Saturday, November 17, 2007

Looking East, talking West

Ramananda Wangkheirakpam and Smitu Kothari, November 05, 2007

India's Look East Policy (ILEP) was launched in the early 1990s as an economic and security-oriented foreign policy initiative linking India and East Asia. Fifteen years later, the External Affairs Ministry brought the policy to the North-east for the first time in a consultation that took place in Shillong in June 2007, with the second one held soon thereafter in Guwahati. The latest round in the series took place on October 31 in the form of a meeting of the Chief Ministers of the North-east in New Delhi.

While the earlier Guwahati October 7 meeting was being held, several hundred miles to the east, Buddhist monks were pouring into the streets of Rangoon in an unprecedented democratic protest against a junta that has become a close ally of the present Indian regime. When the protest was brutally suppressed, External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee, attending the meeting, said, "India is involved in a variety of bilateral projects with Myanmar, including roads, railway, telecom, information technology, science and technology, power…" There was no word about the democratic upsurge or its brutal repression. This provided a grim backdrop to the undemocratic
nature of the ILEP process itself.

These economic priorities, which are increasingly turning our leaders away from their democratic responsibilities, underscore another critically important reality. The North-east has closer relations with Burma — and vice versa — than with New Delhi. Before national boundaries were drawn in 1947, the North-east and Burmese territories shared deep cultural, economic and political ties. With the hardening of boundaries, these historical links were severed, except for a few economic holes in the form of Indo-Myanmar trade via Manipur and Mizoram. What has received little attention is the anguish that local communities continue to feel about them being delinked from the plurality of relationships they enjoyed with the people in and beyond Burma.

If the ILEP is also about understanding the reality and aspirations of the North-east, with policy flowing as a natural corollary to this, there should be a very different set of priorities. The first step would be the democratisation of the North-east — and of Burma. Present thinking in the corridors of power seems to shy away from engaging with this path. It seems to be easier to push through a host of development projects in a largely undemocratic manner. Minister of Development of North Eastern Region (MDONER) Mani Shankar Aiyar nearly got it right when he stated that the North-east needs to be "liberated" from its "geo-political trap". He has, however, not told the complete truth. Aiyar promptly went on to give solutions to the problem — solutions directed from New Delhi and beyond, and not those based on local aspirations and needs.

A recent publication, 'Insidious Financial Intrusions in India's North East' by Intercultural Resources has been one among many efforts that have tried, despite many odds, to reveal the intensive and multi-layered efforts of MDONER in collaboration with the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank to 'develop' the region. The publication also reveals that there is a comprehensive long-term plan for the North-east, 'Vision 2020', on the North East Council website. Except for one person, none of the authors is from the North-east. The ADB and the World Bank have also authored or commissioned a spate of reports and studies that detail plans to open trade routes, lay railways lines, promote cash crops and mono-culture plantations, build dams, expand tourism, etc. But there has been little involvement of the people for whom these ambitious schemes are being planned.

Not satisfied with a massive exercise in economic and social engineering, the North-east is being geographically re-configured by clubbing it with Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Little is publicly known about what is being called the South Asian Sub-regional Economic Cooperation (SASEC). Under the garb of doing the region a favour, there seems to be a massive plan that privileges external corporations and other economic players. A narrow elite in the region will benefit tremendously and this is already becoming visible.

The people's right to development, to their culture and to their own security, justice and democracy are getting short shrift. This is an unsustainable and dangerous path that will increase inequality and conflict and make the people in the region subservient to the dictates of national and international interest groups. The ILEP, in its present incarnation, must be stopped. What more and more people of the region realise is the need for a North-east-wide debate on their own path of development that integrally demands a restoration of democracy and political autonomy in the region and in the neighbouring countries as a pre-condition to further centralised interventions.

Ramananda Wangkheirakpam and Smitu Kothari are researchers with Intercultural Resources (ICR), an independent public policy research group in New Delhi.

Source: The Hindustan Times

Friday, November 16, 2007


By Tungnung

A group of a few guys were in a rented room in Munirka, New Delhi. While we were talking about something related to our community, one of our fellow guy stop all of us in the middle of our discussion. He said, "I have a question to ask and I need the answer right now, if you guys can answer I would really appreciate it". We all laugh with amazement; he again starts his words and raised this vividly worth answering question.

The worth answering question is "Why the name of the Zo/Zou is being neglected by the other Zomi community while writing or speaking about the Zomi, why it is not mention when some body speaks about the Zomiz?".

After hearing this unexpected or uncalled for question, we all soughed at him and one of our ignorant friend simply said, "it indicates that we are worthless to mention". By hearing this brainless response, I somehow got angry and make him shut his empty mouth. I asked them all to listen carefully and tell them they should not disturb me while I am talking. So, I make them sit in a round and start my lecture.

Dear friends, if you don't mind let me elaborate this topic a little bit deeper so as to understand and got the root points of my lecture. Zo/Zou, as we all know is the only tribe/community, which treasured the originality/ancient history of the ZO/ZOU. Zo/Zou people are the one who first started to make understand our brethren that they too are Zo/Zou. If you see in the anal of the Zo/Zou history, the Zo speaking people are the people who called themselves Zo/Zou even while the other unaware of their belongingness called them Zo naptol. To mention a few out of many worth mentioning ownership, I would like to tell you one more thing. The Zo/Zou people are known as the intepu or intepi of the Zomi.

For all these reasons, the awaken Zo suons deem it unnecessary to mention the word Zo/Zou while they speak about the Zomi. That means, they know that we are already in that very topic. Just to make you clearer, with my sincere apologies to our Zo brethren, While we talk about Zomi, one has to mention Paite Zomi/Zo, Thadou Zomi/Zo, Gangte Zomi/Zo, Simte Zomi/Zo, Tedim Zomi/Zo etc. etc., it is clear that one does not have to mention Zou/Zo Zomi. It signifies that Zou/Zo are already in the Zomi itself. As I have told you earlier, the other communities like Paite, Simte, Thadou, Gangte or others are the name which comes from/according to our dwelling place or comes from the name of the sons' of Pu Zou/Zo, we need to mention them while talking about Zomi.

After lecturing these short facts, my friends surprisingly greeted me, saying, wowwww!!!! Tungnung, you are incredible, where the hell did you get all this knowledge? "This is the fact that every one ought to know, it is simple, one can learn this things from our day-to-day life" said I.

We then went out and have a cup of tea.

Note: This article may sounds intolerable or too much to teach a friend. If it hurts your sentiment, here my apologies. Sorry!!

Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part 4 -

By: Priyadarshni M Gangte *

Modern Phase:

(i) Concept of ‘Zo’ (Jo) Unification:

At this juncture, it may be relevant to briefly describe the meaning of ‘Jo’ which was generally considered as necromancers and sorcerers for which the Burmese were not accorded ill treatment for fear of being revenged with some enchantment. In this connection it is significant to note that Father Sangermano was sent as a missionary in 1782 who arrived in Rangoon in July, 1783 and proceeded to Ava directly the same year. Herein, it is pertinent to refer to the letter from Vum Hau[61] (Vum Ko Hau) to Haokholet.

In this letter he emphasized the fact that the nomenclature of the ‘Mizos’ and ‘Zos’ should be retained. There was no iota of doubt on the truth of their nomenclatures. In doing so, he indicated the equations between ‘Mizo’ and ‘Zomi’ stating that more than 200 years ago a most learned Italian missionary had recorded the fact that the ‘Kuki’ and ‘Zo’ people were either Mizo or Zomi. These people lived on the west of the Chin Mountains between 20o and 30o longitude and 21o and 30oN latitude and that area was called ‘Jo’ in course of time becomes Burmese.

He further claimed that he read most of the books concerning the ‘Jo’ from the British Museum, the National Library of France, the Museums in the Hague and Leyden and Utracht, and also the Indian Office Library, the London Library and National Library of Scotland in Glasgow wherefrom he could confirm that Father Sangermano was the first author to record the word ‘Jo’ (Zo).

In consideration of the above contention it may be concluded that the tribes who are known broadly as Kuki, Zou and Mizo in Manipur reveal a common origin in their customary laws and many prevalent traditions. Such concept equating Mizo and Zomi will not be incorrect or an underestimation of their socio-political or religious status.

In this connection, the terms ‘Zo’ ‘Kuki’ and ‘Mizo’ signify a common social and cultural group of people. This idea is not a new thing. It is a global phenomenon caught under the ethnic explosion the world over. This had been termed as “political creed”. Instead, it could be more appropriately termed as ‘ethnic consciousness’ prompted by revolutionary movements to consolidate the said group of people led by Vumkhohau under the banner of ‘Zo’ unification.

He met General Aung San[64] in February, 1947 in the historic ‘Panglong’ Conference as the Chief delegate of the ‘Zomi’ and entered into an agreement with the latter for the full fledged Chin Hills State in the event of Burma being granted independence. Herein, the fateful disastrous day of 19th July, 1947, may be mentioned that when the entire prospective Cabinet Ministers of the Constituent Assembly on the threshold of Burma being given independence were murdered including General Aung San.

As luck would have destined, Vumkhohau survived the ugly incident. This ultimately brought him into political prominence in independent Burma when he joined the first Cabinet of the Thakin Nu (U Nu) which had been constituted after the death of General Aung San. And so he along with Prime Minister U Nu signed the Burma Independence Treaty in London on 17th October, 1947. This was a momentous land mark in the regional geo-political history of contemporary Burma and Manipur as it gave impetus to Zo national movement for their unification.

It is comparable to the movement of nationalism that had awakened the leaders of Italy and Germany to unify their respective countries in the 19th Century. During the same period Bismarck of Prussia consolidated more than three hundred states together and constituted one nation. Likewise, Zo people presented a united far sightedness in their approach. Nationalism was reflected in their socio-political insights and movements in the 20th Century.

(ii) Concept of Hebrew Origin(Israelite Concept):

While tracing the origin of the early history of the Mizos, one of the sources that cannot be overlooked or sidelined as totally baseless and unfounded, is the culture and tradition which claim that the Mizos are descendants of a tribe of Israel in the House of Ephraim, the tenth tribe. According to the Old Testament of the Bible, the Israelites were the chosen people with whom God entered into a covenant.

But the people were unfaithful to God and consequently God dispersed them among the people from one end of the earth to the other and there they served Gods of wood and stone which neither they nor their fathers had known.

In doing so, God dispersed the Israelites as a punishment by means of Assurians and Nabukadnazzar, King of the Babylon in 720 B.C. and 587 B.C. respectively. This was beginning of the diaspora of the Israelites, the dispersion of the Jews to the different part of the world. This lasted into the 20th century AD.

The Jews also came to the east in ancient times[69]. By following the foothills of Himalaya the ‘lost tribes’ then arrived in China. According to one estimates, when Israel attained Independence in 1948, about 5000 Jews migrated back to Israel and have settled in the Kubbutz.

On the basis of culture, tradition, customary laws, etc. it could be identified that the Mizos have Israelite religious and social connections.

The culture, customary laws, etc. are important in these groups as their identity is based upon it. As a result of this, the Welsh Presbyterian Church banned all revivalist manifestations, including ‘listening to voices, prophecy and speaking unknown tongues’. This ban could not, however, be enforced. Revivalism has remained a potent force in religious practice.

Impact of Revival has been still more dramatic. McCall commented that revivalist movement was fairly widespread and that the Missions were trying faithfully to keep it within the bounds of decency. In a progressive way these groups have retained their past culture, which have got manifested as a living tradition.

On the basis of existing culture, tradition, customary laws, religious belief systems, rites and rituals, some groups of Mizos have been identified as the children of ‘Manmasi’. The term itself is distorted form of ‘Manasseh’ of the Israelites who was the son of Joseph.

In the backdrop of such a situation, Lalbiaktluanga recorded that a revivalist named Saichhunga from Hlimen village claimed that Mizos were ‘the lost tribes of Israel’. This statement was confirmed as true by Chala of Buallian village in 1951 which was substantiated by those who accepted the claims saying,

“In the year 1936 the word of the spirit of our Lord came to Pu (honorific title similar to ‘Shri’ in Hindi or ‘Sir’ in English) Kapa and Pu Saichhuma, telling them that “we are Israel”. Also in 1946 the same message was received by Pu Chala of Buallawn village. Henceforth from every part and every corner of Mizoram we cried longing for our homeland, Israel… and searched every possible way for contacting Israel”.

It is observed that while Liabiaktluanga speaks of one Saichhunga, Benjamin calls this man ‘Saichhuma’. Similarly, Lalbiaktluanga tells us that Chala of Bualawn “confirmed” Saichhunga’s statement in 1951 as against which Benjamin offers 1946 as the appropriate year. These contradicting names and years need to be rectified.

From this account and several others it is clear that the connection with the Israelites had not been realized until “the word of the Lord came out to our prophets since 1936”, even though this revelation explains a history that would stretch back over two and a half thousand years.

In this connection it has to be understood that as per historic events the biblical Northern Kingdom of Israel was conquered by Assyrians in 720 B.C. Its inhabitants were taken into exile and banished from history. The fate of these people, “the Lost Tribes of Israel”, has inspired many legends and much wild conjecture.

There are such other local persons as Khuplam Milui Lenthang, who propagates Mizos being the children of Manmasi (twisted form of Manasseh of the Israelites). Here one sees, though very likely concocted or allegory, an element of evolution in the identification of the “putative Israelite” tribal origin of the Mizos.

When Chala first claimed that the Mizos were Israelites, he did not clearly indicate to which of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel they belonged. By 1972, however, one group asserted that Mizos of Manipur were originally descended from one of the ten lost tribes of Israel whose name was called ‘Manasseh’. But such identification arose by deduction rather than prophecy.

In support of this it may be observed that in many of the chants, rites, rituals, exclamations, used in various sacrifices and other sacred incantations as per Customary Laws the terminology, Manasia or Manase or Manmasi, is used.

These names have come to be equated with that of Manasseh in the Bible. Some such instances are that:
(i) when earthquake takes place, people run out of their houses and exclaim aloud, saying - “Calm, Calm, we the children of Manmasi are still alive.” It is said, whosoever might have been responsible for the earthquake on hearing the name of Manmasi, stops the earthquake. This has been all along the tradition before Christianity came to hold its root among the Thadou Mizos and is still believed and practiced spontaneously whenever earthquake takes place;

(ii) When ‘Ai Kawngpui Sial’ occasion (pre-Christian sacrifice for success in hunting) takes place, the priest, followed by his party chants, “Those above and those below, go away, flee, we the children of Manasia are coming”. This practice among the Lushai Mizos was given up after Christianity came in the area.

(iii) There lived a legendary heroine called ‘Lenchonghoi’ as was current in the folklores of all the Mizo tribes. She was known for her beauty. She was kidnapped by one Monster called ‘Topipa’ in the absence of her brothers. Her youngest brother who happened to be the strongest and bravest went after his sister to rescue from her captor. Finding her in a corner of thick jungles they came homewards.

‘Topipa’, on his return home found ‘Lenchonghoi’ missing and immediately went in pursuit of her. As they met, ‘Topipa’ and Lenchonghoi’s brother struggled for her. In the course of struggle, Lenchonghoi’s brother beheaded ‘Topipa’ several times. Yet, the head of ‘Topipa’ rejoined the body each time beheadased.

While the struggle was fiercely fought without either of the two men the victor, two Angelic sisters watched the fight from their celestial abode who sided with Lenchonghoi’s brother. At last they planned to help him win the struggle. In doing so, the elder sister advised her younger sister that the latter should tie one butterfly-like object made of thin wooden-plate and to tie it at the one end with a cotton thread so as to drop it, holding at the other end of the thread.

In doing so, the younger sister should advice Lenchonghoi’s brother to cut the same thread hanging over his head by addressing him “Manmasi” (twisted form of Manaseh or Manase). But Lenchonghoi’s brother did not pay heed to what she repeatedly said, not knowing as to whom she addressed as “Manmasi”.

At last ‘Topipa’ told him that he was advised to “cut the thread with which the object was hung over your head, addressing you as Manmasi”. Then Lenchonghoi’s brother did as he was asked to do. Now, as he cut the thread, Topipa’s head was severed from his body and died.

Thus it is said, ‘Manmasi’ is the ‘God-given name’ of the Mizo people among whom the legend had been current in the past many generations before Christianity came and is current till date. Therefore, the concept that Mizos are the ‘lost tribes of the Israelite origin” is no new invention or make-belief of some fanatic protagonists of the ‘lost tribes of Israel’ theory. It is nothing but ‘God given name’, it is said, with an overtone of finality, quoting their tradition and customary law of the Mizos as evidence of their culture.

Similarly, there are a host of cultural and traditional instances where Manmasi among the Mizos in Manipur is conspicuously made manifest as their ancestor. One such customary instance is when a grave is about to be dug. A libation is poured into the ground and the priest chants, “Make way, o stones and trees, for the children of Manmasi have gone to claim their own possession”.

With the claim of Manmasi as used in Manipur or Manasia or Manase as used in Mizoram to identify their ancestor, some Mizo groups adopted a new name as ‘Bane Manasseh’, meaning thereby “children of Manasseh” in Hebrew.

Sawngtindam observed, “The significance of the new identity is far reaching for it … dovetails elements in cultural and traditional religion with a significant force in the Jewish religion”, namely the fate of the Lost Tribes and the hope that some day they would once again be returned with the Jewish people. The belief is fulfilled and the customary law lives on.

It is a fact today many groups have accepted the Mizo Manasseh identity and are attempting to follow ‘Judaism in some form. This may be called conventional “Orthodox Judaism” or the so-called “Messiamic Judaism”, a cult which associates observance of precepts from the ‘Old Testament’, such as circumcision, observance of Saturday as the Sabbath, dietary restrictions and the Jewish festivals, with the Christian’s faith in Jesus as the Messiah.

Our research in this sphere has shown that there is an ironical aspect in these developments. Of all the elements of their traditional culture, animal sacrifice was one practice, which initially led to the identification of Mizos with the Israelites in the Bible, as it led also to identify group with similar practices as their associates or primary/segmentary groups.


* Priyadarshni M Gangte wrote this article for The Sangai Express . This article was webcasted on November 15 , 2007 .


Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part 3 -

By: Priyadarshni M Gangte *

Burma Phase :

They are grouped as Tibeto-Burman Family[23]. Chins are akin to Kukis and in Myanmar ‘Kukis’ are known as Chins. They came to Burma in the second half of the 9th century A.D. But Luce[24] puts in between the 4th and the middle of the 8th century A.D.

According to Lehman, Luce derived the 4th century from the fact that the Chins by this time had already used the word ‘tangka’ (coinage) which is believed to be the name of a Gupta coin of India. It is firmly believed that the coin was brought to the East by Samudra Gupta (C.320-380 AD) in the middle of the fourth century A.D.[25].

The 8th century A.D. is, however, derived from the fact that the ancient land route used by the Caravans and traders from China to India was not mentioned in literature. This convinced Luce to believe that the route was presumably closed after AD 300 until AD 750 and as such no major westward movement was noticed, otherwise it would have been recorded in the annals or literature26. He, therefore, strongly believed and concluded that most of the hill people arrived in Myanmar between the two dates.

Harvey[27] has, however, believed that many of the immigrants must have settled in Burma before Christian era. It may, therefore, be concluded that the Mizo people occupied the present Chin Hills before the end of the 8th century A.D. From the account given above, it may be conjectured that the Mizos came to Myanmar along with the people who are akin to them.

The North-East Phase:

The North-East India has been the seat of multi ethnic abode since time immemorial and is therefore known for its diverse ethnic mosaic from the waves of immigrant racial elements[28]. Kiratas, Cina and other primitive tribes were earlier inhabitants[29].

Kiratas means wild non-Aryan tribes connected with Cinas and the Chinese, said Chatterjee[30], and people living in the cave of the mountain according to MacDonald and Keith[31], are the Mongoloid origin who migrated from South-east Asia and Burma according Sanskrit term[32].

The epics and the Puranas refer the ‘Cinas’ as Kuki-Chins or Lushai[33]. The Geography of Ptolemy, a work of about A.D. 150 deals with the geography and peoples of other parts of Assam. But many of the words and places mentioned are difficult to identify.

The word Kirrhadae, for example, is identified as Kiratas. In the same way another work of the Greeks – The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea34 which mentions about Assam in different descriptions also refers a number of tribes as Kirrhadae[35].

In this connection, the work of Gerini, Researches on Ptolemy’s Geography, is commendable. He rightly identifies Ptolemy’s Alosong with Shillong and Tiladai with the Kuki-Chin[36]. Tiladai was located to the north of the Moirandos near the Garo Hills and Sylhet[37].

In the Mahabharatta, the Puranas and Tantras the ancient Assam is referred to as Pragjoytisha and Kamarupa respectively. The Mahabharatta mentions one Bhagadatta as one of the four sons of Naraka. He was a powerful ruler who ruled in the west.

The Sabha Parvan, from Hindu literature, relates the war between Bhagadatta and Arjun. In the war, the latter defeated the former after eight days of war[38]. It also mentions that Bhagadatta had a host of Kirats and Chins and other numerous warriors who dwelt on the sea cost[39].

The Hindu literature like the two epics and so many others makes references to the Kiratas[40]. About the proper home land of the Kiratas, the Vishnu Purana says that the Kiratas are in the east of India[41].

Therefore, Chatterjee concludes, “the Kiratas were known to the Hindu world as a group of peoples whose original home was in the Himalayan slopes and in the mountains of the East...”[42].

History of the arrival in India (North-East India) of the various Mongoloid groups speaking dialects of the Sino-Tibetan family is not known but their presence in India was noted by the tenth century B.C. when the Veda books were compiled[43]. The result of their participation in the history and culture of India in the areas where they had established themselves, has been their assimilation and absorption with the other peoples.

The migrations of the Mongoloid tribes to Assam took place through the North-Eastern and Southern routes of Assam from Burma. They entered Assam through the courses of the river Brahmaputra, Chindwin, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong and Menam. Some of them also entered Assam through mountain passes of Assam and Burma through the north-east and south-east[44].

When they arrived in Assam the Mon-Khmer tribes had already occupied some hilly regions but they had been driven out later by the newly arrived tribes into different directions[45]. Therefore, some occupied the foot hills of the Himalayas from Sadiya to the Punjab in the West, and the rest occupied the hills of Assam such as the Garo Hills, Naga Hills, Lushai Hills, Khasi Hills and so on.

It was only after their distribution and occupation of particular areas that they came to be known as Nagas, Bodos, Kukis, Khasis and so on and the areas of their occupation were known by their tribal names. The Sesatae of the Periplus and the Besadae of Ptolemy were also the same hill people of Assam allied to the Garos, Nagas and the Lushai-Kukis or the Mishmis[46].

The Lushai Hills Phase:

Like the previous movements, the migration of the Mizos (Lushai Kukis) from Myanmar or the North-East took place in three phases and as such, the people were for the sake of convenience identified under the three names as ‘Old-Kuki’, ‘New-Kuki’ and the ‘Lushai’.

The ‘Old Kuki’ or Hrangkhawl, Biate, Langrawng, Pangkhua and Mug (Mawk) was the first batch in migration. They were followed by the so-called ‘New-Kuki’ and then the ‘Lushai’ followed them as the third batch in migrations.

It is not precisely known, like the previous movements of the people as to when did they come to Lushai Hills but what is known definitely is that the first two batches had been pushed, causing them to go as far as what is now known as Tripura State of India and the present day Bangladesh.

A good number of Mizos (Kukis) are still living in Bangladesh. But history of their migration indicates that the first two immigrants, or at least some of them migrated back to Hiramba and made their settlements at the hills now known as North-Cachar Hills District of Assam.

Soppitt brings the date of their migration to the middle of the sixteenth century A.D.. But this conclusion may be disputed on account of the fact that mention is made in the annals of Tripura under the Raja Chachag or Roy Chachag who is said to have flourished about 1512 A.D. Chachag or Roy Chachag was the military commander of Dhanya Manikya who ascended the throne of Tripura in 1490 A.D.

In 1513 A.D. the Raja issued a coin in his name and in the coin it is written as “Conqueror of Chittagong”. During his reign a quarrel arose between him and the Mizos (Kukis) over the possession of a white elephant. The Mizos occupied the deep forest lying to the East of Tripura and the West of Lushai Hills[51].

The Rajamala, the Chronicle of the Tripura Rajas, also mentions the Kukis. The Chronicle speaks about the services rendered by the Kukis to the Tripura kings. The Chronicle also narrates how the Raj Kumar fell in love with a Kuki woman.

There is also evidence to indicate that the Mizos had already arrived in Tripura late in the twelfth century A.D. As had been said herein above, in the history of Tripura mention is made that once Raja Dharmadhar of Kailagadh invited Nidhipati, a Kanauj Brahmin to his court and granted him an estate, known in history as Brahmottar land.

The inscription in the copper plate marking the event bears the name of Kuki-land. The land bounded in the east of Longoi (Langkaih) river and the date is mentioned as 1195 A.D. The theory is that the Kukis, who are known in Tripura as Halam, sneaked into Tripura due to ethnic pressures, possibly perhaps, long before the coming of Palian and Zadeng ruling clans of Zahmuaka who had been pushed down by the Sailo Chiefs of the same ancestor.

They entered Tripura not from Lower Burma, but from Upper Burma passing through the area known as Lushai Hills. We cannot place them far behind the Kukis of the first batch said Sangkima. Hence, they are said to have arrived in the land in the period between fourteenth and fifteenth centuries A.D.

The last batch of migration, which were identified as ‘Lushai’, like the first two groups, consisted of many clans. The most pro-minent among them was the Lusei tribe of the Sailo clan. They were the direct descendants of Thangura who is believed to have existed in 1580 A.D.

As noted before, Palian and Zadeng groups came before the Sailos and they are said to have come in 1610 A.D. The Sailo clan are believed to have migrated to Mizoram beginning from the second half of the seventeenth century and might have continued till the beginning of the nineteenth century, Sangkima further said.

McCall has asserted that Lallula occupied Mizoram around 1810 A.D. Whatever the case may be, from the dates given above, a genealogy of the Sailo Chiefs and others and their respective periods, may be worked out. Though this may seem to be a difficult task, an attempt has to be made to string together the story of ancient ruling clans of the Mizos.

The Manipur Phase:

As for the Kukis of Manipur, Johnstone convincingly contended that the Kukis were inhabitants of Manipur since time immemorial and commented with appreciation that his predecessor, McCulloch, was cool and considerate that having confirmed that the new wave of Kuki immigrants who came to Manipur in 1843-1845 in great numbers were mainly with the main intention to secure land for cultivation that prompted him to place them at various strategic places all over the Hill areas of Manipur to meet the quest of Kukis for land which had no intention whatsoever with conquest of land.

This became a very convenient policy framework to create ‘Buffer Group’ out of the Kukis as ‘human shield’ to protect the Raja of Manipur and the British from their enemies. The Government of India in Bengal appreciated highly and created Kuki ‘levies’ at various strategic places.

Johnstone further praised him stating that McCulloch extended financial assistance to the Kukis from his private pocket money that won the confidence of the Kukis and their allegiance, placing themselves available by his side in any manner their services were required.

These complementary notings were fully corroborated from McCulloch’s[59] own accounts of the Kukis in Manipur.


# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part I
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part II
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part IIII
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part IV
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part V
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part VI
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part VII


* Priyadarshni M Gangte wrote this article for The Sangai Express . This article was webcasted on November 11 , 2007 .


Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part 2 -

By: Priyadarshni M Gangte *

The languages of all the above clans are very similar. As per classification of Grierson, these languages are termed “KUKI-CHIN”, YET ADDED THAT “Meitei-Chin would be a better appellation, as the whole group can be sub-divided into two sub-groups, the Meitheis (Manipuris) and the various tribes which are known under the name of Kuki-Chin”.. are considered as belonging to the Burmese branch of the Tibeto-Burman family which he sub-divided as follows :

(i) Meithei or Manipuri.
(ii) Chin Languages :

Northern Group: Thado, Sokte, Siyin, Ralte and Paite or Vuite;
Central group : Tashon, Lai, Lakher, Lushai, Banjogi and Pankhu;
Old Kuki group: Rhangkhol, Bete (Biate), Hallam, Langrong, Aimol, Anal, Chiru, Lamgang, Kolren(Kolhen), Kom, Purum, Mhar (Hmar or Khawtlang) and Cha;
Southern group : Chinme, Welaung, Chinbok, Yindu, Chinbon, Khyang or Sho, Khami.

Under the situation thus obtained, it should be understood that the term KUKI would denote the clans mentioned above collectively. All the same, it must also be noted that while KUKI as a common nomenclature has rapidly declined, abandoned and disused by a good number of them, MIZO as a new phenomenon has become increasingly dynamic in popularity and accepted as a National identity in the backdrop of contemporary political situation as it exists today.

Therefore, while the nomenclature ‘Mizo’ would be mainly and prominently used in this research work as its sole terminology for the purpose, the appellation ‘Kuki’ would as well be used intermittently as per relevance of the context to mean equivalent expression of MIZO.


The hardship one may encounter in the study of history of the Mizos is absence of historical evidences. Whatever sources that could be counted as historical, belong to the post-colonial period left by the colonial rulers of the pre-independence days. Thus lack of conventional data is the greatest hindrance to tracing the early history of the Mizos in a precise manner. Secondly, heterogeneity of the Mizo society as is briefly narrated above is another limitation.

Therefore, usual division of historical periods into ancient, medieval and modern is not possible, overlapping in tracing history an inevitability under such a situation. Despite this, attempts are being made to construct history of the Mizos. In doing so, sources of history may, however, be classified Oral, Inscription, Literature and Archival for the purpose of our research work.

1. Oral Sources:

Romila Thapar contended that sources of history are necessarily divided into historical and traditional so as to make history well founded and authentic. But in the case of history of the Mizos this may not wholly be possible. Mainly the Mizos did not have their own scripts to reduce their languages in written form earlier than later part of the 19th century so as to use the conventionally recorded indigenous sources of their history.

The only feasible means, therefore, is the traditional non-conventional sources, such as, folklores, folksongs, beliefs, superstitions, ceremonies, hymns, rites, rituals, etc., which are, as Bhattacharjee contended, always important for the people as they reflect on the needs and aspirations of the common people at various points of time.

Under the situation, oral traditions are the only and indispensable sources for which our research work in this regard will be placed to the minimum possible limit

(a) Khul or Khur or Chhinlung or Sinlung Tradition: Traditionally, all Mizo tribes claimed that they came out of a very big cave called ‘Chhinlung’ by the Dulian (Mizo) speaking tribes. ‘Sinlung’ by the Hmars, ‘Khur’ by the old Kuki tribes, such as, Aimol, Anal, Chothe, Chiru, Maring, Lamgang, Kom, etc., and ‘Khul’ by the Vaiphei, Paite, Gangte, Simte, Zo, Thadou and cognate groups of New Kukis etc., with the exception of Changsan, Lhangum, Thangeo, Lunkim, etc., who claimed that they were of “Celestial Origin”.

By this, we know that the Mizo tribes in general are the people of “Cave Origin”. This tradition is supported by folksongs and legends that were handed down from generations together.

One such folksong as rendered in English version runs as follows (only one stanza):
My mother land, famous Khul,
Home of my own ancestors,
Could it be called back like Chongzil,
Home of my own ancestor.

(b) Khampat Tradition: Khampat is located at its traditional or original location close to the Manipur border, and was the oldest town ever built by the Mizos. The town was said to have been divided into more than ten sectors. The Central block was considered as the palace site where the King or the ruler was believed to have resided. The Mizos had to move from this place due to pressures of the enemies coupled with the on-going process of movement of population to the west.

As evidence of their having sojourned at the place with a firm belief that they would reoccupy this place one day, they planted a Banyan Tree at the palace site so that it would bear witness to the effect that when one of the branches thereof touched the ground it would be indicative of fulfilment of their cherished hope.

It is a fact, believe it or not, that Khampat is, as of now, being inhabited by the Mizos and that by the time a section of Mizos returned to Myanmar and settled in the areas in the beginning of 20th century A.D., the branches of the Banyan Tree thus planted had already touched the ground.

Now many a people assume that this was a manifestation of fulfilment of the prophecy forecasted by their forefathers as the folktale related above was handed down from generation to generation.

II. Inscriptions:

For a historic period where written documents are not available, epigraphic evidence to make history authentic is indispensable. But no such dependable inscription has been discovered for a genuine early history of the Mizos either in Manipur, or Myanmar or Mizoram, except the one recently discovered at Suangpuilawn, about 150 kilometres North-East of Aizawl, where an inscription on a stone tablet could not be properly deciphered as yet.

The same is now installed at State Museum, Aizawl. According to some, the inscription was either in the old Meitei script or the old Bengali script. When it is properly deciphered it is expected that history of the Mizos might be different from what is now being current.

In addition, there is one copper plate inscription wherein the name of Mizosthanan (land of Kukis) was written. Suhas Chatterjee contended that Dharmadhar (Swadharmapa, or Chengpha) was the Raja or Kailagadh, who invited a Kanauj Brahmin, Nidhipati, to his principality and granted him real estate as Brahmottar land.

The land given to him was inscribed in the copper plate, at the second verse of the Sanskrit couplet as follows –
Sri Nidhipati Vipraya Vastsya Gotraya Dhar- mine, Prahayang Longai Kukisthanan Pratichyan Gopala nade.

According to Chatterjee, the English rendering of the verse runs as follows:
To Sri Nidhipati, the Vatsya Gotra Brahmin, the land bound in the east the Longai and Kukiland and in the west the Gopola river.
The land grant to Nidhipati was dated as 1195 .

III. Literature :

The Mizos have no literature of their own. Tradition has it that once the Mizos were given a book (script), but due to carelessness, a dog carried it away. That was how they lost the script. The scripts written in Roman Characters now being used were introduced only in the late 19th century with the advent of Christianity coupled with introduction of western education among the Mizos.

Therefore, availability of literary evidence as source of Mizo history, the Rajamala or the Chronicle of Tripura Rajas may be cited as one of the main sources.

According to Rajamala, there arose a quarrel during the reign of Dhanya Manikya (A.D. 1490 – 1515) between him and the Kukis over possession of white elephant16. Therein it was also narrated as to how the Raj Kumar, the 57th in succession fell in love with a Kuki woman which incurred the fury of the wife of Siva who kicked the Kuki woman violently that broke her neck.

The Rajamala further recorded that there was an alliance between the Kuki Sepoys and the Raja of Udaipur against Jajarpha, the 74th Raja of Tripura who invaded Rangamati (Udaipur).

Secondly, the Hindu literatures, such as, the epics, the Puranas, etc., have so much potential historical evidences that should invariably contribute in the reconstruction of early history of the Mizos, because Chaterjee contended that in them we find references to the Chins as Mizos, Chins and even Lushais. Analytical study of these literatures would immensely help us in understanding more of the Mizos and their history.

IV. Archival sources or Contemporary Records:

The annexation of erstwhile Lushai Hills District of Assam by the British in 1890 and conclusion of the Anglo-Kuki War, 1917-1919 in Manipur and Chin Hills, Myanmar, marked the beginning of modern period of the history of the Mizos, which covers, as is the case with all parts of India, till it attained independence from the yoke of British imperialist regime in August, 1947.

During the process of consolidation and analytical investigation into the indigenous form of government, history and culture, the British did commendable service to the Mizos when they brought out a huge mass of historical materials of immense value for which one cannot but thank the British imperialism. These materials are now available in the National Archives, New Delhi (though partially closed), State Archives, West Bengal, Kolkata, Record Office, Dispur, Assam and Record Office, Aizawl (known as State Archives), etc.

Early phase of Mizo History:

Now, in view of preceding paragraphs it is clear that the Mizos are known under different names, such as, ‘Chin’ in Chin Hills, Myanmar, ‘Kuki’ and thereafter ‘Lushai’ in erstwhile Lushai Hills which was ultimately replaced by ‘Mizo’ though the people of the same groups who bear different names as per geographical areas occupied mentioned above, the nomenclature KUKI is still prevalent in Manipur, Nagaland, North Cachar Hills of Assam, Tripura and Arakan and Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.

Most scholars think that Mizos made their first appearance in China. Burkitt20 thought that the later Stone Age people made their movements from China to Central Asia and thence to Europe.

Therefore, while searching for the original habitat, our attention is focused on China, particularly the southern part, because our tradition points to it. The Mizo tradition has it that ‘Chhinlung’ or ‘Sinlung’, or ‘Khur’ or ‘Khul’ is their original habitat believed located somewhere in Szechuan Province in southern China.


# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part I
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part II
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part IIII
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part IV
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part V
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part VI
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part VII


* Priyadarshni M Gangte wrote this article for The Sangai Express . This article was webcasted on November 5 , 2007 .


Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part 1 -

By: Priyadarshni M Gangte *

For study on any aspect of Mizo society, it is imperative that its historical and cultural background need be understood in its right perspective. For this purpose it is all the more imperative to know that the appellation ‘Mizo’ is comparatively a new phenomenon that should be understood in that in as much the same manner as ‘Israel’ signifies the people of ‘Hebrew’ origin, so, is the word ‘Mizo’ for the people of ‘Kuki Origin’. Therefore, historical and cultural background of the ‘Kukis’ need to be well established first in order to study ‘Mizo’ society profitably as reflected through their customary laws.

The study of History and Culture together of any society is of rare combination, more so, in the case of Mizos whose history, in the real sense of the term and with due regard to the people directly concerned, is no history but anecdotes of population movements for generations together except that one group or the other of the Mizo tribes are engaged in sporadic encounters with enemies of their allies or supporters of one authority or principality.

There had not been an instance of an independent Mizo authority engaged in a warfare with its independent counterpart either to defend his political territorial integrity or to wage war against any neighbouring authority in the entire length of their en masse population movements except that there were incidents wherein there were isolated raids and skirmishes with the subjects or armies of some independent authorities, over whom they either won or lost in such encounters that resulted in no question of annexation or subjugation of enemy’s territories or possessions thereon.

This is mainly so due to absence of a Central Authority under whom several Mizo tribal groups subordinated themselves as constituent segments in an organized hierarchical order. Notwithstanding, British anthropologists, colonial bureaucrats, army Officers, in their various writings at different period of times collectively called them KUKI who were found to have occupied certain areas in Tripura, North Cachar Hills District, Lushai Hills District, Naga Hills District, Manipur, etc., in India and in Arakan and Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.

Similarly, same groups of Kuki tribes are given the name CHIN when they are in Burma. They did so exclusively in view of their homogeneity in regard to their culture, customs and customary laws, tradition, rites, rituals, beliefs, linguistic affinity, uniformity in their system of administration, method of cultivation, etc.

However, after Lushai Expedition in the Lushai Hills District in 1872-73, use of the term KUKI was superseded by LUSHAI, the dominant clan which took prominent role against the British during the Expedition.

Thus Shakespear in his work on LUSHAI KUKI CLANS divided the entire Kuki tribes into six groups as detailed here in below:

1. In the first group he put the Lushei Clans, based from Thangura the pedigree of all the living Chiefs who were accurately established to have been included under six lines of Chiefs.

They are –

Rivung and
2. In the second group are included the Clans that are included under the term Lushai though not Lusheis, having been absorbed.

They are -
Chawte (Chothe in Manipur),
Vangchhia and
3. In the third group are included Clans which, though not absorbed, have been much influenced by the Lusheis.

They are –
Paihte or Vuite,
Rangte (Gangte in Manipur).
4. In the fourth group are included the Old Kuki Clans.

They are –
Tikhup (Mantak),
Baite and
Hrangchal (Hallam).
5. In the fifth group are included the Thadou Clans among whom were –
Hangshing and
some non-Thadou groups
who have been absorbed among the above mentioned Thadous having for all practical purposes embraced all customs, culture, language, religious beliefs, rites, rituals, etc.

Yet, they are the only groups who do not claim to be the descendants of Chongthu with a tradition of Khul or Khur origin, instead, posing as from ‘Celestial origin’.

They are –
Lianthang and his brother Thlangum(Lhangum), and
Lunkim and his brother,
Changsan who also claimed to have survived the ‘Thimzin’ trauma.
6. In the sixth group are included only the Lakhers or Mara. They are closely allied to the Southern Chins. They call themselves Mara, Lakher being the name used by the Lushais. The Chins call them Zo, and the Arakan name for them is Klongshai.


# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part I
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part II
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part IIII
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part IV
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part V
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part VI
# Historical and cultural background of the Mizos - Part VII



DAN govt’s silence as election approaches

By : Oken Jeet Sandham

Seeing the prevailing scenario Nagaland State , it appears that there is no semblance of having a Government providing security to the lives and properties of the citizens. The citizens seem losing their confidence to the Government and this can be seen from the publics’ systematic approaching the underground leaderships to settle various problems facing them. The people of the State have been witnessing this strange phenomenon going on in the State for quite some time and now their whole activities are under public scrutiny. The Zeliangrongs’ decision not to extend any support to the NSCN (IM) can be traced back as to how the civil body had taken such a drastic step. It is this body that first approached the leadership of the NSCN (IM) to settle the land dispute in the Jalukie Zandi under Peren district. The issue of the land dispute continued for some time till the NSCN (IM) razed down 30 houses to ground in the village. This sparked unprecedented protest against the NSCN (IM). The basic question is why the Zeliangrong body in the first place chose to approach the NSCN (IM) authority instead of bringing the matter to the notice of the popular Government in the State, which in fact had given recognition to that particular village, Jalukie Zandi. Their move had surprised many but later it was learnt that their initial attempts to settle the dispute with the help of the Government went in vein. This had perhaps driven them to take this unprecedented move to approach the underground organization to settle their issues. So when the NSCN (IM) after failing to assuage the conflicting parties might have taken the decision to burn down the houses in the village. Unfortunately, the State Government failed to react and helplessly watching the whole drama.

Again the NSCN (IM) evicted Inavi villagers from the Intangki Reserved Forest. This action provoked again the Western Sumi Hoho demanding the outfit to evict the Beisumpuikam Village from the Reserved Forest within twenty-one days failing which it warned to take its own course of action. Here too, again the State Government machinery chose to remain silent and helplessly watching the whole process. Interestingly, various tribes are taking the NSCN (IM) into confidence to settle various conflicting issues. The act would surely snowball into a serious debate whether the Government would allow this to happen. It is not even paralleled Governments running the State, but a clear sign of losing confidence in the Government by its citizens. It is a dangerous trend indeed.

The State also witnessed the spurt of violence in recent times. There have been factional killings, clashes and kidnappings in Kohima, Zunheboto, Tuensang and Phek. The NSCN (IM) had even charged the Assam Rifles in Zunheboto district for inciting the rival faction. It further alleged that the Assam Rifles had been taking advantage of the growing rift among the Nagas. The Assam Rifles was making the Naga national workers the villains in their own land through their tactics, it pointed out. There have been reports of heavy taxation by the factions in the Phek district and even serving tax cut demands to the pensioner’s meager pay. The district’s Deputy Commissioner confirmed this. Yet, the Government again chooses to remain silent, clearly slipping off its duties saying all these are under the purview of “political issue,” and not as “law and order.”

The Government’s inaction towards the unwanted situations in the State is prevalent. The degree of inaction has reached such a saturation point that DAN’s second major coalition partner, BJP, for the first time in five years breaks its silence. It has openly criticized the Government for its total failure in maintaining law and order in the State and also its corruption in various areas. In a significant manner that will have far reaching consequences to its big brother in the coalition Ministry, the party even flatly denied that the prevailing lawlessness, killings, factional clashes, extortion, looting, etc are political. They do not even mince their words revealing the Government’s indulgence in nepotism and bias attitude in awarding works and supply orders by openly flouting all the norms. The party has even demanded the State Governor to intervene, if the concerned Ministers in the Government fail to resign.


Ccpur woman lives out an AIDS nightmare

By : M Kaimuanthang/IFP

Lamka, Nov 15: Though the works of NGOs in the district have had much impact on reduction of the much taunted stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV/AIDS still the vestige has remained and many of them are facing the problem.

The case study of an NGO called Diocesan Social Service Centre has revealed that a girl Mary by name (not the real name ) has the misfortune of having lived in a broken family since her childhood due to the disastrous marriage of her parents.

Her parents got separated when she was merely a toddler and for that matter had to be put in a children’s home at Saikot to grow up and know the hard realities of life.

Mary at that point of time was a sweet beautiful girl and was under the paternal care of her grandfather who supported her in every possible way, the case pointed out.

Having been mature, she came out of the home somewhere in the year 1996-1997 which was accidentally a period of turmoil. By then she led a good and very Christian way of live, said the case study.

Being unlucky during all this while she happened to fall in love with a boy who was an ex-drug user and they married the next year in 1997.

That was the start of her life’s ordeal as she had unkowingly but steadily come in contact with the disease through her husband.

During the first two years of their married life they were blessed with a son but then their status came to light during the second pregnancy, 8 months running, when Mary had udergone a blood test. The blood tested positive.

Soon her in-laws were up in arms levelling charges on Mary of infecting their dotted son with the disease and claiming his future was doomed.

The case study further pointed out that Mary was not only illtreated by her in-laws but her husband who was morally deteriorating. All this treatment meted out to Mary made her life like hell. "I felt like crying but that was of no help and when I contemplated about running away my kids were there," Mary was quoted as saying by the society.

The rejection of Mary by the in-laws was so great that the couple were made to live in a separate home.

There come a new development much to the relief of Mary as her husband one fine day disclosed his past habbits and how he had come in contact with HIV/AIDS.

But the husband did not mend his ways and instead took drugs side by side with wine and became an alcoholic that caused much more problems to the family.

Out of sympathy her in-laws took them back to the family but that was a plot for Mary as the boys parents didn’t soften their stand over the cause of the couples contact with AIDS.

The case study revealed that the parents heaped more charges and accussations on Mary though she tried to convince tham sayng it was not her fault but her husband’s while even telling them of his past life’s story. But that was not so sweet to the ears of the parents and she was later turned out from the family.

It was now a little over two months that she was living like a vagabond. She gave her second child to the in-laws and miissed them, unable to see them.

At times she tried to stay at her own mother’s home but was not able to do that as she was married and lived a different world and lifestyle.

Meanwhile, she is also undergoing an ART and her only plan is to go to Delhi where she will not hear anymore about her children.

The Imphal Free Press

Manipur Chief Secy. summoned by PMO for key meeting

By : Thingbaijam Dhamen

IMPHAL, Nov 15: The Prime Minister’s Office, New Delhi has summoned the Manipur chief secretary to attend a meeting at the office and give a brief on the progress of implementation of various developmental schemes and projects and law and order situation in the state.

The meeting to be held on November 20 is considered to be an important one as the rebel MLAs of the state Congress have been campaigning for the ouster of chief minister O Ibobi Singh at the Centre, exposing his failure in maintaining law and order as well as absence of visible progress in the implementation of the developmental works under his leadership.

Meanwhile, a high level team from the Centre led by the cabinet secretary is scheduled to arrive in the state capital on November 29 to review among other things the law and order situation in the state.

Regarding his meeting with the officials of the PMO, the chief secretary Jarnail Singh has called a meeting with top officials of the state government to discuss important issues concerning the state, an official source said.

The meeting will apart from discussing the law and order will also discuss upgradation of the NH-39 to four-lane upto Imphal, maintenance of the NH-39 and handing over the job to Border Road Organization, timely completion of Jiribam-Tupul-Imphal railway line, Tipaimukh hydro electric project (1500 MW), Loktak down stream hydro-electric project (90 MW), augmentation of tankage capacity for POL production in Imphal, construction of FCI godown at district headqarters in hill areas, the source said.

Top officials like the DGP, principal secretaries of power, home and FCS, commissioners of works, transport, power, PWD, FCS and directors of FCS and transport have been asked to attend the meeting with the chief secretary tomorrow, the source added.

The officials were also asked today to bring the reports of status of the implementation of projects, brief accounts of problems encountered in the implementation of projects along with any other points concerning the subjects.

The source said that the concerned officials will not face any problem in providing the reports that the chief secretary wants as they had already been asked to prepare the same reports in the last week of October this year since the receipt of the intimation of the visit of a high level team led by the Union cabinet secretary.

During the three-day (from November 29 to December 1) visit of the high level team will also review the progress of implementation of flagship programme like the SSA, JNNURM, NHM, BRGF, NREGS, forest related issues and tribal welfare programmes, Bharat Nirman Programme consisiting of rurual housing, rural roads, drinking water supply, irrigation in rural areas, rural electrification, national highway.

Source said that the tentative programme of the visit of the team had already intimated to the state government in the last week of October this year and as per chief secretary’s advice identification of the works and projects which can be shown to the visiting team had already started.

All the concerned departments were also reportedly busy in preparing brief notes highlighting the status of implementation of the programmes, problems encountered in the implementation of the programmes which the chief secretary asked for tomorrow’s meeting at his office chamber.

With regard to the law and order situation of the state, various meetings were held to review the same during the last around one month since the spate of killings and attacks on the security forces as well as top officials by militants started.

Yesterday also the top brass of the home department reviewed the law and order situation. Another meeting with the chief minister also reviewed the progress of the plan expenditure and implementation of schemes and projects for the current fiscal year 2007-08.

Meanwhile, the state GAD has been asked to make necessary arrangements including transportation and accommodation for the visiting team. The GAD and home department has to coordinate the visit of the cabinet secretary and his team of secretaries, the source added.

Source: The Imphal Free Press

Thursday, November 15, 2007

Moreh & Tamu: A tale of two towns

By Lunminthang Haokip

November 15, 2007: Unless halted involuntarily by bundh-threat that regularly immobilizes the line-bus and Tata-Sumo services of beleaguered Manipur, India, Imphal’s Moreh parking at MG-road – Kangla-park junction, every morning from 7 to 8:30 a.m, has scores of Moreh-bound Tata Sumo-utility vehicles lined up for profit-making departure.

While drivers warm themselves up with sips of hot cups of tea, handy-men, street-smart as they are, vie with one another to get more passengers through glib of the gab and help-carry the bag.

Some handy-men try to lure in more travelers by waxing eloquent about the newness of their vehicles or by cashing on the impatience of the purse-proud sojourner

Some Sumos start half-empty. But they need not worry. Every Moreh-bound carrier registers 90 to 100 percent occupancy before reaching Pallen, situated 45 Km from Imphal on Moreh route where a Manipur Police check-post compels commuters to get down to savour a plate-ful of fresh meal in their hot favourite Basant hotel.

Footloose and fancy-free, first-timers in the border-town trips grow curiouser as they commute closer to destination. If old-fashioned folks in the sixties hummed, “Zindagi mein ek baar jaana Singapore”, the consumerism-smitten domestic tourists of today’s collective chant seem to be, “Zindagi mein ek baar jaana Moreh”.

Passage To Phobia-Freed Area: The 31 Km up-hill drive between Pallen and Tengnoupal peak used to be every bus-driver’s nightmare for more ways than one. Occurrence of more untoward incidents were reported from this dreaded stretch than from any other route in the state in the past. But such fears are passé, now. Frequent Assam Rifles patrolling and deployment of Indian Reserve Battalion(IRB) as Road Opening Party (ROP), coupled with changed mind-set, no more makes the panicky commuter hide money inside his shocks or sit on the edge of his seat with a pounding heart.

The sense of security helps the pot-belied passenger doze off after demolishing a hillock of cooked rice in Pallen’s wayside eatery only to be awakened by another round of ego-humbling security-check at Tengnoupal post. High altitude Tengnoupal’s Ooty-like weather chills you for a brief period of time and makes you wish you had put on warmer clothes. Otherwise, the highway is almost under control or dominated by armed forces. The only terrible sight one comes across today is that of the poor living conditions and pathetic undernourished children on the way.

Thai Products Better: Tachilake in Myanmar is the happening township in the Thai border from where consumer durables are transported to Namphalong or Tamu. A Chinese electric cooker may be priced at Rs.1600/- and a Thai one at Rs. 2200/-. But when it comes to durability, the proportion of gain far outweigh the difference in prices. A passable wooden sofa-set costs not less than Rs. 25,000/at Imphal. You’ll be surprised to discover that Rs 12,000/- only can fetch you a comfortable beautifully designed Thai Sofa set at Tamu.

Thai-made kitchen-items like cup-sets spoon-sets, kettles, thermo-flasks, plates and bowls etc. are second to none in quality although they charge a little higher. The only thing that unnerves the visiting customer is the snooty attitude of the women vendors. You see someone buying something at a price after a long bargain session. When you want the same thing at the same price, the lordly lady at the counter would turn up her nose and curtly say, “Well, to come down at that rate, we have to begin haggling all over again”.

A Town of Shop-keepers: Wide streets, decent planning and a common-sense that is uncommon at Moreh make Tamu several times a more livable town than the former. Housing materials like cement, steel-rods, GCI-sheets used to beautify the fast growing town of Tamu are all Indian—phir bhi technique hai Myanmarese. Thousands of people ferried by Japanese-made Toyota Utility vehicles everyday on the 3 Km – long paved road between Moreh and Tamu is indicative of the volume of trade in transaction. Almost every residential house at Tamu excepting the church-activity centres , does some buying or selling.

Truck-loads of under-invoiced electronic and household goods come from Muse in China border to Tamu. It’s all a part of China’s strategy to become an Asian economic super-power. The market is flooded with Chinese inverters, generators, ready-to wear garments and kitchen crockery. Nowhere else in Manipur can one buy a torch-light an Rs 40/-or an usable synthetic chapel at Rs. 80/-. But the tragedy is that one is extremely lucky if the torch-light can flash light for the next 40 days or the sandal bought in summer’s peak endure through the next week.

Monetary manoeuvres: Namphalong market complex located on the fringe of Myanmarese side across the border is the venue of trade action. Small shops packed with durable consumer items from China and Thailand do brisk business everyday except on a monthly off-day Myanmarese observe religiously. The half-wooden and half-concrete structures are a poor replica of Bangkok’s National Stadium shopping complex. In the same manner, Thai shop-keepers speak heavily accented , broken and mother-tongue-pulling English like “Cannot” with a Thai-twang when they refuse the excessive bargaining from foreign buyers, awkwardly decked-up lady-traders of Namphalong express the same sentiment by saying “Jataleh” in their own “cockneyed” Manipuri.

Shrewd as Shylock, these calculating calculator-wielding greedy hunters of the Rupee will make your hackles rise before you successfully haggle a ten-rupee reduction. The feeling of gain is easily set off-balance by the bruise of your ego. However, you forget uncouth behaviours and native cunning when you get some reasonably good things at dirt-cheap rates. Tamu may be the only place the Rupee can flex its muscles against the norms of international exchange rates. The gullible traveler needs to be on the guard. There are hawks in the form of Taxi-handymen who will convert the benefit of doubt in exchange-rates to a looting profit.

Morbid Movements Of Moreh: Gone are the days when the the border town was synonymous with money. Once upon a time, the crime-infested township was the El-Dorado of Manipur where the rich and the wannabe rich rubbed shoulders filthy-ed by easy-gotten gambling lucre. Now, Moreh is a mere shadow of its flourishing past. A reticent resident commented, “Moreh is like the mother-cow that everybody milks but forgets to feed”.

Barring the imposing recently inaugurated Yatri-Niwas near the ADC’s office, the partly functional shopping complex and the awe-inspiring 50-bedded hospital, the only small-town in Manipur’s hill areas that comes under Municipal Act, is yet to get its urban act together. The wards are overcrowded with folks who can’t give up rural habits in semi-urban settlements. Unplanned growth of wooden houses in scorching tropical environs makes the entire town a potential victim of arson.

For a busy tourist destination, Moreh doesn’t have a single park where visitors can chill out and take a snapshot to show to home folks. All that one can see on the street are lungi-clad, chain-smoking, weather-beaten people moving to and fro to buy or sell something for a living. Business rules are changed today. Traders come and go back pocketing a large chunk of the profit. The poor localites are left with the crumbs of loading and unloading goods when the don’t sell charcoal. Seekers of manual work return home with an overload of woes. Recently, the main roads had been lit up. Nights had some life ever since when the frequently troubled town was not curfew-imposed.

Tamu Entry Formalities: There’s a natural urge for every Moreh-visitor to enter Tamu, it’s Myanmarese counterpart. At the border, two check-points regulate entry to and exit from the twin towns. Like the twin-bed sale ad that claimed “One hardly used”, between the two gates, Gate no.1 is hardly used. Whereas entry into India does not pose much of a problem, official restrictions welcome any tourist crossing the international boundary for a shopping- spree beyond the free-zone of Namphalong market. Uniformed immigration officials make you pay Rs.10/- per person after checking your I-card and keeping it in their custody till you return and hand over the entry-pass they write your particulars in and issue.

Forgetful folks who left their I-cards need not worry. Any semblance of an I-card with the rubber stamp of any social, religious, political or administrative authority that you can conveniently get done at your port of call itself will serve the purpose. Sometimes, when the official’s mood is upbeat, they allow a spouse and a bunch of tailing kids to secure entry on the strength of the head-of-family’s I-card. Of course, no visitor can stay in Myanmarese soil after 5 pm MST which means 4 pm IST. And if you happen to fail to deliver the I-card you deposited earlier while coming back, you better get a new one issued. Claiming the same on the morrow will charge you a hefty 300 rupees.

Tamu Town: Boulevards sandwiched by painted two-storey buildings on both sides make Tamu town visually appealing to the onlooker. What the casual visitor does not know is the fact that a lot of crude and rude town planning went into the transformation of the erstwhile dusty and shabby Tamu town into a well-planned modern township that we adore today. Myanmarese military government had a way of doing things. The plot-holders on the road-front were given a time-frame to build up pucca structures. The poorer ones failed to fulfil the Authority’s expectations.

So that the defaulters may not decrease the prestige percentage of the whole town with their ugly wooden houses, they were ordered to move out of prime plots and make do with the back-lane residential areas. This is something one cannot imagine to happen in a democratic country. However, if you venture to go for a taxi-ride around the back-lanes, you will most probably come back with a back-ache. Despite neighbourly sops from big brother India, Tamu is yet to have paved lanes outside the main street leading to the market to join the BRTF-constructed 90 Km Tamu—Kalemyo highway that is almost as smooth as a fair-lady’s cheek.

Untapped Resources: The world may dub Myanmar as a third-world country. But when it comes to natural resources, Myanmar has few equals. The soil itself is first-rate. It does not need repeated ploughing. Rice-growers walk and stamp on the surface of the wet fields, plant rice and get bumper harvests. Manure is not required. The quality of rice they grow is in hot demand world-wide. In the Kabaw valley which includes Tamu district, one comes across vast stretches of teak and khanggara (cut as timber) growth in fields where rice is not grown. Teak used to fetch a lot of foreign exchange for the resource-laden country earlier when cross-border trade with India was booming.

At present, following a Supreme Court ban on transport of teak-wood via North-Eastern states in India, the Myanmarese economy in general and that of Tamu in particular is weakened a great deal. Cut logs of teak-wood are not wasted altogether though. Carpenters carve out furniture and ready-made doors and windows out of them. Moreh traders buy up cut teak and finished furniture that comes in various forms and shapes from the other side of the border.

The endless stream of buses and lorries that do business between Imphal and Moreh further transport the wooden products to bigger markets. Burma-teak is world no.1. Yet, due to the slump in the market, and as supply exceeds demand, as potatoes do in Punjab market, high-quality teak-wood, at Tamu, is being used as fencing and pig-sty materials. A case of reverse value-addition, what?

Commercial Activities: A large chunk of Indian bicycles find their ultimate destination in Myanmar. Mandalay, the second city, is flooded with Hero cycles from India. Everywhere in greater Tamu, one can see womenfolk wrapping up their lungis and riding cycles meant for gents. The two-wheel-wonder is used to serve all kinds of purposes that the makers themselves could never have imagined of. Weird items like pigs, piglets, paddy, parcels of garments etc., are tied onto every visible part of the bicycle pedaled with raw energy by tanakha( local face-lotion)- smeared and lungi-clad ladies who earn the family bread in carrying goods between the twin border towns.

Except for a variety of sweetened polythene-packed edibles which Indian school children cannot do without, and a few other items like fish-cans, garments, flower-pots and artifacts, Myanmar does not produce much. All that its trading citizenry do is do business in consumer durables manufactured abundantly by China and Thailand.

Sticky Rice That Ticks: A crowd gathers without invitation every morning at Moreh’s Ward no.1 market. Another mini-mob swells up at the mix-crowded former Moreh parking. They are not clamouring to watch a street-show but rushing to buy a handful of and relish in the hot-favourite steamed sticky rice brought from the neighbouring country.

Every tourist visiting Moreh should make to the early morning scene. Church-folks usually go for a fast on Sundays in the morning. But there is no hesitation in breaking the fast en masse at the sight of the irresistible palate-pleasing item that makes a mockery of Sunday fasting. The sticky rice that sells like the proverbial hot cakes comes in different colours and packages.

Some like the off-white stuff and others the black one. Another exotic item on sale that visiting guests love to take home to surprise their children with is called “Pongden”. The delicacy has an aromatic natural flavour. Bamboo pipes are cut at a length of one foot or so and are filled with the right quantity of water and sticky rice.

The raw bamboo-pipes, stuffed to the brim, are heated in fire till the contents are well-cooked. That is Pongden, served fresh for you. You taste it and wonder how rice could smell so good. If your budget failed you and couldn’t buy the dress-items your kids placed order as ‘musts’, you better take Pongden home to ensure that your children smile from ear to ear.

Spiritual Perceptions: Budhist Stupas and monasteries adorn a good part of Tamu. They do their own thing on the “middle path” without giving cause for disturbance to others. Elsewhere one comes across church-buildings of different shapes and sizes with as many denominational hoardings displayed prominently at the gates. Credit must to go to the tolerant military administration for giving so much space and liberty to Christians.

Despite political upheavals and ideological clashes that made international headlines in post-Independence Burma, the spirit of Adoniram Judson, the Baptist Missionary who translated the Holy Bible in Burmese, surprisingly is very much alive today. Having had many fellowships together with Tamu churches, I must admit that that I had not experienced such a high-decibel singing and worship this side of the international boundary. Tamu-choirs, for sure, can teach a lesson or two to enliven the dull singing in our worship.

Language No Bar: The Pastor of Emmanuel Baptist Church, Tamu candidly admitted that he speaks Myanmarese more fluently than Thadou, his mother tongue. Tamu has got its own share of linguistic divide. Tangkhuls and Moyons migrated there in the previous centuries from Manipur. Second-generation Nagas feel more at home speaking Myanmarese. Settlers from Chin state like Teddim-Chins, Paites, Falam, Kharkhas etc. maintain their linguistic uniqueness even in religious grouping. Kukis are known as Thadous there. However, in the midst of man-made mental barriers, the Spirit works.

There are several churches where different tribes worship together in perfect harmony with the national language as the lingua franca. I think God allows certain languages to be spoken in common so as to undo the curse of the tower of Babel. The reluctance to learn other widely understood languages is the end-result of a pride-bedeviled ethno-centric bent of mind that impedes the pace of Gospel-spread. Tamu-believers have no such hang-up. This accommodating attitude singularly accounts for the tangible and palpable sense of oneness in the prospering township.

The writer is a Deputy Commissioner under the government of Manipur, a northeast state in India.




Delhi Tedim Chin Development Society (TCDS) Khuado Committee
saina in tukum November 17 chiengin
Nanakpura Community Centre ah Khuado Pawo 2007
vaiguon zahna thupitah in um diing hi.
Zingsang nai 10 leh alang pan kipan in nitak (khuamui ma-a siangtho taka kikhen diam lunggulhna tawh) nai 4 dong zat kisawm hi.
Programme pen khenpi nih kisuah a, khen khatna ah Zo ngeina (Zo culture) lahna leh Kisiansuahna hun hiding a, khen nihna ah
Khuado Lasak Pawi ci-in Music Department i saina tawh hun nuam takin kizang ding hi. Hih tengteng ban ah ITNA annkuang um khopna zong om ding a,
Delhi a om Zomi khempeuh zong a tuamin ih thukizaknate uh (VAPHUAL, Siamsin Bulletin leh Zokuomthawn) tungtawnin kikhahkhia zo hi.
Zomi khatpeuh (asak akhang pan hi'n leitung kiu li pan hitaleh) Delhi ah tuani a hong pha hong lambang a omleh lunghiang hetlo-a hong sim (zatpih) ding hong kilamen hi.


Time : 10:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.

Comperes: Mr. K. Khan Mung Shoute & Miss Haute

01. Praise & Worship : Music Deptt.
02. Opening Prayer : Rev.(Retd) Thianzalal, Pastor, VCF, Delhi
03. Welcome Address : Chairman, Khuado—2007
04. Sanctification/ Blessings : Rev. G.K. Samte, Pastor, ZCF, Delhi
05. What is Khuado? : Mr. Tawng Do Cin
06. Festivals of Zomi : Mr. Vungh Za Gin
07. Speech : Mr. K. Ginkhanthang, President, YPA Jt. Hqrs. Delhi
08. Cultural Dance : Zomi Innkuan, Delhi & Invited Troupes
09. Recitation : Psalm 100
10. Speech : Advisors, Khuado—2007
Khuado 2007 Committee
Tedim Chin Development Society


11. Concert : Music Deptt., Khuado—2007
12. Vote of Thanks : Fin. Secy, Khuado —2007
13. Closing Prayer : Rev. S. Kaikhanmang, Pastor, NTBC, Delhi
14. Lamvui : Leader—Rev. T. K. Thawn & Evan. T. K. Lian


Khuado Committee

Delhi Tedim Chin Development Society (TCDS)

Lamka Post | November 15, 2007

Mautaam ziak in PDS Anntang quota behlap in om

Lamka Nov 14: District sunga Mautaam ziak a loumate a lohsapna liantak om a khamkhop ding apianlouh toh kisai in mipite haksatna/kialna dawnzangkhaina ding in District Administration panlakna in District Level Committee ADC/CCpur makaihna nuai ah phuan in om a, amaute’n District sung a mipite’ taksap anntang poimohzah assessment bawl in FCS Commisioner kiangah PDS Anntang khateng quota behlap ding in November 13, 2007 in ngetna nei uhi.

Hiai ngetna abawl uh bel District in khateng quota a anntang BPL leh AAY kigawm a 3154.72 mipi 40% ading kia daihlel ahihman in hiai 3154.72 Qtls banah BPL anntang 4927.00 Qtls. behlap sak a khateng a BPL leh AAY kigawm a 8081.00 Qtls. peding in ngetna nei uhi. Hiai ngetna pen FCS in pomsak in District PDS anntang quota hon behlap sak uh hidanin DC/CCpur Sumant Singh apan in kiza hi. Ngetna/proposal piaklut dungjui in Parbung PDSC in khateng a BPL leh AAY gawmkhawm a anntang 498.79 Qtls. amuh banah 787.00 Qtls. behlap in khateng in 1285.79 Qtls. muta ding ua, Sibapurikhal PDSC in khateng a BPL leh AAY gawmkhawm a anntang 230.88 Qtls. amuh banah 355.00 Qtls. behlap in khateng in 585.88 Qtls. muta ding uhi.

Thanlon PDSC in khateng a BPL leh AAY gawmkhawm a anntang 514.21 Qtls. amuh banah 921.00 Qtls. behlap in khateng in 1435.21Qtls. muta ding ua, Mualnuam PDSC in khateng a BPL leh AAY gawmkhawm a anntang 175.13 Qtls. amuh banah 262.00 Qtls. behlap in khateng in 437.13 Qtls. muta ding uhi. Henglep PDSC in khateng a BPL leh AAY gawmkhawm a anntang 436.45 Qtls. amuh banah 654.00 Qtls. behlap in khateng in 1090.67 Qtls. muta ding ua, Komkeirap PDSC in khateng a BPL leh AAY gawmkhawm a anntang 417.45 Qtls. amuh banah 625.00 Qtls. behlap in khateng in 1042.45 Qtls. muta ding uhi. Singngat PDSC in khateng a BPL leh AAY gawmkhawm a anntang 523.51 Qtls. amuh banah 786.00 Qtls. behlap in khateng in 1309.51 Qtls. muta ding ua, Sangaikot PDSC in khateng a BPL leh AAY gawmkhawm a anntang 358.08 Qtls. amuh banah 537.00 Qtls. behlap in khateng in 895.08 Qtls. muta ding uh chih na suak hi.

KCP(MC) in Social Welfare Department a CDPO 1 kaplup in om

IMPHAL NOV 14: Manipur Government nuai a Social Welfare department a Child Development Project Officer (CDPO) khat helpawl ten tuni’n kaplum uhi. Police apat thutut kingah dan in tuni zinglam dak 11.45 vel dingin, Social Welfare nuai a CDPO Moirang hihna lenlel Smt. Th. Raseshwori (54) w/o (L) S.Brajagopal of Haobam Marak, Imphal West ama office mun ah helpawl ten kaplum uhi. Hiai CDPO kaplum tu phaijang helpawl, Kangleipak Communist Party (Military Council) a Anti Corruption cell in amau thilhih hidan in leng tunin thupuan bawl ngal uhi.

Hun paisa in leng KCP(MC) te mah in, Social Welfare Minister N.Loken tenna In leh Social Welfare Department mah a Director A.Nabachandra tenna In banah office te ah, granade ana koih ngeita ua, thau in leng ana kap ngeita uhi. Tuma zek a Social Welfare a Supervisor lakna toh kisai in, KCP(MC) in akisaipih Minister leh Director banah official ten nekguk takguk hih uh chih ngohna nei ua, vauna thusuah leng bawlta uhi.

Social Minister in N.Loken in bel, hiai helpawl ten Supervisor dia mi 6 amau teel te lak dia ngetna abawl uh ngaihsak louh ziaka office a bomb koih leh tenna In attack a om ahihdan agen ban ah, KCP(MC) ten Supervisor post 6 angetna uh lai mu ahihdan leng thuthak saimite kiang ah taklang hi. Helpawl ten bel, hichibang a ngetna bangmah bawllou ahihdan uleh, KCP(MC) letter head leh thugelh te leng Minister SW leh computer siam te kituak a bawltom hidan a ngohna abawl uleng Minister in nialna bawl hi. Thudang khat ah, tuni zinglam dak 8.30 vel dingin, Nagamapal a om Sapam Dorendro tenna In leng meltheihlouh pasal nih in thau in vakap uh chih thu kiza hi. Hiai thu sut ahihtan in thaukapte kipuang uh chih zaak ahihlouh banah, bangziak a va kap mawk uhiam chih theih hilou hi.

Kuki Revolutionary Army (KRA) Chief Khuplam Hangshing luang tuni in Imphal zinglam dak 9 in Indigo flight in New Delhi apan hongtung a, Kuki Nampi makai tamtak in Airport ah aluang ana dawn uhi. Imphal Dewlaland mun ah sunna neihpih ahih zoh in, Saikul sub-division ah vuiding in puak in om hi. Manipur helpawl 6 kigawmna United People’s Front (UPF) ah Hangsing in Joint Secretary hihna lenlel a, Army leh Government toh Suspension of Operation (SoO) aneih lel laitak uh ahi hi. Thudang khat kiza dan in, Mr Hangsing sihna toh kisai Centre in ngaikhawk mahmah in tuni in Union Home Secretary Madhukar Gupta makaih in Home Ministry a Senior official te leh Intelligence Bureau official te’n Delhi ah kikupna nei uhi. (NNN)

Economic Blockade kipan ding

Senapati, Nov 14: Senapati District Students' Association (SDSA) in Manipur Government kiang a thil phut tuamtuam aneih uh suk buchin ahihlouh ziak in, zingchiang (Ningani) nitak dak 12 apan National Highway 39 ah economic Blockade puang uhi. SDSA thusuak in ataklatna ah, Blockade ahihleh, khauh mahmah ding a, huai choudia kuamah kisalou ding in adeihthu taklang uhi. Peter Kuba, SDSA President in agenna ah, Inter-state bus te leng bandh sung in a taiding uh phal hilou a, passenger gari himhim in National Highway 39 zuitheilou ding uh ahihdan taklang in, November 25 zankim tan total bandh leh blockade ahihdan taklang hi. SDSA Chief in agenbehna ah, SDSA in National Highway 39 hunchiam omlou a khakding a chih pen khawlphot in ni 10 sung chauh ading in sukiam a, himahleh, ni 10 sung a Government in sepkhiak bangmah aneih kei leh, kipan nawn ding uh ahihdan taklang hi. Peter in agenzelna ah, bandh in truck taivel te leh state pua kan a tai bus te huam mahleh, inter-district transporter te huamlou ahihdan gen in, mipite’n theisiam ding in ngen uhi. SDSA in ahihleh, Government kiang ah NH-39 lampi selawta pen puahthak ding in ngen ua, Non Lapsable Central Pool Resources (NLCPR) nuai a kibawl tuikoihna munpi puah a om lel hoihtak a sunzom kin ding in ngetna bawl uhi.

Khuado Concert om ding

Lamka, Nov 14: Khudo Pawi (festival) kichi November 17 chiang in Nanakpura Community Centre, New Delhi ah thupitak in zat sawm uhi. Hiai hun ah New Delhi a om Zosuan pawl tuamtuam te’n kitaitehna tuamtuam leh Namlam lahna nei ding a, Khuado Concert leng neizom ngal ding uh hi’n kigen hi. Hiai hun ah, Burma a Guitarist of the Year 2006 E Tuang makaih in concert om ding chih thu kiza hi.

YPA in Guta toh kisai panla ding

Lamka, Nov 14: Young Paite Associaton Lamka Block thusuak kingah dan in, Lamka leh a sehvel ah hun bangtan hiam paisa apan guta-lata uang mahmah in, mipi a dia thil phatuam Telephone gui, cable gui, electric gui leh tui lawng tamtak gukmang a om ta ahihdan gen uhi. Hiai toh kisai in YPA General Headquarters in ngaikhawk mahmah in, YPA Lamka Block ah theihsakna pia ua, guta-latate matkhiakna ding toh kisai in Village authority leh Police te toh pangkhawm ding ahihdan taklang uhi.

YPA Lamka Block thusuak in genbehna ah, van gutu, leitu leh kawkmuhtu theite’n Police, Village Authority ahihkei leh, YPA kiang ah kintak a zasak ding in ngetna bawl ua, huai kawmkawm in, YPA makaih in veng chih ah nitak teng a duty panta ding uh ahihdan leng puang ua, mipite kithuahpihna ngen uhi.

Music Video album hongkhe ding

Lamka, Nov 14: Rev Dr Douzapau Haokip Memorial Trust in a bawlkhiak thak Gospel Audio and Video Album “Gospel Khuoljin” kichi November 18 (Pathianni) sunnung dak 12:30 in ECT Chapel ah honkhiakna neih hiding hi. Hiai album ahihleh, Phamsa ECCI General Secretary Rev Douzapau theih gige na dia kibawl ahi hi. Rev Dr Th Lamboi Vaiphei in honkhiakna leh Pathian kiang a latna neiding a, ECT Choir te’n phatna la sa ding uhi.

TSP in puandum in tuam

Lamka, Nov 14: Mualpheng leh Songtal kikal a Tuivai lui a November 11 sunnung dak 3-4:00 kikal a kisil lai tangkhial a sihna tuak mi 3, Mr. H. Lianchinthang (22) S/o. (L) Kamzakham of Vengnuam, Mr. Ginzasuan (23) S/o. Singkhum of Dorcas Veng leh Mr. Lunlemsiam S/o. Tonglianmang of Head Quarter vengte tuni’n vuina program om a, huai ah Thangkhal Sinlai Pawlpi (TSP) Headquarters sik-le-tang in T Pauminlian President TSP in Nam puan khat chiat in aluang uh tuamna nei hi.

KNO in suunthu puang

Lamka, Nov 14: Sriniwaspuri, South Delhi ah KRA Commander-In-Chief Khuplam Hangsing in sihna atuah toh kisai in tuni’n Kuki National Organisation (KNO) in naktak a sun uh ahihdan puang ua, a sungkuanpihte leh a nuai asem cadre te ading in khamuanna ngetsak uhi. Kuki helpawl tuamtuam in kigawmkhawm ding simthu a lel lai ua, hiai bang a heutu muanhuai khat in sihna a tuahna ah KNO in poisa mahmah ahihdan leng taklang uhi.

Awareness programme

Lamka Nov 14: SSA nuai a SC/ST Innovative Education tungtawn in CCpur District sung a BRC 6 leh CRC 19 te ading in November 15, 2007 zing dak 10:00 pan in Synod House, Hill town ah‘One day Awareness Programme on VEC&BEC’ neih hiding hi. Hiai hunah State Co-ordinator SC/ST Mr. Sagor Singh leh District Co-ordinator (REMS) Mr. Lulun Gangte te’n sinsakna neiding uhi.Hiai programme ah VEC leh BEC member teng telkim chiat ding in DMC/SSA-CCpur in theihsakna bawl hi.

UZO Executive meeting

Lamka Nov 14: United Zou Organisation (UZO) HQ Executive Committee in hongtung ding November 20, 2007 zing dak 10:00 in UZO Office Chiengkawnpang ah meeting poimohtak neiding uhi. Hiai hunah thupoimoh tuamtuam tamtak ngaihtuah khawm ding uhi.

Siluang te vuiliam hita

Lamka Nov 14: Mualpheng leh Songtal kikal a Tuivai lui ah apaisa November 11, 2007 sunnung dak 3-4:00 kikal a huai lui a kisil lai tangkhial a si mi 3 te luang muhkhiat hita a tuzing dak 1:30 vel in Lamka puaktun in om uhi.Tuikia a sihna tuak Mr. H. Lianchinthang (22) S/o. (L) Kamzakham of Vengnuam, Mr. Ginzasuan (23) S/o. Singkhum of Dorcas Veng leh Mr. Lunlemsiam S/o. Tonglianmang of Head Quarter Vengte hi ua, tuni’n a veng chiat uah vuina om a, ZYA HQ in Zomi puan khatchiat in tuam hi.

Magistrate in sam nawn

Lamka Nov 14: New Lamka Vengnuam EBC Biakinn a August 20, 2006 nitak kikhoplai a thiltung toh kisai a inquiry bawl nilouh a ompen civilian witness bangzah hiam apan in Magistrate in hearing kum paisa sung mah in zouta mahleh sepaih lam apan hearing neihlouh in om nilouh hi. District Magistrate in tukum May 15, June 15, July 27 nite in 27th Sector AR Commdt. Brig. BC Sarmah, 41 Bn. BSF Commdt. Col.SS Sandha,3 Raj Rif.Commdt.Col.PK Jayswal banah 3 (NH) AR Commdt. Col Koj Tari te hearing ding in sam (summon) sek mahleh amaute va kilang ngeilou uhi.

District Magistrate Sumant Singh in hongtung ding November 17, 2007 sun dak 12:00 in hiai atung a Sepaih heutute DC Office Chamber ah inquiry toh kisai a akisaipih lehkha/van poimoh (relevant documents/materials) leh evidence tengtoh mimal a vahoh a Magistrate ma a va kilang ding in November 13, 2007 in sapna(summon) penawn hi.

Thudang kizadan in Sepaih/Army lamte’n hiai case sai ding in District Magistate pen appropriate salou in leh State government in Army te summon bawltheilou chi a pang in hoh ngeilou uhi. District Magistrate in bel State Government in thu apiak dungjui a sam/summon ahihdan gen hi. Hiai case toh kisai Central Government leh State Government kikal ah Case pailel hidan in leng thudang khat kiza hi.

Paite Cultural Meet ah telding

Lamka Nov 14: Mizoram khopi Aizawl ah hongtung ding November 17, 2007 chiang in Paite Cultural Meet neih hiding hi.Hiai hun uapding in SSPP GHQ apan in palai bangzah hiam kuanding ua, amaute khakkhiatna November 15, 2007 zing dak 9:30 in SSPP Complex, Bungmual ah neih hiding hi.