Friday, June 06, 2008

Mumbai leh Mizoram tanpha ah damna deih hong zin uh, Saikot ah paitheilou 1 tel in damlou 5 in damna ngah nawn

Lamka, June 5: Chawilien Cancer Medicine Research Agency, Saikot ah damna deih in niteng in mi pung deuhdeuh a, Mumbai, Mizoram leh Senapati tanpha apan in leng damlou hong pai in tu in Agency lun petmah in om hi.

Sugnu Road a om Cancer Medicine Research Agency lunggulh in, Manipur phaizang District mun tuamtuam apan damlou hong kipua in, tuni (June 5) nitaklam dak 1 tan chauh in leng damlou mi 5 in damna ngah ua, damloute kipak thei mahmah uhi. Tuni a damna ngahte ahihleh, Inaobi (38) s/o Khaidem, kum 8 paisa apan accident ziak in paralyse (zeng) gaivek hi. Zadni (50) of Arung Khunou, a sung ah dawi lut a, hawlkhiak in om hi. A cham (45) of Vongte Chiru TB in damlou a, huai in leng damna ngah a, Rokima of Ngopa, Mizoram a tha na a, huai in leng damna ngah in Raj Mohan (40) of Tokpaching leng zeng himahleh, damna ngah hi.

Mr Inaobi in agenna ah, kum 8 paisa in accident tuak a, huai apan a chi pum tangtheilou in om a, hun hong paitou zel in, chiangkhun khun kawm in pai kisin ahihdan Pressmen te kiang ah gen hi. Tu in bel Chawilien tungtawn in damna ngah ahihdan gen a, Halleluijah chi’n kikou a, a mah chauh kuamah let ngailou in pai gaugau hi. Damna lunggulh mipi tuni chauh in milip 10100 khawng paikhawm zou ding in tuat hi a, mi a tamluat ziak in, a batch batch in khenhial in om a, Chawilien in mipite adia thumsakna a neih zawh chiang in paisak zungzung in om uhi.

Lampi dung ah nidang in dawr buuk neu (stall) himhim om kei mah leh, tuni chiang in dawr a dim in om ta a, huai te ah leng cancer damdawi muh theih vek in om a, ann hotel tanpha om hi. Tuaban ah, dawr te ah item chi kim ki zuak a, vaite barap zuak leng a dim in om uhi. Huai a nasemtu khat in agenna ah, damdawi teh (leaves) te sum in suk ngai a, zinglam dak 4 apan nitak dak 12 tan bang su souhsouh mai uh ahihdan gen in, tulel in worker/steward 30-40 kikal in niteng in nna sem uh ahi chi hi.

Kiginni leh Seppatni in mipi tamdiak uh ahihdan vaisaite’n gen ua, hiai ministry February 2008 in kipan a, himahleh, April kha tawp apan mi tam hiaihiai in, tuni chiang in niteng in a tawm tawp in mi 8,000 pha gige ta ahi chi uhi. Amau’ agenbehna uah, a kipat tung apan tuni chiang in mihing Lakh 2 pha dek phial ding in hiai Chawilien Cancer Medicine Research Agency, Saikot vehta uh ahihdan gen in, damdawi leng a lunggulhte kiang ah piak in om ua, huai teng lak ah 40% bang in damna ngah ding ua lamet ahi chi uhi. Nikhat in atangpi in damdawi tui Litre 1,300 bang hawmkhiak zawh hi gige hi. Hiai ministry a hong pichin hiaihiai tawh kiton in EFCI (Mission field), ICI (Mission field), Presbyterian leh Salvation army in kithuahpih uh hidanin leng vaisaite’n gen uhi. Makai khat in agenna ah, damna lunggulh ziak in Mumbai apan mikhat flight in hong leeng vengveng a, a ginna dampih in kiknawnta ahi chi hi.

Thusuak dang khat kizadan in Ngursanglur MLA in Research agency a zat ding in Sintex leh apoimawh dangdang piakding in chiam a, Dr Chaltonlien Amo Ex Minister in leng Government apan huhna bang om thei hiam chih thu tun ding hidanin kigen hi.

Manipur Express June 06, 2008

Sorkar sia-le-pha theihna kingakna tham chinglou

India sorkar in nau neitheilou dia kibawlna family planning scheme a pat dungzui in Haryana a Sonepat khomi, ta 2 neisa Nirmala in Delhi a Girdhari Lal Maternity Hospital ah 1985 in a pasal toh ta a neihbeh nawnlouhna ding in kibawlsak hi. Himahleh, kum 2 nung in a lametlouhpi un ta nei mawk ua, sungkuan khosakna niamtakmai ahihman un hiai naungek etkolna ding lungkhampih mahmah uhi. Hiai bang dinmun ah Nirmala-te nupa in a buaina uh Delhi High Court tun uhi. Hiai tungtang ah Additional District Judge Kamini Lau in May 20, 2008 in thukhenna bawl a, naungek etkolna dia sum senna om ding tengteng sorkar in a liau dia thu a khen banah Delhi Government in naungek’ nu kum 40 a upa Nirmala kiang a compensation Rs 1 lakh pe ding in thutanna bawl hi. Himahleh, doctor-te pilvanlah ziak a hiai teng tung ahihdan chetna chiangtak omlou ahihman in Nirmala kiang a compensation piak ding pen doctor-te hilou in Delhi Government in a piak ding hi’n court in gentan hi.

District Blindness Control Society saina in Bishnupur district hospital ah February 2007 in mi bangzah hiamte’n cataract operation bawlsak ua, vangtahhuaitak in huai ah mi 3 in mitdelloh hilhel ua, mi dang 2 in a mit langkhat tuak ua khomuhna tanloh uhi. Hiai thu toh kisai a Joint Action Committee kibawlkhia in State Govt. kiang ah hiai mi 5 –te a dia zangnadopna ngetsak in kiphin uhi. Hiai JAC’ panna nial vuallouh a dik ahi ngei ding a, zan a state Cabinet meeting in hiai cataract operation a mit langtuak delloh mi 3-te kiang a zangnadopna Rs.1 lakh chiat piak ding in thupuk ua, huai banah, mit langkhat tuak a khomuhna tanloh mi 2-te kiang a Rs. 50,000/- tuak piak dia a thupuk man un a kiphinna uh bel lohching khat suak hi. Himahleh, Delhi High Court in thutanna a bawl toh teh ding in bel JAC’ kiphinna lohching taktak chih ngamhuai hiding hiam chih in om hi. Delhi High Court in Nirmala tungtang a ngaihtuah bangdeuh a hiai cataract operation tungtang Manipur Cabinet in teltak a suichiang masa a genkhawm hina hiam chih ngaihsut tham ching khat suak hi. Ahihkeileh, Manipur a banghiam thiltung a om chiang a kintaktak a JAC kiphuankhia a kiphinte a betdaihna ‘rate’ Rs.1 lakh piak ding chih, a thu-le-la leng genkhawm om ngelloupi a Cabinet in thupuk hihiam chih ngaihsutna piang thei hi.

Delhi High Court in Nirmala tungtang a ngaihtuah in abul-abal nouneltak a sui detdet masa ahi ngei ding a, doctor-te mohsakna ding mukei mahleh Delhi Governemnt liausak veve hi. Cataract operation tungtang ah leng doctor te’n a sep ding bangtak (negligence) ua nna a seplouh ziak ua hiai bang teng tung hidan a koih ding hileh bel operation bawl doctor te’n a liau ding uh hiding hi. Himahleh, doctor te’n liaulou a sorkar in liau ahihna hiai thu a bel doctor-te siang uh hingei ding ahi. Huchi hitaleh, cataract operation a mitdelloh mi 5-te zangnadopna dia kiching ding dan a sorkar in Rs.50,000/- leh Rs.1 lakh a guan hiding ahia? Court thutanna ziak hilou a noh hat ziak leh sorkar sia-le-pha theihna a piak ahihman in ama (sorkar) a dia lemtang huntawk tan lel a sorkar in a sia-le-pha theihna zang ahi. Khosakna bangchituk in haksa in niam mahleh khomuhna Rs.1 lakh a zuak ding kuamah omlou ding hi. Mitdelsa a piangte’n leng a khomuhlouh uh a kingeinaseh ding uh gintak haksa mahmah a, huai ziak in, mitdelsa a piang leng hilou hiai mi 5-te a ding in bel haksa petmah ding hi.

JAC in sorkar kiang a zangnadopna a nget tungtang uah kiphinna tuamtuam zang in ngen ua, bandh ding peuh sawm uhi. Huai sang in a thu court tunzaw le uh court in Nirmala tungtang a ngaihtuah bangdeuh in nouneltak in hon ngaihtuah ding a, doctor-te a liausaklouh tawp in leng sorkar liausak ding a, (a thu a dik nak leh) Rs.1 lakh chauh phetlou in mitdellohte ki-etkol touhna ding tanpha sorkar liausak ding in gintakhuai hi. Huai ziak in, mipi subuai dia kiphinna tuamtuam neih sang in a thu court tun hitale uh tua sorkar in zangnadopna a piak sang mah in a kithamanzaw dia aw chihtheih hi. Huai dungzui in, en leng i buaina tamtakte sorkar a phutphut sang in court ah tun leng houh a kithamanzaw dia aw chih hiai tungtang apat ngaihtuahna hong piang thei hi. Court a tut theihlouh chi thu bel a om tham ding a, himahleh, court a tut theih hinapi sorkar kiang a i phut chiang in sorkar in ama lemtan dandan dungzui in i thute hon ngaihtuahsak a, sorkar lemtan dandan pen lah ei a di’n kingakna tham chinglou hi.

Editorial / The Lamka Post June 06, 2008


Thursday, June 05, 2008

Behiang Bus Accident: Who to blame..?

- By Lyan Samte
Yesterday afternoon, as I sat down to write a post for my blog I get a phone call telling me there’s yet another road mishap near Behiang. This is the fourth time, and the second most fatal accident that happened in this stretch of 25 km road between Behiang and Singngat since December 2006, when I happened to be one of the victims.

Yesterday’s accident that takes place not more than half a kilometre from Behiang was on its way to the border village, allegedly when its tyre punctured and the driver lost control. 4 people died and 36 were injured, some of them are in a very critical condition. The injured were taken to District Hospital by the Indian Army posted in Behiang.

It may be recalled that in January 17 this year altogether 23 passengers died and 32 were injured in an accident not very far from Behiang after the over loaded truck in which they travelled fell into the Ngasuan Creek while attempting to cross a wooden bridge. That accident is still very much fresh in the mind of the villagers around the area since they had never seen such magnitude of tragedy, and not only that, because some of the victims are crippled for life and some yet to recuperate even to this day.

This accident is a double insult to the victims of the truck accident, the people of Behiang and its area, and to the Zo Tribals living in the area. After the January accident, we expected the Authorities to learn their lessons and swing into action, but instead, nothing was learned, nothing was done, and above all, they did the most insulting things by pocketing a certain percentage of the Compensation meant for the Death Victims!

I’m speechless even when I think about it. How ruthless, how horrible and how disgusting we have become! And after the second accident of this year causing the life of 27 people and the livelihood of hundreds, I’m furious…

Are we allowed to point fingers? Yes, indeedy, I shall-

First, the MLA should resign for neglecting his constituency and not learning his lessons even after the worst road mishap in the history of Churachandpur district happened right under his nose just 4 months ago.

The Transport Minister, the Social Welfare Minister and the Tribal Development Minister should also take equal blame for not doing their part and thus making such accidents a normal situation.

The Chief Minister and the whole of the Congress led government for allowing millions of money being drained away for a road project that only fattened some contractors.

And yes, the alcoholic Chief of Behiang should also take responsibility. As a chief who collected taxes, she is responsible for the welfare of her people. She could have done something.

The Contractor who take large amount of money to build the road, and the PWD workers who took salary to maintain the road but are living somewhere in Lamka, they all should be publicly lynched.

The driver and owner of the Bus should be held for Homicide.

The CJM of Churachandpur should take a suo moto cognizance of the issue, because, if the problem was not taken care of immediately, an accident a day will become a daily issue. And, for a change, why doesn’t any one of us file an FIR with the police, or a PIL (Public Interest Litigation) on behalf of the public? Hopefully some sort of rationality must still exist with our judiciary system.

This is the rudest wake-up call for the Authorities, hopefully they wake up… hopefully they will do something to make up for failing us all, time and again.


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Editorial | Behiang Border Trade Centre

Tuni Thupi: Toupa chitna thute khantawn in la ka sa ding a; ka kam in na gin-omdan suan tengteng tan in ka theisak ding. Chitna tuh khantawn a ding in leptouh in a om ding a; na gin omna tuh vante ah ngei na hihkip ding, ka chita ahi. Sam 89: 2 &2

Myanmar gam pansan a India gam subuai helpawl tuamtuam kibute hawlkhiak theihna ding a vaiputek piltakte’n khuak ngaihtuahna chiimtak toh India leh Myanmar in kitanauna hoih sem bawl in om a, kum teng in kizopna thak nei zel uhi. Tua kizopna a gahsuah poimoh mahmah tuh Moreh Border Trade Centre hi a, hiai honkhiak ahih apan hun paisa teng sang in Moreh lun mahmah hi. Hun paisa in niteng in gari truck 20/30 vel lel in Imphal leh Moreh kawmtuah a, himahleh tuni chiang in hiai lampi pen lampi poimoh mahmah suak a, niteng in gari a 100 a sim kitolhlut in kitolhpawt zel uhi. Hiai a gari a van kipuate Imphal chiang a ding tamtak om mahleh, vai gam thuktak a ding van chituamtuamte leng tamtak simsenglouh puakkhiak in om zel hi. Hiai ziak in Border Trade Centre kichi India leh Myanmar in a bawlkhiak pen lam chi tuamtuam a ding in khantouhna tuangpek phahtu ahihman in lohching mahmah chihna ahi. Manipur government a ding kia hilou in Manipur helpawl tamtakte a ding in nekzonna hoihtak leng ahi lai hi.

Tua toh kiton mah in, kum tamkuamtak paita apan in, makai tuamtuamte’n Behiang mun a Border Trade Centre bawlkhe ding in Central Government ah ngetna neita ua, khat vei kia leng hilou in mipoimohte’n Lamka a hong phak teng un, Delhi tual a tunchiang ua Dust Bin a hon paihsak maimai ding uh ahidiam chih theihlouh in Memorandum khat i petei veu sek uhi. Delhi a hong kipan eimi mipoimohte’n leng a vangkim in Behiang Border Trade Centre a ding in hiai ka va mu, huai ka va mu a chi veu sek ua, bangzah muh ngai a, bangzah vei memorandum piang a ahi dia le! Election hun leh mipoimoh Lamka hong phate’n honkhiak ahihding thu genzel mahle uh tunitan in melmuh theih ding nasepkhiak om nailou hi. Behiang lam toh kisai thu thak zak om sun tuh ‘Ngasuan lei kichim’ chih leh bus accident chih khong lel ahilai. Tuahsia a om chiang in MLA hi’n contractor-te hitaleh panlak dan toh kisai in credit kituh maimah uhi. Kua sawn khiak ahi dia le?
India leh Myanmar kigamgitna mun tuamtuam ah a om a, hiaite tungtawn in niteng van poimoh nek-le-tak, silh-le-ten tamtak puaklut in a om a, tuate lak a telkha tuh Behiang leh Myanmar gam kizopmatna ahi. Himahleh Behiang apan hiai a van hong paite bel tullel dinmun in government theihpihlouh ahi a, theihpih kei mahleh tamtak van khaam hi’n khaamlouh hitaleh puaklut in a om hi. A dik lel a gen in, hiai mun poimoh mahmah ahihman in helpawl tuamtuamte’n leng hiai mun luahtu ding kituh bawl sim uhi. Hiai mun poimoh mahmah tuh bangchi leh government in ngaipoimoh thei ding hiam chih ahi. Niteng in hiai mun apan in van chi tuamtuam hong lut ahi chih chetna ding bangmah a om kei. Hichituk a mun poimoh hileh hiai gamgi tawn a van hong kipua police leh custom duty-te’n khatvei bek mat neita ding un gintakhuai hi. Custom duty hiai lampi Tedim Road a om nailou ahih ngialleh ‘Border Trade Centre’ Behiang a koih ding chihpen a taktak a tunna ding in mel tamtak in a samlai chihna ahi. Hiai Tedim Road tawn a van kipuate custom in khatvei bek mat neileh government inleng Eh! hiai mun poimoh ahi, i theihlouh kal a van a guk a tamtak pai ding ahi chi’n muangmoh ding uhi.

Moreh Border Trade Centre dia puankhiak ahihma inleng niteng phial in custom duty-ten hiai lampi pansan a van tuamtuam hong kipote mat nei gige ua, van tamtak a matkhit chiang un, Moreh pen Myanmar leh India kikawmtuahna a dia mun poimoh ahi chih chian ngam pan uh hilel hi. Niteng ahihkei lehleng kha teng phial bek in hiai lampi tawn a niteng van poimoh hong kipuate custom ten man hile uh tua sang in government bil a dohzaw deuh diam? Custom-te mat kham ding van hong pai omlou ahihlehlah, ‘Behiang Border Trade Centre’ chi a mipite kinepna liantak ompen ‘sun mang’ toh kibang lel ding hi.

The Lamka Post June 5, 2008

Saptuamte’ sawm a khat tanpha kibehlap zou hial: NREGS in CCpur mipite’ khawsakna khekzou mahmah

Lamka, June 4: Centre hi’n State solkar hitaleh mipi nautang khawsakna leh khantouhna ding in scheme tuamtuam tuni tan in tamtak puan hita a, tuate lakah kumlui October kha tawplam apan nasep kipan National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme(NREGS) bang khopa mipite’ hamphatpih leh amaute khawsakna adia phattuamna tungsak thildang omlou ahihdan thuthak saipawl in nipi kal khat vingveng a buaipih nungun musuah uhi.

Kum khat a sepna neilou milip kiangah nitha 100 piakna dia Centre Government in scheme a bawl NREGS, CCpur district ah sepkhiak ahihtawh kiton in lamteng ah mipite khawsakna nasatak in kheklamdang zou a sep leh bawl ding neilou numei nau neente ading in sepna guan a, niteng a kilawh tawm a nekzong mite ading in a nitha uh 5-10 % in behlapsak zou hi. Tua kia hilou in NREGS tungtawn a haksa hetlou a nasep ding om ahihna ah kilawh tawmte nasemsak mi tamtak in buailawh phial uh a, tua ziakin nasemtute’ thaman tanpha kibehlap hi’n mukhia uhi.

Siamgatna (Handloom) a sum dawngtute’n NREGS om ma in puandum khat gatna di’n Rs. 60 pia uh a, siam gantu khat in nipikal khat sungin khat bang zou gige mahleh NREGS omnung in puankhat zawhna di’n nipikal 3 bang la uh a, tua ding na ngawn inleng deihbanga mi muh ahihlouh ziakin siamgat man puandum khat ah Rs. 70 in pungsak uhi. Siam gansaktute laka khat Pa Sanglian in agenna ah, ‘siamgat kichipen numeite’n naudon kawm khawng leh sep ding aneihlouh chiangua a nasep uh ahihziak in NREGS om nung siah siam ganding vangtuan mahmah hi,’ chi’n gen hi. Nu Thangzakhawl ngial in, ‘hundang ah tuhun in puan chi tuamtuam kikhol khawmsek mahleh NREGS in siamgantu naktaka a hon suhsak ziakin tukum in puan kholkhawm dingtham omlou suak hi’, chi’n gen leuleu hi. Amaute mah bang in siam gansaktu tuamtuam Manipur Express team in ahoulimpihte’n NREGS om nung siah siamgantu ding vangzou ahihdan gen chiat uhi.

Siamgantu Zingzamawi in, ‘nipi kal khat ah siamgatman in sa Kg 1 man ding nangawn kilawhkhe zoulou suak a, himahleh NREGS omnung in nipikal khat ah sa man ding gentaklouh tate’ school fee ding nangawn kilawh khe zou ahihman in siamgat pen hunawl kia ah kiganta ahihna ah ma kisawn lou ahi,’ chi’n gen hi. Amah bang in siamgantu tamtakte’n NREGS ziaka a tate uh school fee bat neilou a pesiangthei uh ahihdan gen uhi.

NREGS in sumdawnna a sukkhak mahmahte lakah teklei bawlna neitute leh nitha a kilawh tawm ding latute telkha uh a, teklei halna neitute’n teklei nawntu dia a zat tangpi uh numeite hundang in teklei 1000 nawn man in Rs. 65 pezel mahle uh NREGS omnung in Rs. 80 in pungsak uh a, himahleh huai ding nangawn inleng NREGS naseplaitak in a semtu ding vang mahmah hidan in gen uhi. Tua banah nitha a nasemsaktu Contractor leh mistry tuamtuamte gendan in NREGS om ma in nitha a Rs. 60/70 piak a nasepsak ding mi tam mahmah a, himahleh hiai central scheme i gam ah sepsuah ahihnung Rs. 80 tunglam lou in kilawh ding mi omnawn mahmah lou ahihdan theihkhiak in om hi.

Siamgantu tamtakte gen mahbang in khawpi sung leh a kim a nasemtute’n a naihdeuh uh school khenkhat etkhiak hi a, amau apan muhkhiak dantak in naupangte school fee pen kum paita sangin 40% velin lut hoihzaw hi. Ebenezer Academy Principal Liankhanlal Hauzel ngial in, NREGS ziak in ka school fee uh 50-60% vel in honglut hoihzaw hi chi’n gen hi. School dang khenkhat in bel school fee pen 5-10% velin lut hoihzaw in gen uh a, himahleh fee sang in NREGS phatuamna pen naupangte laibu neihdan ah kilang zaw hi’n gen uhi.

Rayburn High School a Headmaster Thangzamuan Tombing in agenna ah, kumdang in December tan ah naupangte text book neikimlou omlai mahle uh tutung in bel March kha tan ah naupangteng in text book leh note book akim sipsip in nei mawk uh ahihdan gen hi. Tuabang mah in Dr S Radhakrishnan Foundation School neitu Dr HH Mate in naupangte school fee pen January apan March sung in kumdang sangin 80% bang a fee lut hoihzaw ahihdan gen hi.

Mipite sumneihdan theihna hoihpen chi’n vanzuaktute lakah NREGS omma leh omnung a van kileidan leng etkhiak hi a, tua ah dawr neitu tamtakte’n van khawng tamzaw uh ahihdan gen uh a, tua kia hilou in bat dia va-ngen leng kiam tuan mahmah ahihdan gen uhi.

Nu Partei, Kawnpui in agenna ah, ‘NREGS omnung in van ka khawng tuan mahmah a, ahihhang in bangzah a tamzaw hihiam chih gen ding haksa kasa,’ chi a, himahleh 10% sanga tamzaw ding ahihdan bel gen hi. Tuabanah, a dawr a van bat dia va-ngen leng 80% vela kiamzou ahihdan Nu Partei in gen hi. Rengkai a Ronald Store neitu in a genna ah NREGS omma leh omnung a avan zuakkhiat kikhai mahmah a, bat dia va-ngen bel kikhek tuanlou hi. ‘Bat dia hongngente khalawh neite hitangpi uh ahihman in bat dia hong-ngen bel kiam tualou hi,’ chi’n dawr ngaktu in gen hi.

Tuibuang Bazaar a Hardware Store neitu khat ngial in, ‘NREGS ziakin van ka khawng mahmah a; tuate suahdul, tupi, longkhawl, sikkhau leh cement nasepna a vanzat tuamtuamte ahi chi’n gen hi.

Tuabanah khawpi sung leh a kim a van supply-tu Vai mahajonte’ lak a minthang mahmah Sharma of Jion Street in agenna ah, dawr neu nounoute lakah tulai in van khawng hat mahmah uh hi’n gen a, nidang in nikhat thu in theitui bawmpi 2 nangawn khawng zoulou sim mahle uh tuchiang ah bawmpi 30 bang khawng mahmah ta uh hi’n gen hi. Tua kia hilou in khawpi sung hi’n khawtate ah hitaleh dawr naktaka kibehlap ahihdan leng gen uh a, van zuakkhiak zah a kibehlap banah van zuakkhiak aom leng a chi (item) kibehlap mahmah hi’n gen uhi.
Civil society a heutu khat H Mangchinkhup Social Worker in agenna ah, NREGS kichi centre scheme hoih mahmah hi a, MLA/MP te’n a term sung ua asep khiak zawhlouh ding uh hun tomchik sung a sepkhiak a om ahihdan gen in, vengchih a development thil muhtheih a om ahi chi hi. Hiai tungtang ah NREGS hoihtak a implement tute mi hamphapen hi ua, a zangkhialte bel vangtah mahmah uh ahi chi hi. Saptuam heutu khat in a genna ah, NREGS in mi tamtak kivakna a piak ban ah, mi chitak tamtak in biakna tawh kisai in NREGS a a lawhkhiakte uh saptuam ah sawm a khat pia ua, saptuam in leng ana hamphatpih ban ahihdan gen hi.

NREGS tungtawn in khawpi siangthou leh etlawm tuan mahmah a, a gim mahmah leng namtui tuan mahmah hi’n Manipur Express staff te’n musuah hi. Hiai tungtawn mah in nu-le-pa tamtak kha muangtuan in leiba sah taktak aneihte uh din thei ua, huchi kawmkal ah, gari leh mobile thak kibeh lap mahmah in NREGS zarzou diakte ading in building thak leng hong kitun zungzung meltheihlouh in om hi. Bangteng hileh Lamka zang economy bel hiai scheme in hei lamdang zou mahmah chih chiang hi.

Manipur Express June 5, 2008

NREGS lifts living standard in CCpur

Singlianmang Guite

Lamka, Jun 4: National Employment Guarantee Scheme NREGS has enhanced the living standard of the people in Churachandpur more than any other Governmental schemes by raising the labourers coffer, a study revealed today.

Extended over a week, the survey conducted by a team of reporters based in Churachandpur including this correspondent, took in accounts the observations of handloom weavers and traders, brick field proprietors and labourers, school principals and vendors. Of the groups included in the survey, handloom traders were the groups that receive a major blow while its weavers turned out to be the main beneficiaries.

Proprietor of Ngainou Wool House, S Sanglian told the survey team that a weaver usually takes a week to complete one traditional shawl earlier but with the introduction of NREGS, the same weaver now takes about 28 days to complete the same. Despite reviewing their wages from Rs 60 to Rs 80 per shawl since March this year, their supply failed to revive, he said.

At the average, NREGS has affected about 35 percent of the supply in handloom industry and increase the weavers’ wages by 6 percent.

On the trend of months tuition fees paid to schools, S Liankhanlal, Principal of Ebenezer Academy said his institution witness 50 to 60 percent improvement this year. “Last year there are student who didn’t have complete text book even up to December, but this year everyone is equipped with their text complete with their notes by March,” he said. He nevertheless like other principals interviewed, claimed that payment on tuition fees has improved by 5 to10 percent.

Another trade badly affected by the NREGS seems to be the brick fields. Availability of unskilled labourers, mostly women deteriorate to an extent that brick field owners were forced to raise their wages from Rs 65 per 1000 bricks to Rs 80 since January. The team also unveiled that peoples’ purchasing power has increased by 5 to10 percent. Partei of Kawnpui, a variety shop owner said her shop was never better off than this year ever since she open the same several years back. At an average, the survey team revealed that NREGS has increased the wages of daily labourers by 5-10 percent and that money circulation was three fold in comparison with the pre-NREGS period.

Cash reward

By Our staff Reporter

IMPHAL, Jun 4: The State Government has announced a cash reward of Rs 5 lakhs to Romen Yumnam in appreciation of his outstanding performances in the National Defence Academy. Romen, s/o Yumnam Yaima Singh of Langmeidong Maning Mayai Leikai passed out from the National Defence Academy with flying colours and has become the first person from the North East region to be honoured with the President’s Gold Medal.

He has also been honoured with the Best Army Cadet Medal, Best in the Outdoor Training Medal, Gold Medal of the Most Promising Boxer in 2006, Most Scientific Boxer of the National Defence Academy in 2007, Runner Up title in Bakshi Cup Golf and Bronze Medal in 1500 metre race in NDA in 2007. Issuing a statement in connection with the announcement of the cash reward to Romen, Secretary to Chief Minister of Manipur AN Jha said it was a very rare feat which has brought name and fame to the State.

Source: The Sangai Express

15 NSCN cadres killed in fierce Dimapur faction fights

By : Newmai News Network

Dimapur, Jun 4: In what could be termed as one of the fiercest gunbattles in Nagaland after the May 16 incident in recent times, 15 cadres of the NSCN factions were killed in separate incidents on Wednesday in and around Dimapur in clashes between the two warring factions.

With regard to the first incident, there were contradictory reports on the manner of the clashes. While the NSCN(IM) claimed that the outfit retaliated to an attack launched by the NSCN(Unification), the latter group said otherwise.

Reports said that cadres of the NSCN(IM) heading from Seithikima village encountered the cadres of NSCN(Unification) near village Aoyim and Xelhozhe killing 12 cadres, while one has succumbed to injuries later on the way to a hospital.

However, the NSCN(IM) claimed that 12 arms were captured from the rival group.

Following today's incident some people torched a house of NSCN(IM) lieutenant col. Elijah at Purana bazar in Dimapur today, according to the NSCN(IM).

In the second incident, three NSCN(IM) cadres were shot at by the NSCN(Unification) cadres at Signal Bosti in Dimapur, in which two died at the spot while one is fighting for his life at a hospital.

With regard to the first incident, the shootout occurred some 14 kms away from proper Dimapur which is at the Patkai College area near the National Highway-39.

Reports also said that some seven cadres of the NSCN(Unification) were hurt in the clash and two of them were in serious condition.

The identities of the 11 cadres killed in today's incident are Corpl. Ikato of Hokhuzhe, Lt. Hokuto of Vihokhu, Sgt.Maj Avika of Zuheshe, Sgt Samapu of Zuheshe, Sgt Shitopa of Old Showoba, Sgt Vilato of Old Shena, Sgt Huka of Luvishe New, Sgt Maj Vikheto of Kotharu village, Capt. Hekuto of Yemishe village, 2nd Lt. Kughato of Kotharu village and 2nd Lt. Kitovi of Satakha while the last names are yet to be ascertained.

According to the reports, a mass burial for the 12 cadres killed was arranged at a village called Nehotu.

When Dimapur police rushed to the spot at around 6.30 everything was over and only the dead bodies were found.

As a follow up security measure, two to three platoons of IRB were deployed in the area where the clash took place.

In the second incident, three cadres of the NSCN factions were shot dead but the identity of the factions and names of the victims could not be established.

It is pertinent to note that 14 cadres of the NSCN(Unification) were killed on May 16 in a clash between the two factions near Patkai College. Following that incident, a mob wave was built up and in the process a civilian was killed.The mob also attacked the NSCN(IM)'s Cease Fire Monitoring Cell office after the incident.

Meanwhile, the NSCN(IM) in a swift statement said that the "gang members of Kitovi- Mulatuno faced second massacre when 13 members died in the encounter at Qhelhozhe Basti when they attacked the Naga Army of NSCN in the morning at around 3.30 am.”

In the fierce fight the NSCN(IM) also captured 12 arms. One gang member surrendered to the Naga Army and several of them were also injured. The casualty on the NSCN side is one injury in the hand," claimed the NSCN(IM) statement.

The outfit stated that the laid down official guideline to the Naga Army is not to go for offensives. But once attacked the message must be clear that NSCN(IM) knows how to take control of any attack under any circumstances.

"The earlier occasion on May 16, 2008 was the first massacre when at Seitikhima C near Patkai Christian College, 24 of the Mulatuno-Kitovi gang members died in the open confrontation. In that incident too the Naga Army of NSCN was attacked in the morning at 5.30 am. Though heavily outnumbered, the small force of NSCN routed the gang members and captured 11 arms,” said the NSCN(IM).

It then stated that out of desperation and panic, "The Mulatuno-Kitovi gang members organized a public mob and targeted the Ceasefire Monitoring Cell at Diphupar, Dimapur and partly burnt the building. Not satisfied, they attacked and burnt the houses of four Naga Army officials at Diphupar and Wungram Colony. This was the most demeaning and despicable show of the mob's involvement (mostly Sumis) in the factional fight.

“But this same motley crowd turned their heads away when innocent public including students and chaplain were killed by the same gang who attacked NSCN.”
"This time too the same pattern was followed. The hoodlums of this gang of around nine members with arms attacked the residence of one Lt Col Elijah near Purana bazar and torched the house. However, the neighboring public put off the fire in time,” added the NSCN(IM) statement.

The Imphal Free Press

Employment News Promotional Mail


Employment News issue dated 07.06.08 contains several attractive advertisement from some of the leading PSU/GOVT. Departments as below:-
  1. Housing & Urban Development Corporation Limited invites applications for the posts of Chief, Dy. Chief for various Departments.
  2. Staff Selection Commission notifies Central Police Organisation Examination- 2008 for recruitment of Sub-Inspectors and various other posts.
  3. Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways is recruiting 2025 various posts.
  4. Delhi Subordinate Services Selection Board invites applications for the posts of Pharmacist, Asst Chemist, Jr. Engineer, Physiotherapist etc.
  5. RRB, Jammu-Srinagar is recruiting for the posts of Section Engineer, Jr. Engineer, Jr. Accounts Asst etc.
  6. Railway Recruitment Board, Gorakhpur declares the results of various posts of Jr. Engineer, Technician, Jr. Research Engineer etc.
  7. Central Council for Research in Homeopathy invites applications for the posts of Communication Consultant, Sr. Research Fellow etc.
  8. Public Service Commission, Uttar Pradesh notifies Combined State/Upper Subordinate Services Examination-2008.
  9. The Indian Navy invites applications to join as Short Service Commissioned Officer in Technical Branches under University Entry Scheme Course commencing- Jul, 2009 and as Sailors for Artificer Apprentice (AA)-125 Batch.
  10. Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd. invites applications for the posts of Graduate Engineer (Trainee) and Executive Trainee.
  11. RRB, Chandigarh invites applications for the posts of Section Engineers, Jr. Engineers, Asst Station Master etc.
  12. Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. is recruiting for the posts of Finance Executives and Metallurgical Engineers.
  13. Delhi Police invites applications for the posts of Women Constables (Executive).
  14. Southern Railway, Chennai invites applications for the recruitment of Group �C�.
  15. LIC is recruiting for the posts of Assistants.
  16. Manganese Ore (India) Limited invites applications for the posts of Dy. Chief, Sr. Manager, Company Secretary and Graduate Trainee.
  17. Central Tool Room & Training Centre offers admission to Certificate course in Master of CAD/CAM.
  18. Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited invites applications for the posts of Clerks, Steno etc.
Employment News issue dated 07.06.2008 contains advertisement for job vacancies of more than 73 Govt. Departments.

Book your copy of Employment News immediately with your local Book Seller.

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Wednesday, June 04, 2008

Tup-le-ngim ban ah kuhkalna

Lamka Post Editorial, June 4, 2008

Siamsin naupangte maban a dia kalbi poimoh mahmah leh nu-le-pate’n dip hawm zen a ana ngak uh Class X leh Class XII result tukum a di’n a suakkhin vekta hi. Result hoihtak mute a ding in kipahna a sang mahmah ding in i gingta a, nu-le-pate tamtakte ahihleh kipak mahmah hinapi in a lungsim tawng uah lungkham gu mahmah ding un i gingta hi. Class X zoukhete a ding in ahihleh thu khat in Class XII tan simna ding college hoihtaktak Lamka a leng a om ziak in Lamka mah a kailai dia ngaihsutna a om thei pah hi. Himahleh, professional course gentaklouh bachelor degree course sinna ding nangawn a Lamka a college-te deihthusam a tunlouh ziak un Class XII zoukhia ta-le-nau neite a dia bel lungkhamhuai ding mah ahi. Kuapeuh in i ta-le-naute a hoihpen deihsak i hihna uah, ‘rel lu muban’ ding bek a mun dang a college kaisak i ut chiat uhi. Tuabangkal ah, Vaigampur a siamsin dia kisawl kichi a siamsin ding pen a dia hoihpen hiding hiam chih teltak a ngaihsut poimoh hi.

Lohchinna ding in tup-le-ngim kichiantak neih poimoh a, huai ding in phatuamngai pawlpi khenkhatte’n apaisa kum 10 ma lam khong in leng Career Counselling/Guidance seminar bang ana sai sek mahle uh a tangpi thu a gen, theihlouh ziak hilou in, kuaman tup-le-ngim kichiantak nei tuanlou hi. Tuchiang in ahihleh nidanglai toh teh di’n siamsin naupangte’n tup-le-ngim kichiantak neitheita ua, himahleh, a tangpi thu a gen in a tamzawte’n nei tuanlou uh bang hi. Hiai bang i paidan ahihman in khopi ah siamsin ding in kisawl mahle phattuampih taktak ding i hina hiam chih ngaihsut poimoh hi. BA, BSc. sin ding hiam ahihkeileh ‘septheihtheih’ sem dia khopi a kisawl kichi in bangtan a hon tun dia? Tup-le-ngim kichiantak neiloupi a BA ahihkeileh BSc hiam mark hoihtak mu a 1st Class a zohkhiak in i deihpen sepna hon muhsaklou ding ahi. Midang-namdang lak gentaklouh ei lak mahmah a leng graduate sepna mulou adim-aha a i omtak ziak un ki-graduate-sak deuhtak a Lamka a vakthap kichi thil baihlamtak ahi. Huai ziak in, nu-le-pate hitaleh, siamsin dia khopi lam zotsawmte hitaleh, tup-le-ngim kichiantak, ‘line’ zuih ding kichiantak, planning hoihtak i bawlna hiam chih kivelthak poimoh mahmah hi.

A lehlamtak ah, Class X leh Class XII result suak a lohchinna ngahte hi’n a ngahloute hitaleh, Lamka Post June 3 issue a suak, “Meihol zuaknu tapa in IIT-JEE gelhching” kichi a Jamkholun Haokip apat sinlai lak ding hoihtak om hi. Jamkholun ahihleh a siamsinna ‘background’ i et chiang in Class X Greenwood Academy ah zoukhia a, Class XII leng Lamka pansan mah in Churachandpur Govt. College ah zoukhia hi. Class X leh Class XII leng a nih a 2nd Division tuak a zou ahihna ah ‘lehkhasiam’ i chihte uh bel hilou peuhmah hi. Sungkuan khosakna toh kisai in a nu’n a meihol zuakna a sum a muhte a enkol ahihna a a nuam ding chihna se omlou hi. Huai banah, IIT a lut ding a tupna toh kisai a BSc 1st Year exam pelou a innlam a hong kik tungtang ah amah enkoltute mahmah apat ‘tup-le-ngim’ tawpsan theihna ding khop dalna tuak hi. Sep-le-bawl thu ah leng Bangalore ah waiter in Jamkholun pang ngei a, amah leh amah kitoudelh in khosa zek man hi. Haksatna tuamtuam tuak mahleh aman a tup-le-ngim mangngilhlou in ann-nek, tuidawn, kisil leh kihahnate banah minute 5/10 vel khong a khawltawldam hun chihlouhsiah zingkal dak 5 apat zan dak 12 tan niteng a lehkhasim in panla hi. A tup-le-ngim mualsuahna dia ‘sepna neite’ sang mah a leng kuhkalzaw a a hahpan zawk ziak in haksatna tuamtuam palsuak a, ‘lehkhasiam’ i chihte uh hikei mahleh a lohching khat suak hi.

Novelist minthang Jeffrey Archer in a genna khat ah, “90% genius + 10% hardwork = King, 10% genius + 90% hardwork = Prince, 100% genius + 0% hardwork = Pauper” chi hi. Hiai omdantak bel, lohchinna ding in khuak pilna poimoh mahmah hi. Pathian thilthawnpiak khuak pilna hoihtak bel mi tengteng in tang vekkei mahlehang khuak pilna neuchik bek neilou a lehkhasim kuamah ki-omlou hi. Huai ziak in, tutung result suak a lohchingte leh a diak in a lohchingloute hitaleh, 90% genius piak ding neiloute a ding in leng 90% hardwork piak i ki-ngap nak a leh lungkiakna ding bangmah omlou hi. Himahleh, theih dia poimoh mahmah khat om nawn ahihleh, kuhkaltak a tha pe dia ki-ngap himahlehang bang lam, bang nna, bang zilna, bang tup-le-ngimna a tha pe ding ihi a chih theichiang masak ngai hi. Tup-le-ngim kichiantak neiloupi a kuhkaltak a panlak kichi thil hithei himawklou ahihna ah, lungkiat theihna tampi i tuah hang in tup-le-ngim kichiantak nei in huai mualsuahna ding in kuhkaltak in pang teitei leng ei toh kituak hun, ‘King’ ahihlouhtawp in ‘Prince’ lohchinna bel a tawp in i ngah ngeingei ding i chi ngam hi.

Source: Zogam.Com

MPSC process irks MUSU

By Our Staff Reporter

IMPHAL, Jun 3 : While appreciating the process being undertaken by the Manipur Public Service Commission (MPSC) for recruitment of college lecturers, the Manipur University Students Union (MUSU) has however conveyed strong reservation against the procedure adopted by the MPSC.

A statement issued by MUSU asserted that the MPSC is deliberately scheming to allow certain candidates appear in the ongoing interview even though these candidates do not fulfil the eligibility criteria set by UGC.

Quoting advertisements issued by the MPSC in connection with the recruitment of lecturers on October 18, 2006 and the corrigendum issued on April 8 this year, MUSU pointed out that as per the first advertisement the number of vacant post was 186 but this was reduced to 172 in the corrigendum without giving any reason.

It asked the MPSC Secretary how the number of posts was reduced while the number of subjects was increased by adding six different subjects against the number of subjects published in the first advertisement.

Highlighting the importance of higher education for the progress of the society, specially for the students who could not afford to study outside the State, the alleged anomalies practised by the MPSC amounts to sounding the death knell for higher education in the State.

It is an open ploy to recruit only those favoured candidates and those close to Ministers, MLAs, high-ranking bureaucrats and tops officials of the MPSC, MUSU alleged.

Had the entire recruitment process been handed over to the State Government against the rules of the UGC, the ongoing interview would have been much more exclusive and reduced to a farce.

Taking into account of the press statements issued by different student organisations, MUSU asserted that the ongoing interview should be halted at once.

Taking strong exception to the alleged attitude of the MPSC secretary and chairman kow-towing to the whim political leaders, it cautioned that may face the wrath of the public once the people rise up against their acts of corruption, favouritism and nepotism.

Absence of qualified teachers may be one of the factors responsible for the dwindling number of students in Government colleges. Even though MUSU expected a lot from the MPSC regarding the ongoing recruitment process, yet it did not came as a surprise to the MUSU when the MPSC flouted all established rules in the interest of some individuals.

Observing that the MPSC is taking sides with the privileged and powerful group while victimising underprivileged and weaker sections, MUSU cautioned that there is no guarantee that these marginalised sections may not turn their fury to the MPSC officials.

It would be more prudent on the part of the Government to cancel the ongoing interview process and make necessary process to recruit teachers against the number of posts available in 2006.

MUSU further called upon all student organisations to look into the matter more seriously while assuring unstinted cooperation to any initiative/movement launch to correct the faulty practices of the MPSC.

Source: The Sangai Express

No agreement for solution under Constitution, says NSCN(IM)

By : Newmai News Network

Dimapur, Jun 3: The NSCN-IM on Tuesday said that the Government of India and the "NSCN" never agreed to work out a solution within the parameter of the Constitution of India.

The outfit said this while reacting strongly to the reports carried in Guwahati based English daily newspaper, The Assam Tribune with regard to the position of Indo-Naga peace process.

"This is response to the statement made by highly placed official of the Government of India published through R.Dutta Choudhury in The Assam Tribune on May 14,2008 on the position of Indo-Naga peace process," said the NSCN-IM.

The outfit clarified by saying, "Be it informed that at no point of time, NSCN and the Government of India have ever agreed to work out solution within the parameter of India constitution. NSCN has repeatedly said that Indian Constitution in no solution to the Indo-Naga political issue. It is a political issue, not constitutional. That's why from the very outset, it was mutually agreed upon that the talks will be held on the basis of without condition, at the Prime Minister level and in third countries".

The outfit then said that NSCN-IM leadership has also made it clear that Nagas are not demanding sovereignty from India or any other countries. "The sovereignty of a people is not a commodity to be given or taken away by any power. Both the parties subscribe to the concept that sovereignty is with the people. Sovereignty of the Indians lies with the Indian people. And there should be no doubt about it that sovereignty of the Nagas lies with Naga people. Ours is a case of invasion and we are defending our sovereignty against the aggressors. We will continue to do so in the future too", added the NSCN-IM.

The outfit further clarified and said, "We all know that the global political problems are settled through negotiation. We believe in negotiated settlement. The eleven years long negotiations would be only wastage of time, money and labor if the talks were meant for acceptance the Indian constitution. There is no denying that the talks have been going on in the spirit of working out mutually acceptable solution. But we are opposed to imposition of one's will upon the other".

The informal discussion between Th.Muivah, Ato Kilonser (Prime Minister), Government of the People's Republic of Nagalim and Mr.MK.Narayanan, Special National Secretary Advisor to the Prime Minister of India was confined to the explosive situation in Nagalim particularly in Dimapur only, stated the NSCN-IM.

It also said that comparative study of the world constitutions including that of the Indians and other relevant agreements and accord papers of the nascent states for working out the best acceptable solution should not be misconstrued. It is so because we want to be apart of solution, not problem, added the outfit.

"We are strongly opposed to the logic of demanding land from others. Nagas have no reason and right to demand land from India or any other countries. The Nagas have their own right to demand land and they have been living in their own land since time immemorial. People and land are inseparable. Nagalim is the priceless inheritance of the present Nagas from their fathers. Nagalim is our-everything and no power can take it away from us," affirmed the outfit.

It then said that since it is Indo-Naga political issue, "we are" talking with the Government of India. The Nagas have no issue to talk with others. Therefore, it is un-conditional and irrelevant to talk with others out of context, while the issue is being discussed between two rightful parties, it added.

Viewing from the context of the present situation people are bound to think that Government of India is trying to backtrack the mutually agreed terms of talks by using anti-Naga people's elements and Indian mass media, said that outfit while dismissing, "The publication of the Assam Tribune's concocted versions is a revelation of wicked and treacherous policy to impose the will of India upon the Nagas, but for the NSCN, we are deeply committed to negotiated settlement if war is not imposed on us. We will abide by our commitment".


Social Unity - Khotang Kituahna

- By Samuel Samte

As I settled down for my MA final exam, I came across a section/portion from one of my paper- criminology, which can be matched up to the present situation of the ZSP, DB. An abstract from it: (Police Administration, IIYr. Paper VIII, Criminology, page-107)

Factors that keep the family/community organized:

1. Unity of Objectives:

An organized family (can we read as ZSP, DB?) possesses unity of objectives. That is, its members possess similar views and ideas on the most important aspects of their joint activities such as care and discipline of children, their education, as location of various items in the family budget, maintenance of home, question of sex relations and other matters of deeply personal nature.

2. Unity of Personal Ambitions:

In a free democratic society, the individuals may have their own personal ambitions and they may not harmonies with one another. But in a well organized family, the individual members must subordinate (to lessen or sacrifice) their personal interests to the welfare of the family as a whole. For instance, the husband may have an ambition to become a big shot in the business circle and the wife's ambition may be to become a leading figure in the lady's circle. Although their ambitions are reasonable, if they stand in the way of caring for children, both the husband and wife must sacrifice their ambition. If they try to pursue their personal ambitions at the cost of the care for their children, it is not merely an irresponsible behavior but also a repressible act.

3. Unity of Interest:

All the members in a family have responsibility to it. They have to work together for its well being. This they can do only when they hold the interests of the family above their personal interests. It is natural that as individuals, the members in a family may have their own personal interests. But if their personal interests are not in favour of the collective well being of the family, the basis of the family will be undermined or ruined. So, the individual members must subordinate their personal interest to the collective interests of the family and work together in the interests of the well being of the family. Then only the family will remain strong and organized.

I hope the above small extract will serve as an eye-opener to all our organizations and to the ZSP, DB at large. Long live ZSP, DB!!

Obama clinches Democratic Presidential nomination & His Biography

"I am asking you to believe. Not just in my ability to bring about real change in Washington .... I am asking you to believe in your" - Barak Obama

Senator Barack Obama of Illinois sealed the Democratic Presidential nomination on Tuesday, a historic step toward his once-improbable goal of becoming the nation's first black President. A vanquished Hillary Rodham Clinton maneuvered for the vice presidential spot on his fall ticket.

Obama's victory set up a five-month campaign with Republican Senator John McCain of Arizona, a race between a 46-year-old opponent of the Iraq War and a 71-year-old former Vietnam prisoner of war and staunch supporter of the current US military mission.

Both men promptly exchanged criticism over the war in Iraq and sought to claim the mantle of change in a country plainly tired of the status quo.

''It's not change when John McCain decided to stand with George Bush 95 percent of the time, as he did in the Senate last year,'' Obama said in remarks prepared for delivery in St Paul, Minn.

''It's not change when he offers four more years of Bush economic policies that have failed to create well-paying jobs. And it's not change when he promises to continue a policy in Iraq that asks everything of our brave young men and women in uniform and nothing of Iraqi politicians.'' In a symbolic move, he spoke in the same hall where McCain will accept the Republican nomination at his party's convention in September.

McCain spoke first, in New Orleans, and he accused his younger rival of voting ''to deny funds to the soldiers who have done a brilliant and brave job'' in Iraq. It was a reference to 2007 legislation to pay for the Iraq war, a measure Obama opposed citing the lack of a timetable for withdrawing troops.

McCain agreed with Obama that the presidential race would focus on change. ''But the choice is between the right change and the wrong change, between going forward and going backward,'' he added.

One campaign began as another was ending.

On the final night of the primary season, Clinton won South Dakota, leaving Montana yet to be settled.

The former first lady praised her rival, whom she said, ''has inspired so many Americans to care about politics and empowered so many more to get involved. And our party and our democracy is stronger and more vibrant as a result.''

''I am committed to uniting our party so we move forward stronger and more ready than ever to take back the White House in November,'' she said in a final-night rally in New York.

Only 31 delegates were at stake, the final few among the thousands that once drew Obama, Clinton and six other Democratic candidates into the campaign to replace Bush and become the nation's 44th president.




Born: August 4, 1961 (Hawaii)
Lives in: Chicago, Illinois
Zodiac Sign: Leo
Height: 6' 1" (1.87m)

Family: Married wife Michelle in 1992, 2 daughters Malia and Sasha
Parents: Barack Obama, Sr. (from Kenya) and Ann Dunham (from Kansas)
Religion: United Church of Christ
Drives a: Ford Escape hybrid, Chrysler 300C


- Graduated: Columbia University (1983) - Major: Political Science
- Law Degree from Harvard (1991) - Major: J.D. - Magna Cum Laude
- Attended: Occidental College
Career: U.S. Senator from Illinois sworn in January 4, 2005

Government Committees:

- Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Committee
- Foreign Relations Committee
- Veterans Affairs Committee
- 2005 and 2006: served on the Environment and Public Works Committee


- Dreams From My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance (1995)
- The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream (2006)
- It Takes a Nation: How Strangers Became Family in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina (2006)

Barack Obama is the junior U.S. Senator from Illinois and a Democratic candidate for president in 2008.

Barack Hussein Obama was born Aug. 4, 1961, in Honolulu, Hawaii. His father, Barack Obama, Sr., was born of Luo ethnicity in Nyanza Province, Kenya. He grew up herding goats with his own father, who was a domestic servant to the British. Although reared among Muslims, Obama, Sr., became an atheist at some point.

Obama's mother, Ann Dunham, grew up in Wichita, Kansas. Her father worked on oil rigs during the Depression. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he signed up for service in World War II and marched across Europe in Patton's army. Dunham's mother went to work on a bomber assembly line. After the war, they studied on the G.I. Bill, bought a house through the Federal Housing Program, and moved to Hawaii.

Meantime, Barack's father had won a scholarship that allowed him to leave Kenya pursue his dreams in Hawaii. At the time of his birth, Obama's parents were students at the East-West Center of the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

Obama's parents separated when he was two years old and later divorced. Obama's father went to Harvard to pursue Ph.D. studies and then returned to Kenya.

His mother married Lolo Soetoro, another East-West Center student from Indonesia. In 1967, the family moved to Jakarta, where Obama's half-sister Maya Soetoro-Ng was born. Obama attended schools in Jakarta, where classes were taught in the Indonesian language.

Four years later when Barack (commonly known throughout his early years as "Barry") was ten, he returned to Hawaii to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Dunham, and later his mother (who died of ovarian cancer in 1995).

He was enrolled in the fifth grade at the esteemed Punahou Academy, graduating with honors in 1979. He was only one of three black students at the school. This is where Obama first became conscious of racism and what it meant to be an African-American.

In his memoir, Obama described how he struggled to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage. He saw his biological father (who died in a 1982 car accident) only once (in 1971) after his parents divorced. And he admitted using alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years.

After high school, Obama studied at Occidental College in Los Angeles for two years. He then transferred to Columbia University in New York, graduating in 1983 with a degree in political science.

After working at Business International Corporation (a company that provided international business information to corporate clients) and NYPIRG, Obama moved to Chicago in 1985. There, he worked as a community organizer with low-income residents in Chicago's Roseland community and the Altgeld Gardens public housing development on the city's South Side.

It was during this time that Obama, who said he "was not raised in a religious household," joined the Trinity United Church of Christ. He also visited relatives in Kenya, which included an emotional visit to the graves of his father and paternal grandfather.

Obama entered Harvard Law School in 1988. In February 1990, he was elected the first African-American editor of the Harvard Law Review. Obama graduated magna cum laude in 1991.

After law school, Obama returned to Chicago to practice as a civil rights lawyer, joining the firm of Miner, Barnhill & Galland. He also taught at the University of Chicago Law School. And he helped organize voter registration drives during Bill Clinton's 1992 presidential campaign.

Obama published an autobiography in 1995 Dreams From My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance. And he won a Grammy for the audio version of the book.

Obama's advocacy work led him to run for the Illinois State Senate as a Democrat. He was elected in 1996 from the south side neighborhood of Hyde Park.

During these years, Obama worked with both Democrats and Republicans in drafting legislation on ethics, expanded health care services and early childhood education programs for the poor. He also created a state earned-income tax credit for the working poor. And after a number of inmates on death row were found innocent, Obama worked with law enforcement officials to require the videotaping of interrogations and confessions in all capital cases.

In 2000, Obama made an unsuccessful Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives seat held by four-term incumbent candidate Bobby Rush.

Following the 9/11 attacks, Obama was an early opponent of President George W. Bush's push to war with Iraq. Obama was still a state senator when he spoke against a resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq during a rally at Chicago's Federal Plaza in October 2002.

"I am not opposed to all wars. I’m opposed to dumb wars," he said. "What I am opposed to is the cynical attempt by Richard Perle and Paul Wolfowitz and other arm-chair, weekend warriors in this Administration to shove their own ideological agendas down our throats, irrespective of the costs in lives lost and in hardships borne."

"He’s a bad guy," Obama said, referring to Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein. "The world, and the Iraqi people, would be better off without him. But I also know that Saddam poses no imminent and direct threat to the United States, or to his neighbors, that the Iraqi economy is in shambles, that the Iraqi military a fraction of its former strength, and that in concert with the international community he can be contained until, in the way of all petty dictators, he falls away into the dustbin of history."

"I know that even a successful war against Iraq will require a U.S. occupation of undetermined length, at undetermined cost, with undetermined consequences," Obama continued. "I know that an invasion of Iraq without a clear rationale and without strong international support will only fan the flames of the Middle East, and encourage the worst, rather than best, impulses of the Arab world, and strengthen the recruitment arm of al-Qaeda."

The war with Iraq began in 2003 and Obama decided to run for the U.S. Senate open seat vacated by Republican Peter Fitzgerald. In the 2004 Democratic primary, he won 52 percent of the vote, defeating multimillionaire businessman Blair Hull and Illinois Comptroller Daniel Hynes.

That summer, he was invited to deliver the keynote speech in support of John Kerry at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston. Obama emphasized the importance of unity, and made veiled jabs at the Bush administration and the diversionary use of wedge issues.

"We worship an awesome God in the blue states, and we don't like federal agents poking around our libraries in the red states," he said. "We coach Little League in the blue states, and yes, we've got some gay friends in the red states. There are patriots who opposed the war in Iraq, and there are patriots who supported the war in Iraq. We are one people, all of us pledging allegiance to the Stars and Stripes, all of us defending the United States of America."

After the convention, Obama returned to his U.S. Senate bid in Illinois. His opponent in the general election was suppose to be Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, a wealthy former investment banker. However, Ryan withdrew from the race in June 2004, following public disclosure of unsubstantiated sexual allegations by Ryan's ex-wife, actress Jeri Ryan.

In August 2004, diplomat and former presidential candidate Alan Keyes, who was also an African-American, accepted the Republican nomination to replace Ryan. In three televised debates, Obama and Keyes expressed opposing views on stem cell research, abortion, gun control, school vouchers and tax cuts.

In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest electoral victory in Illinois history. Obama became only the third African-American elected to the U.S. Senate since Reconstruction.

Sworn into office January 4, 2005, Obama partnered with Republican Sen. Richard Lugar of Indiana on a bill that expanded efforts to destroy weapons of mass destruction in Eastern Europe and Russia. Then with Republican Sen. Tom Corburn of Oklahoma, he created a website that tracks all federal spending.

Obama was also the first to raise the threat of avian flu on the Senate floor, spoke out for victims of Hurricane Katrina, pushed for alternative-energy development and championed improved veterans’ benefits. He also worked with Democrat Russ Feingold of Wisconsin to eliminate gifts of travel on corporate jets by lobbyists to members of Congress.

His second book, The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream, was published in October 2006.

In February 2007, Obama made headlines when he announced his candidacy for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination. He is locked in a tight battle with former first lady and current U.S. Senator from New York, Hillary Rodham Clinton.

Obama met his wife, Michelle, in 1988 when he was a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley & Austin. They were married in October 1992 and live in Kenwood on Chicago's South Side with their daughters, Malia (born 1999) and Sasha (born 2001).

© 2008 A&E Television Networks. All rights reserved.


Tuesday, June 03, 2008

Basic Football Rules - 17 Rules & EURO 2008 Fixtures

"The rules of soccer are very simple, basically it is this: if it moves, kick it. If it doesn't move, kick it until it does" - Phil Woosnam

Soccer Rules – Introduction

In the beginning of the 19th century, a people's game that has been around ever since medieval times started becoming more and more popular in England: soccer. Back then soccer was played using ad-hoc pitches and most teams were formed either because they were part of the same village, organization, factory or whatnot.

Obviously, these guys were playing along to some basic soccer rules, but without a referee to enforce them, or clear specifications to these rules. For example, what would have been considered a foul in Liverpool might have been accepted as a fair tackle in London.

Since soccer sparks some pretty intense competition at times, playing it without a lot of strict rules and without a referee to enforce them caused serious troubles in mid 19th century England. Soccer fights became something that was seen as normal and they gave the game an aura of violence that in truth it didn't deserve.

By 1860, soccer clubs were already popping up in England, especially around London and they were becoming semi-professional, as the competition level started rising.

This caused most of the London clubs to meet in the Freemasons' Tavern in London on 26 October 1863, forming the Football Association (FA), which is still the governing soccer organization in England. They decided that they would need certain rules for the game of soccer if they were to keep on playing competitively.

By the second meeting on the 8th of December 1863, they decided to draw up the plans for the Laws of the Game, which is a sort of constitution holding all of the rules for soccer up till this date, with some modifications.

The 17 Rules for Soccer from the Laws of the Game

This soccer constitution that was the Laws of the Game now holds 17 specific key points that determine the rules of soccer. Let's go through each and explain them in more detail.

1. The Field of Play - The field of play is the surface on which the game of soccer is played on. This law regulates everything regarding line markings, soccer pitch dimensions and how to use them properly. For example, a soccer pitch must be between 90 and 120 meters long and 45 to 90 meters wide. However, it must also have a rectangular shape, so you can't have a square field with a length and width of 90 at the same time.

Other basic rules of soccer and field measurements are specified in this law, such as the dimensions of each goal (7.32 meters long and 2.44 meters high), the diameter of the centre circle (18.30 meters) or the distance between the penalty spot and the goal (11 meters, perpendicularly on the goal).

Standard Soccer Field Layout

While watching several soccer matches either live or on TV, you might have noticed the fact that the game sometimes seems loose, whereas other times it feels like the players are all chunked in with little distances between them.

This is due to the fact that the stadiums the matches were played on, all had different soccer field layouts as FIFA doesn't restrict them to a particular size (although official rules state the at the soccer field dimensions must be contained in some standard limits).

Different soccer field sizes can affect a lot of factors, including entertainment value, stadium capacity and most importantly, the tactics and the formation a team will choose. Before seeing exactly how these elements are affected by the soccer field layout, let me start by giving you the exact rules and soccer field dimensions that are set as standard by FIFA.

The standard soccer field measurement limits changed over time, adapting to the particular period of time they applied to. With the rise in popularity of soccer and the increasing number of live spectators to each match, the upper width and length limits were also raised, allowing for bigger stadiums and better entertainment. In 2007, the minimum and maximum values for soccer field sizes are:

Minimum length: 100 yards (90 meters)
Maximum length: 130 yards (120 meters)
Minimum width: 50 yards (45 meters)
Maximum width: 100 yards (90 meters)

Although these sizes apply for local matches, there is a slight adjustment in the field layout when it comes to international matches:

International match minimum length: 110 yards (100 meters)
International match maximum length: 120 yards (110 meters)
International match minimum width: 70 yards (64 meters)
International match maximum width: 80 yards (75 meters)


2. The Ball - Throughout the time, the rules for soccer regarding the football remained the same, but the way in which they were applied was on a constant change. The rules state that the soccer bull must have a circumference between 68 and 70 centimeters and a weight between 410 and 450 grams but they also state that the ball can be made out of "leather or any similar material".

Well that "any similar material" bit constantly improved over time and nowadays soccer balls reached near-perfection. Almost each World Cup brought a new type of soccer ball, with improved characteristics, although all of them stayed inside the official soccer rules stated in the Laws.


3. The Number of Players - According to the official soccer rules, a team can bring in 10 outfield players and one goalkeeper on the pitch and can have several substitutes on the bench. The numbers of benched subs as well as the actual number of substitutions that are allowed in a single match vary with the type of the game played. For example, in official matches only 3 substitutions are allowed, with 5, 7 or 9 players on the bench.

In friendlies however, a coach can fit in as many players as he wants on the bench and usually he can also make as many substitutions as he needs. In the past, the official soccer rules regarding substitutions were a lot stricter than this.


4. The Player's Equipment - Just like with the soccer ball, soccer equipment maintained most of the original rules in the Laws of the Game, but the way people interpret them today is quite different from how they did back in 1863. Basically the rules of soccer say that a player must wear a shirt or jersey, footwear, shin pads, shorts and socks and the two teams must have different equipment so that they can be differentiated on the pitch.

Back then however, a soccer jersey was a largely uncomfortable one and it was very simple, without too many details strapped on it. Today's jerseys are very light and comfortable and on many occasions they have the club's sponsors imprinted on them, they have the number of the player (and the name in some cases) on the back and the club's badge on the chest. These are not enforced by the soccer rules, but they have become common standards in today's game.


5. The Referee - Well the man in black (or more recently phosphorus green) is probably the biggest "invention" that came with the initial soccer rules constitution and his role is to enforce these official rules of soccer "in connection to the match he has been appointed to".

The center referee is accompanied and helped by two assistant referees (one on each side of the pitch) and a fourth one that handles small issues like showing injury time duration, checking a substitute player's equipment and replacing one of the three main referees if they can't continue the game.

Soccer Referee - Before the English organized soccer under a set of common rules, the matches were played entirely without a referee. The two teams would simply agree on a set of rules and conducts before the game and tried to stick to them.

Now, imagine a team of harsh, hard-working brits, each with a wife and 4 kids to feed at home, relaxing on a Saturday afternoon in England on a soccer match.
All the tensions and frustrations that gathered up during the week would spill out at the slightest touch and all that was needed for a full-fledged fistfight to break out between the two teams was a harder tackle or a disputable goal.

The soccer referee was "invented" to keep things in order and look out to the official rules for soccer and although it's admittedly not the best method to do this, referees are still used for this purpose today.

Strangely enough, during the entire history of soccer referees, their evolution was extremely small in comparison to other aspects of the game, such as the gaming rules, tactical and technical aspects of the players and even the soccer ball, which went through different phases of evolution. The "man in black" at the center of the pitch seen today is almost a copy of the same guy at the center of an 1890 match.

The main role of a soccer referee is to make sure that the players respect the official rules for soccer and to punish a breaking of such a rule. A player breaking a rule, for example committing a foul, can be punished by the referee by him whistling a direct or indirect kick for the other team and additionally showing the "outlaw" a yellow or red card.

The latter would mean that the player at thereceiving end of the red card is sent off and must immediately leave the pitch and the same thing happens if he cumulates 2 yellow cards in the same match (after being shown the second yellow card, the player will automatically receive a red card).

Although we usually say that a decision was taken by "the referee" and use the singular for the term, there's actually a team of four refs on the pitch.The central referee is the one doing most of the running and decision making, but he is helped from each sideline by an assistant referee. The assistants's main job is to signal offsides but they can also intervene when an offence takes place near their side of the field.

It's often the case that an assistant referee signals a foul close to the side-line, that the central referee did not notice, being further away from the spot. The fourth ref, or fourth official handles mostly organization issues, such as making sure the substitutes warm up in the designated warm-up area or that the coaches don't step over their bench line area and so forth.

In addition, the fourth ref will also handle extra time and substitutions and he can even substitute the central referee or one of the assistants in case they cannot continue the game.

Since soccer referees are only human, they are prone to make mistakes. To some extent this provides a certain unpredictability and excitement to the game, but a simple mistake from the referee can often cause a team to lose important objectives.

In numerous occasions, a team lost an important match because of a bad ref call, which further caused them to be knocked out of a competition, loses a cup or a league. Obviously, with such a stake at hand, the pressure on the referee is always extremely high.


6. The Assistant Referees - As I explained above, the assistant referees are placed on the sides of the pitch (one each) and their main role is to help the main referee with some decisions. Actually, the assistant referee has no decision power, he can only signal a game issue (an offside, a foul, handball and so forth) but it's up to the central ref if he's or she is going to take up the assistant's advice.


7. The Duration of the Match - Standard adult games are limited by the official soccer rules to two halves of 45 minutes each, separated by a 15 minutes break. This is not the actual time of play, since this 90 minute clock ticks even when the ball is out of play, during substitutions and so forth. In order to try to balance this timing a bit, the end of each half also brings a few minutes of "injury time" on the table.

In some cases, when the match must have a winner (a knockout match for example), two extra mini-periods of 15 minutes each, with no break between them are added. If the match is tied at the end of extra time as well, the players go on for a penalty-shootout that will eventually decide the winner.


8. The Start and Restart of Play - There are 8 reasons for which the game can be stopped and similarly, 8 ways to restart it. Each period of time starts with a kick-off (1) and the game is also restarted with a kick-off if a team scores a goal. If the ball goes out on the side lines, the player who last touched the ball conceded a throw-in (2). The game is restarted with the other team throwing the ball back into play.

The goal kick (3) is awarded to the defending team, if the attacking team took the ball out of play on the defending team's goal line. The game is restarted with the goalkeeper kicking it from within the safety box. If the defending team touches the ball last and it goes over their own goal line, outside of the goal itself, then the opposing team earns a corner kick (4) and they will be required to restart the game from the corner nearest to where the ball went out.

An indirect free kick (5) is awarded when a team produces a non-penal foul (dangerous play or offside for example) and the game is restarted with a ground kick that cannot be taken towards goal (if a player scores directly from an indirect free kick, without another player touching the ball, the goal won't stand). A direct free kick (6) is caused by a foul or handball and unlike the indirect free kick it can be struck directly towards the goal.

A penalty kick (7) is similar to a direct free kick in that it is caused by a foul or handball, but the offence occurs inside the defending team's penalty area. The game is restarted with one of the attacking team's players shooting for goal from the penalty spot (11 meters, perpendicularly on goal), with nothing but a goalkeeper to beat.

The last of these eight soccer rules is rarer and it's called the dropped ball (8). The dropped ball occurs when the referee stops the game for a special reason (an injured player, ball becoming defective or the interference of an external factor) and the game is restarted with him dropping the ball from shoulder height in front of two players who will battle for possession (sort of how basketball matches decide initial possession).


9. Ball In and Out of Play - According to the official soccer rules, the ball is in play all throughout the match duration, except when it passes a bounding line (goal lines and touch lines), when an offence occurs or when play is stopped by the referee. In these particular cases, the ball is out of play and the soccer players cannot score goals or interact with the ball. In addition, substitutions can only occur when the ball is out of play according to the rules for the game of soccer.


10. The Methods of Scoring - As long as the ball is in play and no infringements of any soccer rules are being made, the players can score goals. A goal is considered when the ball crosses one of the goal areas with its entire circumference. Goals can be scored from action, from penalty spots and direct free kicks.


11. The Offside - Since this is one of the trickiest rules of soccer today, I've decided to explain it in detail in a separate article on offside soccer rules.

What the Soccer offside rules are all about?

If you're up for an experiment, grab one of your friends that have absolutely no knowledge about soccer laws and invite them over to watch a match together.

He will undoubtedly have an easy time grasping the basic rules, but at the point of the game when the refs will stop an attacker for offside for the first time, he'll start having problems. He'll ask you about the soccer offside rules and you'll probably have to explain him over and over again for a few times before he'll be able to judge an offside by himself.

I must admit, when my friend asked me "why was that guy called offside?" it took me over 20 minutes and 5-6 in-match offside situations to explain things to him but in the end he finally grasped the idea.

Here's what I told him and here are the answers you should give to your friends when they'll ask you about the soccer offside rule:

When is a player called offside?

A player, usually a striker, is called offside when he is nearer to the other team's goal than both the ball and the second last opponent. The second last opponent usually being the last defender from the opponent team, an offside occurs when the striker is closer to the opposing team's goal than that team's last defender.

To put it simply, try to picture an imaginary line on Team A's last defender, a line parallel to the goal line. If Team B's striker is over this line when his teammate passes the ball, then he is offside. If Team B's striker is on the same line as Team A's last defender (or under the line) then he is in a correct position.

One more thing to look after in an offside: it doesn't matter if Team B's striker is over this line when he receives the ball. The moment to look after is the moment the midfielder passes the ball, which will trigger an offside if the striker is over the last defender line.

The striker was on the same line as the defender, why hasn't he been called offside?

It's not an offside if they are both "on the same line", however there's a slight twist to this soccer offside rule. Even if the players are on the line with their feet, but the striker is leaned forward, a keen referee will call an offside. It's an offside by the slightest of margins, but still an offside. Subsequently, if the defender is leaned forward, he leaves the striker in offside.

What's a "passive offside"?

The passive offside is one of the most debated FIFA soccer rules over the last few years and it seems they finally found a good way to handle it. A player is in "passive offside" if he's in an offside position but doesn't play the ball, in which case the ref doesn't call the offside.

A tricky striker can confuse the defense into laying low thinking an offside will be called, only to avoid playing the ball, allowing another teammate to pick up the ball, and potentially score.

Obviously, what "playing the ball" means is slightly interpretational. Even if the striker in the offside position doesn't touch the ball, but influences the play otherwise (runs towards the ball, covers the goalkeeper's viewpoint and so forth) he comes out of passive offside and the referee blows the call.


12. Fouls and Misconduct - There's a difference between fouls and misconduct that many people fail to understand. A foul can occur when a player tries to get the ball from his opponent and kicks him or pushes him away accidentally, whereas misconduct means that a player willfully targets his opponent and punches, kicks or pushes him away.

Fouls can only occur when the ball is in play, but misconduct can occur when it's out of play as well. Depending on the seriousness of the foul or misconduct, the referee can penalize it with a yellow or red card in addition to a free kick or penalty kick.

You would think the rules regarding soccer fouls are straightforward and easy to grasp, however there are several nuances that makes it one of the most interpretable rules of the game.

In other sports, a foul would be characterized as "it's a foul if you hit the other guy" and although that's partially true for soccer fouls too, sometimes you don't even have to hit someone on the pitch for the ref to call a foul, whereas sometimes you can freely hit opposing players without triggering a call (I see you grinning already!).

Confused yet? I'll explain in a bit. But first let's take a quick view on the main rules surrounding a soccer foul.

In FIFA's "Constitution", Laws of the Game, a foul is the act of kicking, tripping, jumping in/at, charging, striking or pushing an opponent.

Fouls in soccer are penalized by handing over the ball to the team that suffered the foul if the foul has been committed outside a penalty area. In this case, a direct or indirect free kick is given, depending on the nature of the soccer foul, with the kick being taken from the spot where the foul occurred.

In case the offence occurs in the defending team's penalty area, the ref will give the attacking team a penalty kick, which is a great scoring opportunity, allowing a player to take a shot from 12 yards (11 meters) with just the opposing goalkeeper to beat and no defenders around him. The player that caused the foul is also in danger of being cautioned with a yellow card, or being sent off from the pitch with a red card, if the offence was way over the limits.

Examples of red card fouls include extremely hard tackles that injure or are aimed at injuring an opposing player, intentionally hitting or stepping on a fallen opponent. However, a player is also shown a red card if he collects two cautionary yellows.

The above mentioned fouls are all direct contact and thus are all penalized with at least a direct free kick. Like I said earlier however, there are at least three soccer foul types that don't necessarily require direct contact to be penalized.

One would be preventing the goalkeeper from releasing the ball from his hand. Even if you don't touch the keeper, simply standing in front of him, not allowing him to throw or kick the ball forward is considered a foul and penalized with an indirect free kick (not that anyone would attempt a shot on goal from their own keeper's grounds, but rules are rules…).

Another similar type of soccer foul, also known as obstruction, occurs when the defender cuts the running direction of the opposing player, regardless if he has the ball or not (although the "victim" of this type of soccer foul is the player controlling the ball, 9 out of 10 times).

Last but not least, dangerous play occurs when a player has a potentially dangerous kick close to an opposing player.

History actually recorded some famous soccer fouls that sparked controversy all around the world. The first professional foul (a foul where the defender intentionally fouls an attacker that has a good chance) was "patented" by Willie Young of Arsenal, who committed a deliberate foul on Paul Allen of West Ham, in the 1980 FA Cup Final the two teams played.

The incident sparked some intense controversy both on and off pitch, as the gesture countered all fair-play rules that the game was played around. Since then however, the professional foul became a common and an accepted method of stopping a team from having a good opportunity on goal.

Another negatively famous foul was the one made by Olympique Lyonnais' Serge Blanc on then Celtic's striker Henrik Larsson. TV Cameras caught the exact moment of the foul and showed how Blanc's leg catches Larsson's leg on the ground and breaks it. The images horrified many viewers as they seemed like taken from a war movie.

It seemed that Larsson's leg was dangling down from the spot it broke, but eventually doctors claimed that it was an illusion caused by his shinpad going down the side of his leg and that the fracture isn't as bad as it looked on cameras. Still, Larsson had to recover for 1.5 years before returning to the big stage of European soccer.

Last on the list of famous soccer fouls just came in on the last World Cup from Germany. In the final played by France against Italy, France's captain, Zinedine Zidane was going to play his last official soccer game ever, as he announced his retirement from both his club and the national team after the final.

Being considered the best player of the tournament so far and knowing that this would be the magnificent France captain's last match, the camera was pointed at him almost as much as it was pointed to the game itself.

Unfortunately for Zidane, this meant that his 114th minute headbutt of Italy's Marco Matterazzi was clearly caught on tape, sparking worldwide feelings of anger, disappointment, frustration but also empathy from Zizou's fans.


13. Free Kicks - I've explained most of the soccer rules regarding free kicks in "Soccer Rule Number 8 – The Start and Restart of Play". One additional soccer rule worth mentioning is that players from the opposing team must be at least 9.15 meters away from the position where the free kick will be struck. Also, the player that kicks the ball initially on a free kick cannot touch it again until a teammate or opposing player touches it.


14. Penalty Kicks - Penalty kicks are conceded when a defended player fouls or commits handball inside the 18 yard box (commonly known as the penalty box). It's important to know that not all offences inside the penalty box are punished with a penalty kick. For example, if a player commits dangerous play inside his own penalty box, the referee will award an indirect free kick from the place that the offence occurred.

When the penalty kick is taken, the only two players in the 18 yard box are the penalty taker and the defending team's goalkeeper. Everyone else must sit outside the box and can only move towards the ball once it is kicked. So if the penalty is saved by the goalkeeper or strikes the bar, a player could run from the edge of the box and gain possession.


15. The Throw In - When the ball goes out of play on the side lines, the opponent of the player who last touched the ball will take a throw in. The throwing method has to follow some rather strict rules; otherwise the referee might dictate a throw in for the other team. The player taking the throw must keep his feet outside the side line, with the sole on the ground and the actual throw must be executed with the ball over the thrower's head.


16. The Goal Kick - The goal kick is a means of restarting play after the attacking team took the ball over the defending team's byline. The goal kick acts as a direct free kick, so if a player would kick the ball so hard that it would reach the opposing team's goal and score, the goal would count.

One extra soccer rule regarding the goal kick states that the kick must be powerful enough to pass the penalty area. So in case the goalkeeper executes the goal kick and passes the ball to a teammate in his own penalty box, the goal kick is re-taken.


17. The Corner Kick - The last of the 17 rules of soccer refers to the corner kick, which occurs when the ball passes over the defending player's goal line, with a defender having touched the ball last. The corner kick acts as a direct free kick taken from the corner of the pitch (if the ball passes the line on the left of the goal, the corner is taken from the left corner and if it passes on the right, the corner is taken from the right corner).

The same rules as for a direct free kick apply, in that opposing players must be at least 9.15 meters away from the corner, the corner taker may score directly from the corner kick and the kicker can't play the ball a second time until it's touched by another player. The only additional rule is that the ball be placed in the corner arc.

Well that's pretty much all you need to know about soccer and soccer rules. Most of these rules seem harder than they actually are on paper and if you watch a couple of matches you'll soon get the hang of them naturally. The only one that requires some special attention is the offside soccer rule, which indeed can be harder to understand without the proper explanation, so check out the offside article on the site for a more detailed clarification on that.





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Open Letter to the Collective Leadership of the Kuki National Organisation & all concerned on any-Kuki tribes.


Respected leaders & all concerned,

I am afraid this might pose to be very hard questions to all of you and your organization. However, I am constrained to get clarified to know officially as to how you and your organization endorse the generic term Kuki - whether as a tribe or as a nation. I am aware that the KNO was and is still, either covertly or overtly, blindly advocating the newly recognized any-Kuki tribes and that your spokesperson, Dr.Seilen was and is still campaigning for the same wholeheartedly. It is rather perplexing and absurd when he talks about Kuki nationalism and so what´s the use of it. Being one amongst who converted the nation into a tribe, he has lost all his rights to talk about Kuki nationalism or Kuki expansion unless he restores it as a nation again. The same applies to all other anti-national within the nation. However, I am not sure whether he did it in his capacity as spokesperson of the KNO or as an individual or as hired by the manipulator. I am also aware and appreciate that your organization is, at the same time, pursuing Kuki national movement to resurrect the lost glory of the nation. But, many like me wonder whether your movement was really national or instead a movement for tribe recognition. Either the movement has to be real national in all its nature and character or the word national replaced by tribe. If it has to be not national one then, with the recognition of the any-Kuki tribes your movement is over and as such, you along with all your associates have to pack up and go to take rest peacefully under the roof of your master´s palace depositing all the national properties to the owner(nation) for use in the continued Kuki national movement. So soon shall the nation see the rise of new phase of true Kuki nationalism - not necessarily armed one! A very big question by the Kuki nation and its people on the meaning of your national movement!

Thus, let me draw your kind attention to ask you few questions as below in public interest:

1. To you, what is Kuki? Is it a tribe or a nation?
2. Is Kuki for all the Kukis or for only one man? Or does it belong to one particular man or few and the rest to be under his rule or does it belong to all the Kukis?
3. Was your movement for the Kuki tribe recognition? If not then, what is the official stance of the KNO on the issue of any Kuki tribes?
4. What does Kuki nationalism mean to you and your organization?
5. Whether you still endorse the artificial any-Kuki tribes Kuki or disown it? Or whether you endorse the 22 Kuki tribes Kuki which is the genuine, real and original one?

If you endorse the former i.e., any Kuki tribes which is actually One-man´s Kuki:
(a) Would you please make it public the coverage area of your demand for a Kuki state, excluding the area inhabited by the 22 (twenty two) Kuki tribes
(b) the approximate Kuki population within your demand area excluding the population of 22 (twenty) Kuki tribes? And how will you legitimize your stance or position before the government of India on your political demand with regard to the people and the land?

Please don´t make any mistake saying that any Kuki tribes is inclusive of all the existing 22 tribes for, the 22 tribes remains intact as they are (and will remain so even if heaven falls) and as such, one cannot say they are included in the any-Kuki tribes because that is not logical or practicable in the sense that it itself is a tribe parallel to anyone of the existing Kuki tribes say, Aimol, Thadou, Zou etc. Thus, this is nothing but a worthless and harmful appendix which, if exploded, would kill the human being. So, it has to be surgically or anyhow removed immediately before it is too late and before it kills the human being including the soul. Can Kuki as a tribe have a separate state or can each of the 22 Kuki tribes have different state of its own?

However, if you endorse the latter i.e., the 22 Kuki tribes as one Kuki; how and what can you say to convince the people? What is your idea to do away with the former i.e., any Kuki tribes and what have you done towards it? What´s your plan to reinstate Kuki as a nation as much as it should rightly be? As any Kuki tribes is said to be the brainchild of a (who many call wrongly or rightly a warmonger) reverend pastor and implemented by your organization through the then Member of Parliament, you and your organization as a whole also equally, as the other two, is accountable to it and you cannot simply wash your hands of it. Now, you and your associates will have to pay a tremendous price for it while others or for that matter, the master manipulator may enjoy reaping the fruit of the sacrifice you made so big-heartedly for Kuki to be a tribe. It is a pity that you and your organization is just the scapegoat. If you don´t rectify soon you shall be outcast from your clan, tribe, and also from the larger community, the Kuki society itself.

Of late, the Kuki nation has so much of problems to contend with; the first and foremost being to check and protect it against any subversive design or activity to undermine its identity or its very existence. The attempt to murder the nation is too serious a matter to tolerate and so, the nation shall no longer tolerate it and remain a silent spectator, but shall be compelled to take appropriate action to save itself at any cost. The nation is definitely and increasingly on the wrong track owing to the powerful anti-national ideology which is not from outside but from within itself, and for rectification such evil ideology has to be rooted out from the soil howsoever it is deeply rooted in, and thrown away deep into the sea never to resurface along with the contaminated soil.

Preserving the identity of each and every Kuki tribe is equally important as protecting that of Kuki. Trampling upon the identity of any of the Kuki tribes amounts to trampling upon Kuki identity itself. And when the identity of all the Kuki tribes is trampled upon everything of Kuki is lost. There is no question of one being pro-Thadou and anti-Kuki or vice versa. A Thadou cannot be pro-Thadou but just Thadou, and a Kuki not pro-Kuki but just Kuki. No doubt, Thadous being the most numerous amongst the Kuki tribes must shoulder the responsibility of protecting Kuki national interest. But this should not mean that they are the only Kuki, but just one among equals and thus, lead in opening the doors wide open for all Kukis to come back into the fold. As such, Thadous to remain intact as it is (as one among the 22 tribes) is of paramount importance. In the like manner, the nation should shoulder the responsibility of maintaining each and every 22 tribe intact just as it is without any altering or adulterating.

"Dividing the Semite people by confusing their languages for building the tower of Babel to challenge God, as found in the Genesis, may be the work of God to humble them, but dividing people who speak and who will speak the same language/ dialect may not be his work, but that of his rival." So one must pause for few more moments and retrospect where they are headed for before leaving. Even as the nation is in the process of reunification, it takes the pain to dissuade a section of the Thadous from leaving its tribe and its nation(Kuki) in the larger interest. This is in line with the principle of mutual respect and peaceful co-existence within the larger Kuki community and the nation with others. This is what reverends and spiritual leaders should be in the forefront of promoting and preach about rather than promoting division and misunderstanding amongst his own people for self interest.

When one has been christened a name by their parents would it be logical or useful to clamour for change of it. However, if anyone says it should be then, let him first change his first name as well as the second name in every documents and certificates. Let us not forget that at the time of tribe recognition in 1956 the word Thadou was unanimously adopted to be the name of the tribe by all who speak the same dialect( now known as Thadou) in honour of his being the King of then Burma for generations. So, this should not at all be a problem or else the term Kuki itself, being a foreign tongue, would be even more a problem. We all should refrain from giving undue importance to being elder or younger or the name of a person. Or else endless problem! "For the nation to survive as a nation as ever and for ever, tribe must be advocated by one and all on linguistic basis (as already recognized), otherwise it has to be understood that it is a dead corpse walking in the form of spirit only."

For the record, proponents of any-Kuki tribes write their tribe name simply as `Kuki tribe´ unmindful of what the term `Kuki´ means and in total disregard for the nation when they take tribe certificate. This amounts to making mockery of the nation at the highest level. This is possible due to the nature of the name of the tribe itself. If they wish so, they may write one man´s Kuki, but not Kuki as a tribe. This is not surprising as this was the hidden agenda/approach or real intention of the inventor who mysteriously claim to have a super natural origin history unlike any other human being or group of people in the world, except Adam and not even Jesus Christ - thus, a big question mark making it to be the most sensational topic or story in the history of anthropology. All have to be crystal clear without any mistake that as the very term any-Kuki tribes means that there is no other Kuki tribes except what is within it. This implies there is no other Kuki or to be specific disowning the existing 22 tribes including the Thadous. Thus without any further argument it is nothing but a single separate tribe parallel to anyone of the 22 Kuki tribes.

So, where is the justification of Kuki not being made a tribe under the new term? Neither your approach nor Dr. Seilen´s is logical or practicable because a clan within a tribe can never be a tribe nor can there be the same tribe within a tribe or a tribe within the same tribe. I am Haokip by clan, Thadou by tribe and Kuki by nation/nomenclature. Remember that even all of your own clansmen, except some vested interest hallucinated with reactionary ideology by the great hallucinator, are vehemently opposed to it. It is just felt that the vested interest will come back to their consciousness very soon. So, going by the definition of the new term of Kuki as in `any-Kuki tribes´, it (Kuki) has become the smallest tribe perhaps, in the world. In every sense of the term it is divisive, narrow, destructive, disintegrating, self-inflicting and most importantly, impracticable and illogical.

Therefore, I suggest you to do some basic reading on basic structure of a society or a nation or for that matter, nationalism. When even an illiterate person can understand these basics on his own, it is most amazing people of your standing not being able to do so - perhaps, due to influence of the powerful hallucination. Sadly, Kuki society has been badly damaged not by lay people, but by so-called doctorate degree holders - Bible translation in Thadou dialect labeled `in Kuki´ and worse Kuki recognized as a tribe now. Make no mistake; Kuki has no dialect or language. No wonder then that opponents or critics of the any-Kuki tribes are simply being dubbed `anti-Kuki´ by anti-national reactionaries for reasons best known to themselves. But the fact is that, due to influence of the said hallucination, they cannot understand the Kuki basics - who are the Kukis & what is Kuki?

"When a nation (Kuki) cannot be a tribe and a clan a tribe, any-Kuki tribes, in its true sense of the term, means a tribeless tribe."

So, this is nothing but a well thought-out clever design to destroy Kuki as national identity and the integrity of major clans within the Thadou tribe, and to make it the name of a mysterious (sub)clan. It is no problem at all and it is up to himself if one cannot accept a particular tribe name despite being so much - speaking the tongue and practicing the custom, culture and the tradition, but he should not make Kuki something like a plaything of his own, making mockery of himself and the entire nation. This is exactly what matters and the nation should not hesitate to reserve the right to take its own course of action against such a wishful idea(s) to undermine the very existence of the nation. The nation shall prevent any such vested interest from owning Kuki nation as his or their personal property and any such attempt shall be crushed by the nation with all its might and resources.

Very very much against the law of the nature, you have supposedly made Kuki to be two different identities - one as a nation and the other a tribe. There is no other choice to make but only between the two - any Kuki tribes or 22 Kuki tribes, or Kuki as a tribe or as a nation/nomenclature. However, the truth is that there cannot be two or more or many Kuki, but one and I repeat, just only one Kuki - 1X22 (Kuki X 22 tribes) no minus no plus, nothing more nothing less! And one person cannot belong to both of them, but either of them. Hence, your organization must, explicitly and in no uncertain term, make an official declaration of your stance on it otherwise, the matter will be automatically brought up for serious discussion on the table when dialogue for Kuki political demand begins with the government and a case made against your organization on the issue. Would it be really worth shouting at the top of the voice for a separate Kuki state excluding the said 22 (Aimol-Zou) Kuki tribes? Where is Zalengam situated and what is its size excluding the land inhabited by the 22 Kuki tribes and what is its population excluding them?

Clan should remain as a clan (not even as sub tribe), tribe as a tribe and nation/nomenclature as it is. Clan may be by birth or blood, but tribe and nation is not necessarily so. This is truest in the context of Kuki nation and there can never be anything vice versa and any attempt to distort it would be just in vain - this is what all have to be clear about. In this regard, you owe explanation to the Kuki nation and also to your counterparts within your own organization. Any one in Manipur state who says he is a Kuki can be so only through one of the 22 tribes and not anyway else. No backdoors. And anyone within the fold of the 22 tribes is a Kuki and not any alien.

As regards my idea of 22 Kuki tribes or for that matter, Kuki reunification, let me set the record straight once again as it is often misinterpreted: No Kuki nationalist would ever think even for a moment or say that all Kuki activities have to stop until and unless all the 22 Kuki tribes can endorse it, but all of them have to be correctly in line with Kuki national interest. Kuki activities must go alongside as actively as the unification process and neither of them can stop. And, there cannot be any substitute to Kuki as name of nomenclature. The so-called Zomi, according to me, is a temporary alternative arrangement for other Kuki tribes which were not accommodated in the Kuki fold. One cannot enter a room if and when the door is tightly shut from the inside. So, either the door has to open from inside or get it opened from the outside - if necessary with force. The former is much desirable than the latter. So, there has to be visible real
initiatives on the part of every Kuki organizations in opening the big door - like the legendary Lenchonghoi´s door inside which when we all Kukis once get in, no force (even Khalvompu) would be able to attack us. Then, it will be quite natural about their comeback into its real and original fold again. I am optimistic about materialization of this vision for Kuki reunification. So, it is desirable it is not being misinterpreted as otherwise for the sake of Kuki nation.

Despite the attempts to sabotage it, the process of rebuilding of the wretched Kuki nation is already set in motion and is on the right track; and will move on until we all can celebrate its success in jubilation. This process is not as difficult as to scale Mt. Everest, but as easy and as simple as to be able to understand the difference between clan and tribe, tribe and nation, or between right and wrong. However, it would not be surprising that people who have been brainwashed by anti-unification or reactionary ideology will, under the guidance of the ideologues, continue to ring out aloud alarm bell against the noble idea of unification or revolution, yet it will go on against all odds and Kuki will once again be rightly reinstated as a nation - a great nation and no force on earth will be able to stop it.

Amid all these developments, "The good message of hope and love for all is: no worries and cause for concern; any Thadou who says he is not so despite being so much is not bound to give taxes, but instead welcomed to take the ownership of it as a free gift like the `MANNA´ given to the Israelites by God in the desert (Deu. chapter 8). So is anyone who had left and who tries to leave the fold of Kuki nation. So, it should be accepted with good grace just as it is and not as otherwise. However, if anyone still wishes to reject it and leave and invent a different tribe then, nobody can stop; but let him first invent its own distinct name, distinct dialect, distinct custom & culture, distinct tradition and new and distinct composition, but not steal others´. And most importantly, not steal the nation´s name - Kuki, but invent one new." Blessed shall be the person who accept the MANNA with good grace!

Let´s be simple: just as the Lord wants us to go to him just as we are, so does the nation (Kuki) wants us to approach it just as we are (as one amongst the 22 tribes). "Come just as you are is the theme or clarion call of the Kuki nation".
However, one option may be available; if at all there has to be any addition of Kuki tribes, it has to be something like "any other Kuki tribe(s) excluding the existing 22 tribes" meaning other Kuki tribe(s) other than the existing 22 tribes. This would imply that there is also other Kuki tribe(s) besides the original 22 tribes. This would be a sort of reservation for non-indigenous Kukis (who wish to adopt Kuki as its nomenclature) to be integrated into the fold of Kuki just as Nagas did in Nagaland - the any Naga tribes. Moreover, this would also serve as a policy of Kuki expansion. Anything excluding the 22 Kuki tribes can never be called Kuki expansion, but depression. However, if this still cannot be the option then, those who don´t want to be within the fold of existing 22 tribes would be most welcomed to leave the land where Kuki constitutes 22 tribes and go somewhere else where there is any-Kuki tribes instead of fomenting more troubles/communalism.

So as to save your organization, (which will sooner or later be rocked by the issue) not to speak of the Kuki nation, you ought to retrospect and wake up sooner than later from illusion and rectify yourself and your organization and start supporting Kuki reunification (not necessarily meaning supporting any particular organization´s ideology), disowning the fictitious One-man´s Kuki before it is too late. Or else, you will see your organization crumbling and finally vanished, to the point of no return, sooner than expected and that will haunt you for the rest of your life. If anyone is a party to the fictitious Kuki he is against the entire nation; but if for the real Kuki he is blessed to be with the nation. At present, the nation stands sharply divided between One-man´s Kuki and Kuki nation or fictitious Kuki and real Kuki. The best solution for the nation to survive peacefully is complete removal of the harmful appendix before it explodes and for every Kuki to endorse status quo(ante) of Kuki i.e., the one consisting of the 22 tribes so as to reinstate Kuki as a great nation as much as it deserves. No regrets later. Every Kuki has the bounded duty to save the Kuki nation from sinking like the gigantic Titanic ship into the Atlantic Ocean never to be seen again in the face of the world as it was.

All are welcome into the real Kuki fold. The choice is yours. Better late than never!

(Any-Kuki tribes, in all its sense, nature and form is not worth even the paper on which it is written. It is, in fact, an open challenge to the Kuki nation in the most direct manner and so, those responsible might have to go through a purge before the nation unless they repent and get rectified)

Please do not take this as an offence, but as honest questions and ideas to save the nation from sinking.
Anticipating your kind response. Direct answer from person(s) concerned is desirable.


Timothy Haokip, New Delhi