Department of Food and Civil Supplies are Rs.7.29 (APL), Rs. 6.21 (BPL), Rs. 3.47 (AAY), the same quality of rice is being sold at Rs. 16/17 per kg in various Tipaimukh villages. However, in most of the cases there is no rice to be bought at that price even. The level of food scarcity is appalling. Lalmanlien of Leisen village said that as the entire village had run out of their food stock, they collectively borrowed money as they heard about the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), which came into force in the country in February 2006. “We borrowed sixty thousand rupees and bought rice that was distributed in the village. We thought that when the guaranteed wage employment for 100 days under NREGA reaches us we would all repay again. But we are so worried as there is no talk about the 100 days work anymore and we have nothing to eat again”, Lalmanlien said. By ensuring guaranteed wage

employment for 100 days to any adult in a household who is willing to work, the NREGA is the first legislation that compels the state to provide a social safety net for the poorest people of this country and seeks to address the urgent issues of hunger and rural distress that afflict large parts of India. However, in Tipaimukh villages, there is no awareness of the entitlements of workers under the scheme such as the concept of work on demand, unemployment allowance, and the availability of work site facilities. Despite that, the state is bound to give work on demand and this is a fundamental principle of the NREGA. However, for Tipaimukh villagers to realize that it would need a strong democratic governance to ensure accountability and transparency. Despite the vain wait, NREGA was not launched to combat bamboo flowering. But the distressed villagers are trying to plot their hope in everything in the midst of their biggest fear. “It would do us best if we leave this place as there is nothing left for us here anymore. But where can we go?” Hrangtlunglien asked. Lalditum of Sipuikawn village also said, “The 100 days work scheme is just a dying rumour. Do you really think it will reach us? If the Government of Manipur is serious about saving Tipaimukh villagers, it should lose no more time and act fast.”

Various church organizations have come to the aid of the hunger-stricken Tipaimukh villagers. However, with their limited capacity in the face of the gigantic problem they could not sustain their efforts to aid the distressed villagers. There is a big vacuum, which has to be filled by the State. The Government of Manipur has to step in to aid its citizens by addressing policy issues related to the farmers’ plights. To combat the impact of bamboo flowering in different parts of Manipur, the Ministry of Environment and Forests has allocated Rs 6.9 crore and 1 crore in the year 2005-06 and 2006-07 respectively. The State will continue to receive Rs 1 crore till 2009 for the same cause. However, the funds have not reached the targeted group till today. It is not known if the Centre allocated funds for the distressed farmers were diverted, drowned or drained. In case of Tipaimukh there is a need for the government to identify the villages as distressed villages. Besides the need for taking stock of the situation, the Government of Manipur is yet to connect and link the villages with roads. Moreover, to combat the deteriorating plights of the people of Tipaimukh and other affected areas in the State, the Government of Manipur could avail funds such as Additional Central Assistance from the Planning Commission, 12th Finance Commission and, if necessary, also from the Calamity Relief Fund under the Ministry of Home Affairs. Moreover, the Government of Manipur has to intervene on a war-footing scale to develop regeneration plan, development of necessary infrastructure, survey and mapping of resource, rodent control and precautionary measures to control the spread of epidemic, awareness campaign and more urgently famine control. Not only that, the Tipaimukh villagers need a mass counselling programme on issues such changing the crop patterns and subsidiary activities other than the traditional slashed-and–burned practice, which is a threat to the environment. The Government of Manipur should act immediately knowing that its decisions and actions could save its distress citizens who are rendered hopeless by its inactivity in the face of the gregarious bamboo flowering.

The Imphal Free Press

Manipur News | 28 schemes proposed for state under NEC funding in 11th Plan

By : A Staff Reporter 11/23/2007 12:55:57 AM

IMPHAL, Nov 22: Manipur government has proposed as many as 28 schemes/ projects including ongoing ones for funding during the 11th five year plan through the North Eastern Council, NEC.

Among the schemes, nine are in the agriculture and its allied sectors, one in forest and environment, ten in power sector, one under MANIREDA, three in transport and communication sector, two in tourism, three in sports and youth's affairs, six in health sector and one in irrigation and flood control department and its sectors.

The proposed projects in the agriculture and allied sector are a scheme on popularization of multiple cropping with an amount of Rs. 340.35 lakhs, reclamation of acids soils (valley and hills) of 1.14,000 hectares with a scheme amount of Rs. 1185 lakhs.

Another scheme for extension of breeders seed potato farm with Rs. 600 is also included in the proposed scheme. This project has to be assessed and an impact study undertaken. So this scheme can be treated as extension one, the source disclosed adding that the scheme can also be reviewed by the NEC and state government officials if necessary.

Development/rejuvenation of plantation crop including citrus fruit with an amount to Rs. 217 lakhs is also proposed. Setting of livestock feed plant of 100 MT capacity at Thoubal district for production of different livestock with Rs 450 project amount is also included in the proposal
Adoption of villages for milch cows rearing in 22 numbers of suitable villages around the Loktak lake for 1100 families living below poverty line by supplying one milch cow to each family with fund amount of Rs. 440 lakhs, setting up of 30 numbers of Mithun breading centre in Tamenglong, Ukhrul, Chandel, Churachandpur and Senapati districts with fund amount of Rs. 60 lakhs are the other schemes included in the lists of the proposal.

Funding of Rs 464 lakhs in the integrated fisheries development and Rs. 400 lakhs for establishment of cold storage at Imphal are other with Rs. 400 lakhs are the other proposals under agriculture and allied sectors.

The state forest and environment proposed only one scheme with Rs. 2638 lakhs that is rehabilitation of bamboo flowering areas. This was a plan proposal which was also put up in the 10th five year plan, the source said.

In the power sector, the proposed projects are replacement of old conductors and insulators of Loktak-Mao and Loktak-Jiribam 132 KV with Rs 1647 lakhs and augmentation of various sub-stations with amount ranging from Rs. 8 lakhs to Rs 710 lakhs are proposed.

MANIREDA also proposed 25 small hydel projects and 10 solar hybrid power projects with a total amount of Rs. 225 lakhs.

Construction of Singhat-Thanlon road, Tamenglong-Tamei road, Kangpokpi-Tamei road were also proposed for funding during the 11th five year plan under the transport and communication.

The state also proposed Rs. 500 lakhs funds for construction of a three-star hotel under PPP mode at Imphal under tourism sector. Other proposed projects under tourism are integrated development of tourist circuit from Imphal to Moirang.

The state also proposed Rs. 200 lakhs for adventure and mountaineering scheme under sports and youth affairs also proposed for support of equipments and extension of training programme, another Rs.500 for capacity building and employment generation programme for the educated unemployed youth also proposed. An amount of Rs. 250 lakhs also proposed for fellowship and scholarship which is an ongoing project and for continuation of the same.

Under the health sector, the state government proposed for construction of 1st and 2nd floor OPD of JN hospital and upgradation of nursing school to graduate level with a respective funding of Rs. 215 lakhs and Rs.500 lakhs.

Under science and technology, the state government also proposed Rs. 1000 for upgradation of IT park building and infrastructure in Manipur, Rs. 250 lakhs for setting up of ICT demonstration and training centre at Imphal, upgradation of Manipur Science centre in Imphal with Rs.250 lakhs and funding an amount of Rs. 450 lakhs remote sensing application project.

The state also proposed Rs 85 lakhs for completion of ongoing projects of flood control at Lailamlui and Thoubal River phase-II.

Manipur News | Disturbed area status extended for another year, Cabinet approves police job for slain lady officer’s son

Disturbed area status extended for another year, Cabinet approves police job for slain lady officer’s son

By : A Staff Reporter 11/23/2007 12:58:11 AM

IMPHAL, Nov 22: The state Cabinet, meeting late today has given approval to the extension of disturbed area status in the state for another year, (not including the Imphal municipal area) and has also given assent to the appointment of the only son of child development project officer Rasheswori as a sub-inspector in Manipur police.

The state Cabinet late this evening met at the Cabinet room of the chief minister’s bungalow, with the CM in the chair.

Today’s discussions in the meeting focussed primarily on the law and order situation in the state, sources said.

The meeting approved the induction of Ningtam Saikhom, the only son of Rasheswori Devi, ICDS project officer, Moirang who was murdered by gunmen belonging to the KCP (MC) group on November 14, as a sub-inspector in the Manipur police.

He is to be appointed as sub-inspector by relaxing all rules and regulations that apply including the ban on fresh appointment imposed by the state government in all the departments under it.

Knowledgeable sources adi, all relaxations in respect of age (in case Ningtam happened to be age-barred) and all other requirements, including educational qualification, can be relaxed by the state government under the die-in hardness scheme as and when be applied.

Mention may be made that ICDS project officer, Saikhom Rasheswori Devi, 55, of Haobam Marak in Imphal was shot dead on November 14 in her office room at Moirang in Bishenpur district by gunmen.

The KCP (MC) group, later owned up to the murder through the media.

The dead body of the woman project officer was taken by the family after the state government assured of ex-gratia before her sharda ceremony with all the facilities that can give from the state government side including provision of an appropriate government job to the son of the deceased woman.

In the meantime, the Cabinet also approved to the extension of disturbed area status in the state for another one year from December 1 this year till November 30 of next year, 2008.

However, the status of the area within the Imphal municipality, from where the state government had lifted three year back remain as it is, i.e. the extension of disturbed area status excluded the Imphal municipality area.

The Cabinet also reviewed the law and order situation in the state which has been worsen since the beginning of October last and decided to direct the law enforcing agencies in the state to intensify the counter insurgency operations


Students union elections marred by abduction, clashes, College principal, RO abducted on poll eve

By : A Staff Reporter 11/23/2007 12:57:18 AM

IMPHAL, Nov 22: The principal of the Modern College, Imphal, along with a lecturer who was acting as returning officer for the students’ union elections of the college scheduled to take place today were abducted by unknown persons yesterday evening from the college premises.

The abduction is believed to be related to the controversy that erupted after a student body imposed a ‘ban’ on the students’ union elections.

As a consequence of the incident, the students union election for Modern College did not take place today, even as college teachers and students staged a sit-in demonstration at the college premises denouncing the kidnapping.

On the other hand, except for a confrontation among rival candidates at the DM College of Science that led to the ransacking of a hostel room, students union elections at most other government and government aided colleges took place peacefully.

Th Nandababu, principal, and Th Rajen, head of geography department of Modern College who was acting as RO of the students election of the college were abducted by around 10 unknown persons yesterday at around 6.45 pm from the college campus.

According to the students of the college, before the kidnappers, who were at least ten in number, claimed themselves to be members of the Manipuri Students Federation, which had imposed a ‘ban’ on the conduct of the elections in the college.

However, MSF president, Th Bomcha has clarified that the student body had nothing to do with the abduction, contending that it may have been done with the intent of besmearing the reputation of the student body.

In the meantime, the returning officer, Th Rajen, was released by his abductors this evening, apparently because he was unwell. On the other hand, the college principal is still to be released, and his whereabouts remain unknown.

Earlier today, denouncing the abduction, students and staff of the college staged a sit-in protest in front demanding immediate and un-conditional release of the two teachers.

A written complaint has been made with the Porompat police over the abduction, and the director of education (u) notified, according to college sources.

In the meantime, MSF president, Th Bomcha addressing a press conference, said the MSF had nothing to do with the abduction of the Modern College principal and the RO.

Reiterating that the MSF had ‘banned’ the conduct of the elections at Modern College for defying the norms that it had set out for conducting college student union elections, the student leader said none of the candidates were qualified, and further charged that the attendance records of the contesting candidates had been manipulated.

While demanding a public clarification from those responsible for such manipulation, he demanded that the college election committee should be reconstituted and fresh election process taken up.

Meanwhile, a confrontation erupted at the boys’ hostel of the DM College of Science while the counting of votes of the election of the college was nearing completion at around 3 pm.

The clash took place between the supporters of two general secretary candidates of DM College when the supporters of the losing candidate intruded into room no. 6 of the boys’ hostel at the college campus.

The intruders stormed the room occupied by by two students, Rabikanta and Mohendro and destroyed all the belongings inside the room including their books and clothing.

However, none of the students sustained injury in the confrontation.

The matter subsided after the police who rushed to the spot intervened and brought them under control. A settlement was also brought about between the two sides.

However, police rounded up six people who were allegedly involved or witnessed the incident for taking their statements.

The supporters of the losing candidate charged Rabikanta, who was the election monitoring agent of the rival candidate, of campaigning against the candidate supported by them openly in the hostel in spite of a verbal understanding between them not to do so.

Thursday, November 22, 2007

KHUADO PAWI (Taangthu)


KHUADO PAWI thu ka gelh hangin, kei zong Khuado thu a tel, i khanglui ngeina sungah a khangkhia leh a kidiah ngei ka hi kei hi. Tua ahih manin hih khuado thu kong gelhkhiat zong mi tuamtuamte' gelh ka kaihkhop hi lelin, a thu a kicin khit loh ding baanah mi tuamtuamte theih dan tawh zong kibang khin lo kha ding hi. Ahi zong Khuado pawi thu kigelh teng lakah kim pen ding hi. Sia Gin Za Go in Zolai Sim Bu Kum Sawmngiat Cinna (1913-1993) Souvenir sunga Khuado Pawi Thu a gelhna-ah hih bangin pan hi:

"Tedim gam sungah Khuado a kizat ciat hangin, lasak a kipan gamtatnate kibang kim lo hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, omna mun kikhat lo ahih mah bangin i omna mun tawh kituakin gam min, khua min, lui minte tampi-in phui- sam, lasak leh gamtatna-ah kizang ciat hi. A kibang lo neng neng a om hangin, "Khuado ngeina kician om lo hi, ci-a ngaihsut ding hi lo hi. Khuado thu i gen a kibat kim lohna zong a thupit mahmahna hi zaw hi, ci-in ngaihsut ciat ding ka deih hi."



Khuado pawi i cih pen Zomite pawi neih thupi pen leh lim zat pen ahi hi. Hih pawi pen tuuk annlak khit ciang kibawl hi. Hih Khuado pawi bawl hun leh Vaite pawipi ‘Diwali Puja' leh Kawlte pawipi ‘Mithuun Puai' bawl hun kituak a, Khuado pawi i bawlzia tawh kibat mahmahna nei-in mei kide tek hi. Kawl leh Vai ten ‘Khuaimeivak' de in, Zomite in ‘Meilah' i de hi. Hih panin Zomite pen minampite mah banga ngeina zia leh tong kicing a nei i hih lam kilang mahmah hi.

Tua banga ngeina zia leh tong kicing a nei minam picing kihi napi in, minam picing hong hisak I minam pawipi Khuado I neihna natawm a thei lo tampi ki-om ding hi. Minam Pau, lai, ngeina, pawi leh khanglui vante kician a nei lote minam picing kici thei lo ahih manin a it lo, a keem lo, a puah lote minam khangto suak ngei lo hi. Tua ahih manin Khangthak Zomite phawnna ding deihna tawh Khuado pawi thu kong kaikhawm ahi hi.


Zo pau-ah 'KHUA' cih in khiatna nam tuamtuam nei hi. Pasian genna in ‘Khuavak’ kizangin, Dawite genna in ‘khuazing’ kizang hi. ‘DO’ I cih in zong khiatna nam tuamtuam mah nei-in, a sia lam leh a hoih lamin kizangkhawm thei hi. I it I ngaih hong zin hong lengla a om ciangin zin do, lengla do ci-in ‘Do’ zatna mun om mah bangin, hong bawlsia thei dawi leh gaalte I sim ciangin zong ‘Do’ ci-in zatna mun mah om veve hi. Zomite in ‘PAWI’ I cih pen Mikangte in 'Festival/Feast,’ ci-in, Kawlte in ‘Puai' ci-in, Vaite in ‘Puja’ ci-in leh Mizote in ‘Kuut’ ci uh hi.

Hih thute panin Khuado pawi pen thupha hong guan Pasian dona, lungdam kohna leh thupha ngetna pawi hi-in; A lang khat lamah hong bawlsia thei dawi leh kaute lak pan kisiansuahna dinga dawi leh kaute hawlkhia-a dona pawi ahi hi.


Zo taangthu suite leh thugelh masate in Khuado Pawi pen Ciimnuai Innpipa Pu Tuah Ciang hun lai pek panin lim takin kizang khin dingin tuat uh hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, Pu Tuah Ciang pen Zo ngeina zia leh tong a geelkhiapipa in kingaihsun ahih man hi. Tua ahih manin Khuado Pawi I neih zawh pen kum za guk peuhmah sawt khin ding hi. Khuado pawi pen khangthak ngeina zui-in Manipur gamah Tedim Chin Cultural Club makaihna tawh October 11, 1969 kumin Taang-nuam khua-ah zat kipanin, Mizoramah Zomi Society makaihna tawh November 12, 1994 kumin Sairang, Tlawng lui-ah kizang hi. Tuipi gaalkaai Zomi ten Singapore Zomi Innkuante makaihna tawh 1995 kum panin Singapore khuapi-ah 'Leitung Bup Zomi Khuado Pawi' min vawhin zat hong kipan toin, tu ciangin leitung bupa Zomite omna peuhmah kizang kawikawi ta hi.


Khuado pawi in “NI” nei loin a hun bek nei hi. Ahi zongin a hun pen kum sim September leh October kha sung hi hamtang hi. Bang hang cih leh, Khuado pawi pen tuuk ann lak khit cianga kibawl hi a, kum khat leh kum khat, khaw khat leh khaw khat, annlak hun a kigual lianlian theih loh baanah, khaw sungah mipite om kim lai paanga a kibawl ngeina ahih manin leh khawhun hoih hun (khapi taan hun) a kipaan ngeina ahih manin Khuado pawi “Ni” ding kiciangtan khol thei lo hi. Ahi zongin khuado ni ding leh vai khempeuh taangpi tawh kisai ahih manin hausa leh upate mah in a geel loh phamawh hi. Upate in a tunga I gen kal sungin ni khat seh phot uh hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh khualzin gamvakte tua sungin hong tung kim thei le cih deihna hi.

Lam khat panin Aizawl dan khawnga khuapite-ah Khuado pawi ni ding kician khat seha kipsak pen a kilawm lahna om tuan lo ding hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh, khamtung nuntaak ngeina dana annlak cih bang om lo hi. Tua ahih mah bangin Mizoramah Zomi Cultural Society in 1998 kum panin Khuado ni dingin September 25 ni sehin kipsak hi. Manipur Zomite in bel October 2 ni seh uh hi. A hang in, October 2 ni pen India makaipipa Mahatma Gandhi pianni phawkna ni holiday hi-in mi kim hun awng neih ni khat ahih man hi. Hun khat ciangin leitung bup Zomite in a ni kituakin khuado pawi I zat hun hong tung lai ding hi.


Khuado pawi pen I Zo pawi thupi pen leh lim zat pen ahih mah bangin hihna, ngimna, deihna tuamtuam tawh a kidim, a nuaia bangin tuunkhawm tampi a nei ahi hi:

5.1 Kum Khen Pawi: Zolai sim bu sungah “K, Khuado pawi - Kum khen pawi” ci-a a kisin mah bangin Khuado pawi pen Zomite kum khenna hunpi khat ahi hi. Hih pen a kitelna dingin khanglui ten “ la I cih pen thu hi,” a cih bangin Khuado pawi-a kisa la dawng khat en sai le hang:

(A)Kum kikhen e, solkha dang e,
Ziin in a vang khua zong hen aw;

B)Ziin in a vang khua zong hen aw,
Sian sung tui bang siang hen aw.

Tu kawl tawi kum khua I khen a,
Ningzu khum leh aisa aw e,

Ningzu khum leh aisa aw e,
Khan kum sawt ciam lai leng e

Hih la in Khuado pawi pen Zo kum lui leh kum thak khenna a hih lam kiciansak hi. Tuhun ciangin Mikang hun khenzia 'Gregorian Calendar' zui-in kum lui beina December 31 ni leh kum thak kaina January ni 1 ni dan I zuih zenzen hang Zo kum lui leh kum thak khenna pen Khuado ahi hi.

5.2 Annlak Pawi: Khuado pawi pen Annlak Pawi zong kici thei hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh Khuado pawi pen tuuk annlak khit bek cianga a kibawl leh tua ann thak khai thakte muanga a kibawl hi a, kum khat sung tawntung I khawh I ciinnate pana hong piang thupha khai leh ann tuamtuam aihna leh tuate hong pia, hong siam pasian tungah lungdam kohna in a kizang pawi ahi hi.

5.3 Khuailak Pawi: Khuado pawi cianga a min thang mahmah khat pen Khuailakna hi. Khuado khuailak i cih ciangin a kimawk lak hi loin, khuaibu (khuaipheng) panin hong tung ding kum pen kum hoih ding maw, sia ding; kicidam ding maw, kina ding cihte theihnopna-a aisanna in a kizang ahi hi. khuaibu leh a note omzia panin kum thak sunga mabaan ding kithei thei ci-in khangluite in ngaihsun uh hi.

5.4 Meidet Pawi: Khuado pawi a vaamsakpi pen meidetna ahi hi. Khuado ni masa pen meilah lak ni-in kizangin “Meilah lak ni” a ci zong om hi. Hih meilahte pen pawi sung teng tawntung lim kizat mahmah hi. Dawi leh kaute dona (kaubetna, meidetna) a kipan khawsiam pasian a vaak tawh donna in zong a kizang, a kitangsak, a kivaak zihziah ahih manin khuado pen Meidet pawi zong cih theih hi.

5.5 Siansuah Pawi: Khuado pawi pen siansuah pawi zong ahi hi. I pu I pate in mihingte a nasak, a sisak leh mihingte tunga tuahsiatna tuamtuam a tungsak pen dawi leh kaute gawh uh hi. Tua dawi leh kaute tawh a teengkhawm hi dingin kingaihsun lai uh hi. Khuado cianga 'Kaubetna' leh 'Meidetna' in a ngiimpi pen zong mihingte a bawlsia dawi leh kaute notkhia-a innsung, khuasung, gamsung siansuah ahi hi.



Khanglui i pu i pate' ngeina-ah Khuado pawi in ni sagih sung tak awh ngei hi tuak hi. Ahi zongin Khuado pawi tawh kisaia laibu ka etkaakte lakah khuado in ni nga sung a awhsak leh ni thum sung a awhsak om hi. Khat leh khat theih dan, gelh dan kibang khin lo hi. Tua ahih manin hih khuado thu kong kaihkhawmna-ah zong na theihna uh tawh a kituah lohna zong om kha ding hi. Tulai taka i tual biakna a khah nai lote sungah ni thum sung bang kizang pen hi. I gensa mah bangin annseng khit, khapi taan lai tak, khaw sungah mipi kim ta uh ei, cih ciang huasapa in, "khai khai khai, guaite aw, na na ngai tek un, zing cianga kipan khua kido ta ding hi," ci-in tangkopa awngsak hi. Tua ni pen 'Kigin ni,' kici hi.


Khuado ding pulak ni pen 'Kigin ni,' ‘Meilah Lak Ni,’ ‘Lamsial Ni,’ ahih kei leh 'Vaihawm Ni' kici hi. Hih ni in khuado sunga gamtatdan ding leh a kisam ding teng vaihawmna, kithawina ni cih ding ahi hi. Sing lam, tui lam kisialin tuinaak kihah hi. khuado sunga zat ding vaak ding meilah la dingin khawsung nungak tangval inn lusikin gamlakah kuan uh hi. Lo kuante in kha sam in, "a site kha, a hingte kha na om uh leh hong ciah un, zu leh sa ne ding hi hang," ci-in phuisamin lo buuka suangthu teng sawn puk uh hi. Tua ni-in kaw sungah papite in khuado sunga tum ding phiit bawl hi ta leh, khuado sunga gamtaatzia ding hi ta leh kikumkhawmin, lawmah zu beel luupin tukhawm uh hi.


Khuado a ni khatna hi in, 'A Pi Ni' ahih kei leh 'Pansik Ni' zong kici hi. Hih ni pen Khuado pawipi ni, gualnop pen ni zong hi in, hih ni-in Sagawhna, Daihawhna, Khuado annkuang uumkhawmna, Kaubetna leh a zan ciangin Khuailaknate kihih hi. Zingsang khawvak phetin Lawmte' kong biangah dawi leh kau dalna in zu kaubeeltung khat tui leihsa, peeng siatsa in kiluup in, a kiangah zasan haal baangsa leh meihol kikoih hi.

3.1 Sagawhna: Khuado pen neihsa, khawhsa, vulhsa teng tawh hih theih zahin kibawlin vok kigo pen hi. Zingsang vaikuan hun ciangin, Lawm papite in a pawl a pawlin vok goin, ni thum sung a khom ding siit tuam pah uh hi. Sa semna-ah sakuang nam nih om in, sasem papite in a vok khawite leh a langte tan ding tuak a khen ma-un amau teng khamkhop ding thuuk masa uh hi. Tua pen 'Sakuang baal neek' kici hi. Vok vulhte leh a langte' hawm pen 'Sakuang Hawm' kici leuleu hi. Sagil bawl kawm, sa sem kawm, zu luup zu dawn kawmin taang ziahziah uh hi. Tua lai takin inn nupite in a inn tek uhah taaksih gaan huan uh hi. Naupangte in khuang leh zam, daktal leh sialki tumin a sisate phawkna in mualte hah siang uh hi.

3.2 Daihawhna: Sate a min phetin a sin a lung, a tuap leh a kalte themno kha tek eukhia-in sawm tangvalte in tua kum sunga misi a nei innkuanpihte puak uh hi. Hih sa sungkuate pen misite a ding a kikoih tuam hi in, sun lam ciangin nupite in zu khaihsa leh taaksih tawh tua sate kengin haanah misite va lui uh hi. Hih pen 'Daihawh' kici hi. A sisa a innkuanpihte' luguh pen sathau zuutzuutin zu leh sa leh taaksih tah uh a, hih pen ‘Si-annsuah’ kici hi. Khua do pen a si leh a hingte kizopna tawpna, kikhakna hunin kingaihsun ahih manin khuado ciangin mi pawl khat lungleeng khawngai-in kapkap mai uh a, la zong hih bangin sa uh hi:

A) Do na liingliing, do na liingliing e,
Gual in kum khua do na liingliing e;

(B) Gual in kum khua do na liingliing e,
Do haanah naubang va kap ta'ng e.

3.3 Annkuang umna: Daihawhte nupite inn hong tun kik masiah ann kineeksan thei lo hi. Nitaak annkuang uum dingin kikai khawm uh a, mi a kim tak teh, papi a tal taak pen in zu kam khat teepin phihin phuisam hi. Tua khit ciangin, a ban a baanin zu pen gual teep uh a, annkuang sa kuang uumkhawm uh hi. Ann neek khit ciangin i Zo ngeina bangin ki-it, kingaihna, kideihsakzia lahna in sabaak leh sangoi kibaak kengkhangin gualnuam thei mahmah uh hi

3.4 Kaubetna: Khanglui i pu i pate hun lai-in misi a om ciangin a kha pen misi khua-ah pai pah loin, innsung, innnuai, innkuun leh sumtawng teng khawngah khuado masiah thaamcip den dingin ngaihsun uh hi. Tua ahih manin misite a gil uh a kial mahmah ding ngaihsutna tawh misi a om teh kawsah, annkhai, lukhung ann cih bang kilui hamtang hi. Khangluite in misite pen dawite' peh hi, ci-in ngaihsun uh hi Tua ahih manin khuado sunga gilna laina a om lohna dingin dawi leh kaute notkhia-in kau kibeng hi. Ann neekna a man khit uh ciangin kaubet nadingin meilahte sau silselin lim takin tenin a lom a lomin kihencip hi. Kaubet ding ciangin kong sak leh kong khangah meilah taakna ding nahtangkuak kikoih masa phot hi. Hausapa innah pasal teng kikaikhawmin phiit lem uh hi. Tua ciangin inn kimin meilah de ciat uh hi. Tualteekpa (siampipa) in a thau lawnin kaubet hong kipan pah hi. Tualteekpa khit ciangin midangte in beng bei pan hi.

Kaubet pen pasal tangzang khat peuhin khut lang khat lamah meilah lom det kawmin tuga, heiga leh singkhuahbawk khat peuh tawi-in innsungtawng panin inntung innnuai innkawm teng baan satin:

Dawi hang, kau hang, nam hang aw,
Na zun, na ek namsia, na ni na kha ciang ta;
Na zi na ta ten hong lamet zawh sawt ta,
Na khua, na tui zuan in,

ci-in hawkin kiko gamgam hi. Tua banga innkawm teng baan satin innkongbiang a tun ciangin a tuga pen daipua denna in, “A khe buuk, a ngaltaak kha ing ei,” ci-in a meilah ken khen nih suahin, lom khat khang gawlah, lom khat sak gawlah a kuangsa in siatin nusia hi. Hih pen dawite hong lut kik ngam nawn lohna ding ahi hi. Tua kaubengpa pen mi thumin zui-in, khatin khuang, khatin daktal leh khatin thau tawi hi. Kaubet kipat ding ciangin thau khat vei lawnin, inn kongbiang a tun ciangin khatvei lawn kik hi. Inn khempheuhah kau a kibet lai takin tum theih tum mawh teng tumin, thau lawnin kisa ngeingai hi.

3.5 Meidetna: Inn khempeuhah kaubetna a man khit ciangin, sawm tangval tengin gua dawnah meilah siatin a desa in khuang, zam leh daak tawh a honin hausapa inntualah kisutuahin thum vei kiimvial uh hi. Dena kaubetna kammalte mah zangin kizui kawmin awngin kiko damdam uh hi. Tua panin tum theih teng khempeuh tumin a lawhsa kammal teng mah lo kik zelin khuatual (Tualbiakna) ah pai-in thum vei mah kiimvial leuleu uh hi. Hih pen dawi neng kau neng bang neng peuhmah om nawn kei hen a cihna uh ahi hi. Sawm tangvalte khua sung hong lut kik uh ciangin meilah tum baangte hong lutpih kik thei lo uh hi. A hang in, dawi nawhna lamah meilahte natawm niin baangin siangtho nawn lo dingin seh uh ahih man hi. Meilah tum baangte khuanawl sing dawn, phung dawn peuhah siatin nusia uh hi.

Mun khen kahtah tua meilah a tum baang teng kaikhawm uh a, meiphual sat uh hi. A khu a tam theihtheih nangin sawlbawk tawh khuh uh a, meikhu a paikhiatna dingin a laizang mun khat vangsak uh hi. Tua munsan pan meikhu hong zamkhiat ciangin siampipa in-

Sim kum pha hen na cih leh simah kaai in;
Zo kum pha hen na cih leh zo-ah kaai in;
Sim kum kong ngetna hi; zo kum kong ngetna hi;
Miimbeem kong ngetna hi; taangbeem kong ngetna hi;
Cidam kong ngetna hi; ludam kong ngetna hi;
Ludam, lungdam, khan sau kong ngetna hi;
Tu sawn, ta sawn kong ngetna hi;
Khi-awh pha, taubulh pha kong ngetna hi;
Galmang lu, samang lu kong ngetna hi.

ci-in phuisam hi. Meikhu pen khua sung lamah a kaai leh khua sung kicidam ding hi, ci-in khangluimite in upna nei uh hi.

3.6 Khuailakna: Kaubet zawh lamna dianna teng a man ciangin, a kihawisa khuaibu la dingin sawm tangval te kuan uh hi. Tua khuaibu leh a note omzia panin kum thak sungah ann leh tui kham leh kial, nat leh dama kipan tuahsiat tuahphat ding kihilna in ngaihsunin aisanna in a kizang ahi hi. Tua hi a, khuailakna pen kithupi seh mahmah hi.

Khuado khuai lakte pen zu (khuaizu)a nei nam hi loin, no a nei nam, mi a deh thei nam, sing tung ahih kei leh lei sunga a kaai nam- tuunpi, tuunpi malnen, ngaltuun, ngaltheen, khuaimul leh khuaithumte khuaibu (khuaipheng) kila pen hi. Tua ciangin khuailakna-ah zat dingin Khuang khat, sialki khat, daktal a kipua zo zahzah, zubeel peeng siatsa beel khat, khuaisah zu a vekin, phiit bu a kibawl zahzah, naang lukhu kikeng hi. Zan puan ding leh a zing cianga kizepna ding puan a koihcingte zong pua uh hi. Khuailakna a kikeng zu pen 'Khuaisah Zu' kici hi. Zute pen hausapa-a kipan haam upate in beel khat ciat a sik uh, sawm tangval tengin zingsang lama a don, nitaak lama a khaihkholh uh zute hi.

Khuai omna mun a tun uh ciangin khuai pen mei tawh kihal loin a pi teng khut tawh khatkhatin manin, ahih kei leh gua taitep tawh tepin that khin masa uh hi. Khuaipi teng a mat khit uh ciangin khuaibu pen a kua ahih leh to uh a, a pheng ahih leh phelkham uh hi. Khuaibu sungah a pheng dal sawm ciang bang pha thei hi. Tua khuaiphengte lak panin a hoih a limci pen leh a tak pen ciamteh uh hi. Tua banga ciaptehna a bawl khit uh ciangin khuainote tunga saphuaklai banga a pan dildel a paan pen dam takin hawkkhia uh hi. Khuaino zawngkhal khempeuh zong paikhia in, a etlawm lo khempeuh nul siang uh hi. Kum saanna ding khuaibu pen a kisia lo dingin kang takin lakhia uh a, naang lukhu sungah koih uh hi. Hih khuaibu lakhiapa pen tualteekpa in thuneihna a piakpa bek hi thei hi.


Hih ni pen Khuado ni nihna 'Khelleh Ni' kici hi. Hih ni in khuai tawh ai kisanin, nitaakin annkuang sa kuang ki-uumkhawm leuleu hi.

Zingsang khuavak tuungin khuailate khuaibu tawh inn lam zuanin ciah uh a, khuasungah lut suak loin khawmualah kinga-in khuaibu pen taangpi taangta muh theih dingin singkung tungah koih uh hi. Khawmuala khuailate neek ding dawn ding khawsung pan nungakte in annphel tunsa leh zu va puak uh a, Khuailate in khawmualah khuazaangpi kim ngakna in la tuamtuam- khuai la, mualbawl la, khawmualpi late sa-in lamlam uh hi. Khuazaangpi a tun kim khit ciangin zu kitulh, ann kibaakin nuamsa mahmah uh hi. Tua khit ciangin Tualteekpa in khuaibu sangin khuasung lutpih uh hi.

4.1 Khuai Tawh Aisanna: Khawsung a tun ciangin khuaitawipa mah masa in khuaibu pen Tual biakna mun lam manawhin kipaipih leuleu hi. Tua muna a na ngak upate in, "Sanno na hih leh na kik in, miim leh sawmtaang na hih leh hong lut in," ci-in na kal’ uh a, tua leh khuaitawipa in, "Sanpi, sanno hi keng; miim leh sawmtaang hi'ng" ci-in tua banga thumvei a kikalh a kidawn khit uh ciangin lutsak pan uh hi. (Sanpi, sanno cih pen natpi, natneu cihna hi). Tual a lut khit uh ciangin vial khat kiimkotin hih bangin khuai la sa uh hi:

(A) Ngaltun e, ngalthen a, khuai aw e,
Ka lo paama khuai aw e, sim ngalthen, zo ngalthen,

(B) Nang in kum khua na theia kong dong e,
ningzu a ken dong, aisaa ken dong.

Tua khit ciangin khuaibu pen tualsuang tunga a kiciing mawngkung tungah koih uh hi. Khuaibu tungah khawlu lam, khawtaw lam giitin ciaptehna kibawl a, khuainote paan honsa in koih uh hi. Tua khuaibu pen numei naupang leh nupi naupaaite et kiphal lo hi. Nitaak lam ciangin Upate in khualbu veel uh a, khuaibu sunga khuainote in a a khuhna a paan a na lam kik uh leh miimbeem taang beem a lamlam hi, ci uhin kum kik ciangin ann kihau ding hi, ci-in ngaihsun uh hi. Khuano a si peuh a na om leh kum kik sungah a si a mang om ding hi hang, ci-in khuazaangmite mabaan ding hilkholhna in ngaihsun uh hi. Upate in khuaibu pen sia leh pha leh, mipi lungnop theihna dingin "Khuai Hoih Hi" ci-in pulak pong uh hi.

Ann haute in geelzu a kici pen a beel a beel hong pua-in kiluup zihziah hi. Hih zu pen mai kum cianga ann hauh na’ng phuisamsakna ahih manin a hau nuam peuhpeuhin zu guansa in hong tawi uh hi. Tualteekpa in zu teepin khua lam nga-in phih kawikawi hi. Tua khit ciangin zu pen taangpi taangta in teep thei pan hi. Khuangtumpa in mipite cim dong laampih, la a oihpih khit ciangin mipite a inn ciat uhah ann ne ding kikhen uh hi.

4.2 Geelzu: Geelzu pen taang sawm nih zu ahi hi. Khanglui hun lai-in ann khempeuh lak panin taang a minthangsak pen uh hi. Tuuk tun ciangin tangvalte in mi ann neih zah ciamteh uh a, khuado cianga neek dingin taang sawmnih nei ciang peuhmah geelzu luup dingin gaam pah uh hi. Taang sawmnih a nei lote zong peng(h) thei tuan loin, tangvalte lawh hoih bek khat bawlin, khawtaw panin dong to uh hi. Hun khat khit ciangin taang sawmnih a nei zo haksa ahih manin vaimiim sawmli a nei ciang zong geelzu kiluupsak hi.


Khuado a ni thumna hi in, ‘Khuaisaak Tan Ni’ a hih kei leh ‘Khuai-aih Ni’ zong kici hi. Hih ni kuamah a pua pial thei loin a sawm ciat uhah om khipkhep uh hi. Khuai pen vok tawh ahi zongin, kel tawh ahi zongin, ak tawh ahi zongin ki-ai thei hi. Kel tawh khuai a aite pen a sih khit uh ciangin a luang bawm ding thote khuai in hung hi ci-in ngaihsun uh ahih manin kel tawh khuai aih ding thupi ngaihsut mahmah uh hi. Nitaak lam ciangin nungak leh tangval lamtual mahah kisutuahin geelzu luupin, la sa in, lam lialiai leuleu uh hi. Hih ni in zong a sawm ciat uhah khuai-aihna sa kuang ann kuang uumkhawmin gualnuam mahmah uh hi.


Khuado tawpna ni pen ‘A Sian Ni’ kici hi. Mi khempeuh a utna tekah kihawh kiciah thei hi. Geelzu mah zeekcing zo pen ahih manin mipite lamtual mahah kisutuah kik uh a, gualnop nunung pen ni ci-in la sasa-in, lamlamin khat leh khat ki-aamin nuamsa mahmah uh hi. A beisa ni nih ni thum sunga gamtat gualnopzia teng lungsim sungah thaam denin nungak leh tangval lawm kitop, lawm kingaih neihkhiatna pawi bang suak a, aam mahmah uh ahih manin zu leh sa kicinna-ah zanhak kha lai zong om thei hi. Gualnuamin nuam kisa mahmah ta leh zu lah peeng ta, laamlaamna, la oihoihna, tanuk tatsuk tattohnate hangin ci leh sa lah gim ta ahih manin aam laipi mah innlam zuan tekin, Khuado pawi kikhinsan ta hi. Nungak leh tangval bek tham loh, mi kim adingin khuado pen kum khat tawntunga gualnop pen hun ahih manin khuado kaal ding kingaklah thei mahmah hi.


Zomite Kumlui leh Kumthak Khenna, kum khat sung tawntung I sep I bawlnate-ah thupha hong guan I biak Pasian kiangah lungdam kohna, mailam ading Thupha ngetna, Siatna hong tun thei Dawi leh Kaute tawh I kipelh na’ng leh eimah-mahah I hoih lohnate tek pana i kisiansuahna ding hun thupi ‘Khuado Pawi’ bawl pen Khristian ngeina leh Pasian deihna tawh kikingkalh lawmlawm lo cih I phawk thak ding deih huai mahmah hi.

Khangthakte in Khuado pawi I zat ciangin, I pu I pate in i khanglui hun lai leh i Zo ngeina tawh kituaka a zat danun kizang thei nawn lo hi. I theih ding thupi-a ka ngaihsun pen Khuado Pawi I zat ciangin Khuado Pawi ‘ a khiatna leh a deihna ngaihsunin, tua leh i khristian biakna leh tuhun tawh kituakin leh I omna mun tek tawh kituakin I zat ding kisam sa ing. Tuhun ciangin Zomite leitung mun tuamtuamah ki-om ta a, ‘Ngeina kician neite - Minam kician’ a hih mah bangin I omna tekah I Zopawite khahsuah loin keemcing in, Zuunin, I thupi bawl ding kisam hi.

Laibu Etkaakte:

1. Ciimnuai Magazine 1994, Yangon
2. Guite Khang Thu, Kalemyo, 1986
3. Khanglui Ngeina, Aizawl, 1999.
4. Zolai Simbu Kum Sawmgiat Cinna, Lamka, 1993.
5. Zolai Sim Bu (Class IV ), Tedim, 1997.
6. Zolawkta Oct. 1999 Issue, Aizawl

© 2002-2003 by J. Thang Lian Pau. All rights reserved. e-mail:


AVUL PAKIR JAINULABDEEN ABDUL KALAM | 15 th President of the Indian Republic- The Largest Democracy

By Shang Samte

-dreams float on an impatient wind,a wind that wants to create a new order ,an order of strength and thundering of fire.---from a poem written by Dr APJ Abdul Kalam


A jaatathuai India President lui, Pu Dr APJ Abdul Kalam khu “Indiate Missile vaiguonte Pa” (Father of Indian Missile Programme) chi a thei in um hi. Satellite Launching Vehicle III Project Director ahina ah India tualsuah Missile hakhiat masa pen alim-leh-amel a kheng a, apian khiatna leh a ngaituona teng ah mun poimaw pen a luoden hi. India solkal a pat pahtoina tuam tuam Bharat Ratna 1997 te tel in a nga hi. May 11 to 13, 1997 a India in senelgam Rajasthan Pokharan mun a Nuclear etkhiatna anei na uah amawpuohna leh a silbawl thupi te jiah in jong theiphah in um hi.


October 15,1931 in Tamil Nadu a Rameswaram gamkai ah a piang hi. Apa Jainulabdeen Marakayar in ngabeng mite long/kuong akhelsah jela tuokhua kivahna uh leh a nehsuina uh ahi. Kalam in a geena ah ‘Chitahna leh mani kithununna’ chite Apa a pat a alahsawn ahi a chi hi. Apu sawn, Apu, leh Apa te min laa in Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam chi min piah in aum hi.

Innkuon neijou led kichithei tah vang ana hisamsih uhi.Kalam in a neulai in newspaper pou hawm in sum ana law vevo kha ngai hi. Ramanathupuram a Sehwartz High School apat High School a jaw in St.Joseph’s College Thiruchillapuri ah Graduate a, tuojou in Madras Institute of Technology (MIT) ah Aeronautic Engineering ah Specialize ding in ana lut kia hi.

Tam a tung a teng a jaw in Indian Air Force (IAF) a Pilot in ana lutsawm a nanleh a lawching jou tasih hi. Hinanleh DTD&P apat Appointment Letter ana mu a Technical Centre(Civil Aviation) ah Senior Scientific Assistant in sem hi. Kumthum jou in Aeronautic Development Estabilish (ADE) Bangalore ahing kihong tha a, tuonah aki Posting (tuonsfar) hi. Tuonah Senior Scientific Assistant ma asem a, Prototype Hover Craft siamkhiat na ding Team khat a na lamkai hi. Nanleh tuo Projet khu mualsuo lou a tawpsan ahi tahi.

Pasian deina bang in:

Naupangnou ahilai apat a vanlai a lending chi pen Kalam duthusam ana hi thamta hi. Tuodung jui in 1958 in Aeronautic Engineering ah ana graduate hi. IAF a Pilot hiding chipen a thangtup tinten hi. Dehradun a Air Force Selection Board te mai a Interview tan ahing din thei in kipahna leh thawlawpna in a pumdim hi. Hinanleh tuona teel te lah a atel jou tah lou chiang in akingaisia a ,alung a kia a amam-led-ama aki muse tuntun hi.
Tuochin kingaisia leh lungke pumpum in Dehradun a nuosia a Rishi Kash lam ahing juan ta a tuanah Ganga Lui sianthou(Holy Ganga) a vaki sawpsiang ding in a kuan ta hi. Tanah vangphat huai tah in Siampu Swami Sivanand toh ava ki maikha laijang hi. Tuanah Siampu’n bangjieh talawm a hichi daa talawm a hiei chi in a dong a man jong bangma im sese lou in sil umdan ten a gen a AIF a alut joulou dan te jong a gen hi.Tami in a puahgih a dawn jaang tuam mama hi. Houloimpi ding I nei chiang in I lungsim a I puah gih te jong jaang dawm mama hileh aki lawm hi. Tuachin Siampun khautah in a haamuan a a hanthawn hi."Khangnou Kalam aw, Na tupna khu na tung louleh pomsiam mai in len lungke lou in pai jel in. IAF a Pilot hiding a siam nahi sih hi. Nahina ding dihtah pen tutadi in theithei in um nai tadi sih nanleh guatsa khat pen a um khinkhian sa ahi. Tuajieh in bangsem ding, bang bawl ding a siam ka hiei chi sui khiat sawm teitei jo mai in. Pasian Appmai in len Ama khut hat ah kipekhia in” achi hi. Tuo Siampu thugen khu thudih vawt ahi. IAF a Pilot hitaleh Scientist minthang tah ahi ban ah Khovel a Mipi jaalennagam lianpen-India President hikha khollou maithei ahi. I gintat I gintatlou in jong ei a ding in Pasian in guatsa a nei a, tuopen I suikhiat ding uh poimaw pen hi.

Vanawng leh Rocket mipa:

Kalam in Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) ah bangtan ahiei khat a sepnua 1962 kum in Indian Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) ah asem tou kia hi. Kumtamlou nuo in tam INCOSPAR khu Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chi a hen in a hing um hi. Tuachin Kerela a Thiruvananthapuram gei a ki phut tha Thumba Equatorial Earth Launching Station(TEELS) ah suan in a um kia hi. Tomlou kal in SLV III Project Director in ahing kaisan paita hi. Kalam leh a seppite ki piahjaw na te leh pawnthaw na te jiah in bangtan ahei khat nua in Metre 23 a sau,Ton 17 a gih Stage lii(4) tah SLV bawlkhiat in ang um a, nanleh deibang in a lawching jou tahtah sih hi. Tami in Kalam lungkia leh beidawng in a koi sih a chouna khat dan in a la a, tha a nga josop hi. Tuochiin July 18,1980 in India a ding a amasapen ding SLVIII Shar mun a pat in mualsuo in a um khongkhong hi. Tam Vehicle in Scientific Sattelite –Rohini leitung Orbit ah a koi hi. Tam anasep theipi na in 1981 Padma Bushan Pahtawina piah in a um hi.

February 1982 nin Kalam in DRDO Director ding a guat in um hi. Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) kichi India Millitary Research Programme lawching pen a houtu-lamkai in a pang hi.
September 16,1985 in Sirharikota Test Range apat Trisul kapkhiat in a um a ,tuakhu Indian Missile Programme in a bawl khiat masah pen ahi. Tam lawchinna pen tam sang a lawchingjaw in jui a, Agni lawching tah a etkhiat in umkia hi. Tam lawchinna te in lawchin diahna nei hi a tam ma in India jong gamkhangtou te lah a khat ahi sah ta hi.(exclusive club of highly developed countries).Tam jiah in kipahpi etsahna leh kineisah pi mama pum in Kalam khu Padma Vibhusan Pahtawina piah in um kia hi. Tam kum ma in Akash lawching tah in etkhiatna kinei thei kia hi.

Asangjo lamah:

Mikhat in “bangding a India in ama ma kibawl Missile ahilouleh kidouna vanlengte led tank te a poimaw sese ahiei” chi a a dawh lai in Kalam in “Ahat ten a hat te ma jaana a pia uhi.(strength respect strength)” chin a dawng hi.

November 25,1997 nin Dr Kalam kung ah Defense leh Science lamsang a India a ding a a athaw (contribute) te jal in India a ding a Minautang tung a Pahtawina Sangpen(higest civilian Award) Bharat Ratna Pahtawina piah in a um hi. Dr Kalam ahileh Dr Homi Jahingir Bhabha ban tah a Telsuimi(scientist) Bharat Ratna pahtawina sang umsun ahi. October 1998 in amanpha mama – Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration (1997 a) piah in a umkia sawnsawn hi. 1999 in Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India ding in Kalam guan in a um a, tam panmun ahileh Cabinet Minister toh kikim a koi ahi. Kalam in tami panmun November 2001 tan atu tou hi. A nasep taangpi ahileh lamjousia a gamsung a Scientific Development um theina ding a solkal te thumop (advice ) ding chi ahi.

December 8,2000 nin Shri KC Pant, Deputy Chairman of Planning Commission in “Lifetime Contribution Award in Engneering for 2000” chi Kalama pia (conferred) hi. Dr Kalam ahileh Doctor of Science Lukhunelkai (D.Sc Honoris Causa) chi Univesity/Academic Institution tuomtuom 30 lam ten pia (Conferred) uhi. November 10,2001 in Kalam in I gamsung pumpi ua Telsuimiten a telsuina uh capability uh punsah seem na(boost) ding uh deina in Principal Scientific Adviser panmun a nuasia a Anna University ah Proffesor na a sem hi.

July 25,2002 ni in Dr APJ Abdul Kalam khu India te President 15 na hiding in kichiamna a nei ta hi. President ahina dawla a vaihawmna innpi(parliament) a athugen masahna pen ah “tawndan kibanglou igam sung uah lungsim kipumkhatna lamsang a semding in katha kajung ka seng ut hi”achi hi.Kalam in President term khat a sem a a nina semkia ding in pawltuomtuom a pat ngetna/chielna te mu nanleh ana nual in Sangnaupang te toh a hun man ut jot a hi. India President te lah a lawching pen chilei ki khial lomlom lou ding hi.

Maban vahjo sem mangmatna:

Dr Kalam in Laibu tuamtuam Wings of Fire:An Autobiography, Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India leh India 2020: Vision for the New Millenium chite ana giel hi.

India Millenium Mission 2020 chi ngaidan(concept) puohlut na ding in kum bangjat ahiei khat pi ana mang hi.

Dr Kalam duthusam lianpen ahileh “India pumpi a Naupangte lungtang suh tang/dih ding,Science Ittsah ding ban ah Nampi tup leh ngim thupi pente hisah ding ,akhangtou India hisah ding” chite ahi.

Minunnem Kalam:

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam ahileh mi ki ngaingiam ,kingiamkhiat tah (simple man) ahi. Zii neilou(????!!!!!! ) Zu le sa nelou(teetollar ban ah Sa le nga jong nelou(vegetarian) mi ahi. Tamil laate a ngaisang mama a lavuigel leh laaphuah siam pi khat jong ahi nalai hi.(mi lunggel thei,mihepi huai himai lou I maw???haaaaa) Banah Rudra Veena kimawl lunglut leh thanuam mama jong ahi.

Kalam ahileh Hagaumi mama jong ahikia hi. Hinduism lehIslamism juikhawm jou mi ahi. Ram Bhakt ahia,Namaaz zong a pel ngai sih hi. India President ahina ah buai thei mama nanleh sangnaupangte a itt a ,Amaute toh kipawl khu a thamuamna ahia, tuami a ding in a hun kibichil tah a su awng jou gige hi. Aman khanglaite mani kitouel jou dingleh India khantou na ding a panlaa chiat ding in deisah mama hi. A gamsung a khangnoute a thuhilna ah –“dream,dream and dreamand convert those into thoughts and later into Actions “achi hi. Tualeh Lungpi kuo alianpi gel a ngaituo ding, angma sial taluo hilou ding in jong vaihah hi.


Dr APJ Abdul Kalam mihinate et in mi pha leh chingkam mama ahi dante muthei in um hi. Sangnaupangte a ngaisang dan te bang thupi mama hi. Tualeh India tuleh tu din mun leh maban ding a khuolna te thupi mama hi. Vision 2020 chi bang I et chiang in a vision te thupi mama hi. Indian Missile a khen (bawl)mabang in India jong a kheng hi. Pahtawina a tan tah mama a chiamte ngeingei ding in a hoi hi. Pu Nehru pianni jong Childrens’ Day a aki lawp thei a Government Holiday ahi thei leh Kalam pianni jong bang e khat a jah tah mama in jah huai ve lou ding amah?? chi ahi.
Kalam in India Sangnaupangte leh Khangnoute a thupuoh,ahanthawn leh achouna ah tambang in agen hi. “You have to dream before your dreams can come true. My view is that at a younger age, your optimism is more and you have more imagination .Great dreams of great dreamers are always transcended. We should not give up and we should not allow any problem to defeat us. We should always be more dedicated to making solid achievements than in running after swift but synthetic happiness”


Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part 6 -

By: Priyadarshni M Gangte *

The humming activities of year round tribal life among the Mizos revolve within the ambit of earning bread for survival without consideration for future growth and development on an agro-based economic system which has no place for concept of ‘Saving’, consumption being conspicuous and community bias.

Such a life of routine nature becomes obviously monotonous which must find expression in various forms of social celebrations to give vent to their longing for a life away from sacrosanct. In doing so, their structural functions of life are made often manifest in more than one way which have become social institutions that are major components of their culture.

Two such Institutions are briefly given below:

I. Sawm or Zawlbuk (Bachelors’ Dormitory) :

“Sawm” or “Zawlbuk” is an institution of the youth which concerns only with able-bodied young boys of the village. It is a bachelors’ dormitory in which all the young boys of the village sleep together at night. The nature of hostility and practice of inter-tribal feuds necessitate existence of this institution so that in times of emergency the services of all able-bodied men might be available at short notice.

They have to offer their free and compulsory services to the village from external dangers. In times of peace they render every possible service to the village community whenever required. Moreover, it is an institution for recreation of the young boys.

In the ‘Sawm’, younger boys are taught all sorts of things from cutting jokes to taking responsibilities. Stories are told by the elder members and sometimes topics ranging from girls to war become subject matters of great interest.

This institution is also connected with the ‘Thih-Kheng’ office because the efficient mobilization of the village youth for defence depends mainly upon the ability of the ‘Thih-kheng’ to produce weapons. In a nutshell, it may be equated with modern system of ‘Informal Education’ and may as well be likened with that of Defence and Home Departments of modern administration.

The Mizo society is such that during the days when intertribal feuds were part of their way of life, every able-bodied youth of a village slept together as called for by customary law so that they might be readily available for deployment in times of emergency.

‘Sawm’ or ‘Zaulbuk’ is also considered as a place of learning. Boys of different age-groups are assigned various jobs and other sundry chores. The boys of younger age-groups learn things from the older groups.

They also learn social customs, customary laws and manners. It serves as an institution of learning discipline and other essential character formation necessary for a man to be responsible in future life. It has thus been considered as a very essential part of the village administration among the Mizos.

This is an organisation responsible for mobilization of the services of the young men to meet exigencies of situations. In this connection Roy[90] describes the bachelor’s organisation as:
... archaic form of economic, social and religious organisation. It must have been effective economic organisation for purposes of food gathering a useful seminary for training young men in their social and other duties, and an institution for magico-religious observances calculated to secure success in hunting and to augment the preventive power of the youngmen so as to increase the number of hunters in the tribe.

Thus, the young boys of the village are concentrated at a place for emergency service. In this connection a story is current, which runs as follows:
There was a time when every tribe was scared of the Pawis (Lakhers) because of their ferocity in warfare. But the Sitlhou Chief of Jampi village, the head of all the Sitlhou clan of the Thadous, arranged things in such a way that he and his collateral brothers must not move out from their place for fear of the Pawis[91].

He asked his two junior collateral Chieftains of Lhungtin and Aiyang villages belonging to the Hangsing and Chongloi clans to remain in their villages on condition that he as a senior collateral cousin would remain together with them. So, the three villages forming a confederacy remained in union where they were based.

Now, having stood their ground unitedly, Lhungtin and Aiyang villages acting as buffers between the Pawis and the Jampi village, became the thorn in the flesh to the Pawis, who could not stand any longer in the face of such combined force of the three confederate villages.

In order to relent situation and with a view to living side by side in peace and amity, the Pawis sought for the concurrence of the Jampi Chief to pacify his junior collateral two cousins of Lhungtin and Aiyang Chiefs. As a token of peace and amity of the proposed pact, the Pawi Chief came to him pleading that the Pawis were no longer able to live in peace because of fear for ‘Your brethren Singhangs[92] (Hangsings).

Please be kind and pacify them and ask them not to trouble us any more, so that we all might live in peace as good neighbours.” In proposing such a peace pact with the three collateral brethren Chiefs, the Pawis brought two shields to be used in front and back – ‘Lum Le Phaw’ – one big type bead, called ‘Khi-chang’, one spear, known as ‘Tiengcha’, one belt which has seven lines of one rare kind of bead, called ‘Paigen’, to the Chief of Jampi.

It was obvious, when one comes with such a peace and goodwill mission that the proposal was difficult to be turned down. Therefore, accepting the proposal of the Pawis in good faith, the Chief of Lhungtin and Aiyang villages relaxed and were at peace with the Pawis.

Obedience and veneration to the senior Chief were the mode of life in those days as formally incorporated in social etiquette per customary law. Thus, when a senior collateral Chief advised them to stand down, there was nothing but to abide by his wishes as provided for in the codes of customary laws, which they thought to be in their best interest.

Accordingly, the Pawis also ceased their hostility against the three villages. But this was a lull before the storm and it lasted only for the first year[93]. Believing in what superficially appeared as being reality of the situation with complete cessation of arms hostility on the part of the Pawis, the three collateral cousin Chiefs became complacent with over-relaxation.

On the other hand, the Pawis had been surreptitiously planning to attack the Lhungtin village by surprise. It so happened that one night, when all the able-bodied youngmen of Lhungtin village slept in their dormitory, the Pawis stealthily came and butchered them, killing instantaneously as many as eighty able-bodied young men.

As a result, the Hangsings were scattered and fled in different directions. Most of them were found to have settled down among the Paites. The one that gave a serious impact besides all other repercussions was that as provided for under customary laws the institution of ‘Sawm’ has to continue its existence in amended form as part of essential administrative structure of youth-wing of the Village under any circumstances.

The institution of ‘Sawm’ which was centralized took the character of a decentralized form due to defensive strategy. Such a different form of ‘Sawm’, though still continues, exists on small scale at different houses where there are young unmarried girls.


# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part I
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part II
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part IIII
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part IV
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part V
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part VI
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part VII
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part VII