Thursday, April 26, 2007


Presented by Mr. T.Kaithang
On 27th January 2007.

(At the One Day Jubilee Motivational Seminar Organized by Zomi Christian Fellowship, Delhi, on the occasion of its Silver Jubilee)
The Economic Times
New Delhi Thursday, 25 January 2007
In wild, Wild West, farmers wake up to e-magic
A Crop of NewGen Farmers in Kutch Brings Computer To The Field

Rajkot:. . . . .Rahul Gala, a 28-year old new age farmer. Back from Australia, where he completed his graduation in horticulture from Queensland, Gala grows dates with the help of computers.
….A few kilometers away, 25 year old Vimal Nisar has been growing mangoes by using modern horticulture methods. Nearby, another young farmer, Prakash Savla(28), grows aloe vera using scientific methods. The three represent a growing breed of confident youngsters who are not only willing to take up farming as a career, but are changing the rules of the game. . . . . . . . . . .


1. Introduction:

The Indian Zo people comprising of Mizo or Zomi tribes dwell in the contiguous geographical areas falling within Mizoram, Manipuri, and parts of Nagaland and small pockets of Tripura States. For some reasons, the Zo people confine themselves to the rugged, mountainous regions and it is only recently that they have started coming down to the plains. Historically, it has been seen that those inhabitants of river valleys and coastal plains get the benefit of development in economic, social or other sectors faster than those living in the barely accessible mountainous terrains, as has been demonstrated quite clearly by the lack of development seen among the Zo people, and accounts for the reason why we lag so far behind even in the 21st century after the birth of Christ. For such laggards, catching up with others, and keeping up with them, is a big issue. Chronic lack of development is associated with problems of alienation, deprivation, poverty, crimes, diseases, etc. Hence, their relevance today.

A reference to the topic of our seminar will immediately bring us to the key words-Youth, Metropolitan Cities, and Restoration in the context of Zogam economy. While it is not my intention to define the terms, allow me to say that Youth would mean those from our own Zo background who have lived and imbibed the benefits of learning and experience that only urban, city background can provide. To me, Zogam would have to mean areas under occupation of the Zo people as discussed briefly above, since the same term does not find mention in any official world map and atlas published so far. Restoration would also mean more than merely getting back to whatever economic stature might have been presumed to be lost, but making positive gains in all economic parameters of development.

2. Development:

The question now is: What is development and what is the development we want for us? Broadly speaking, I would like to see a level of development that will ensure food security, acceptable health standards, employment opportunity for all (well, almost all anyway), intellectual and spiritual growth opportunities, transport & communication facilities, preservation of culture, etc. In order to achieve these ideals, let us try to examine what needs to be in place. The following points, and not necessarily in order of importance, I think, are important for our enlistment.

2.1 Transport & Communication:

Physical transport system forms the backbone of any development. Thus, roads, railways, shipping routes, and air routes combine to provide different modes of an integral transport and communication system. Although these modes of transport have been in existence for centuries in almost all parts of the world, for the world of Zo people, asking for even the most basic one, i.e. road communication, is akin to asking for the moon. While the country is talking of quadrilateral highway network spanning its length and breadth, restoring just one highway called the Tippaimukh Road stretching from Lamka to North Mizoram (hardly 300 km long) is a major challenge. Just how one good highway can transform the economy and lifestyle of the inhabitants has been seen earlier. We had been witnesses to trucks and buses trundling along carrying goods and passengers-increasing rural agricultural and non-agricultural production including related economic activities like roadside teashops and hotels. For many, the road provided the means for accessing many amenities, including health care facilities for treatment of illnesses at larger centres. However, all good things, especially in our Zo areas, usually had to come to an end too soon. The brisk agricultural activity again collapsed when the road collapsed because of disrepair. Naturally, this adverse development disrupted whatever little benefits people along the road may have had during its short-lived usefulness.

Emergence of the Guite Road-or Lamka-Sinzawl-Khawzawl-Aizawl Road as an alternative link to Mizoram boosted trade and agricultural activities, though not always quantifiable, in several areas. Despite its deplorable condition, the road has been a lifeline not only for moderate trade and commerce, but also for bridging the societies living in the two states of Manipur and Manipur. In fact, this road has proved to be a boon as it has often cushioned the economic impact that many bandhs called by bandh-crazy Manipuris organized. Thus, good roads are our basic need for development and are vital for bringing about transformation of the people. There is a report that the contractors did not use the large sum of money sanctioned and released for repairing the Tedim Road from Lamka to Singngat for the intended purpose. Such fund diversion, etc., can now come out in the open through invoking the RTI Act. This is where smart, intelligent, educated city youth should come in.

2.2. Another equally vital means of communication is the telecommunication system provided by the postal system and other wired or wireless systems. In an age when communication systems have become virtual and instantaneous, when telephones, faxes and the internet have now become by-word for many, Zo folks in the hills continue to rely on word-of-mouth messages or letters to be delivered by passing travelers. Imagine the frustration of the boy from one of the villages studying in, say New Delhi, having got used to mailing messages and graphics over the internet, who, on returning to his village has to fall back on the primitive methods! The contrast is too real when one comes face to face with the fact that even the village post office, euphemistically referred to as the BPO, is non-existent. Existence of such communication system would have made living in the interior Zo village more livable. One would like to see that all modes of communication-the postal system, the telephones, the electronic medium, and even Television- are extended to the Zo rural folks. These will bring about exchange of information, which, we all agree, will radically change the outlook of the villagers. I look to the youth to accelerate the process.

2.3. Formation of social capital-I use the term social capital rather loosely to mean the capacity of manpower available- is the beginning of creation of other forms of capital. This formation involves availability of educational institutions from primary level to XIIth standard, if not higher. Sadly, the position is alarming in the Zo inhabited areas of Manipur. Where there had been high schools catering to Xth class level earlier, these same institutions have simply collapsed for lack of teaching staff(teachers posted there simply refused to turn up) or the buildings alongwith the infrastructural facilities just rot(for lack of maintenance). In these places, some churches make valiant attempt to meet the needs without much success, as they are strapped for resources. Education brings along awareness among the people, which in turn transforms the economy and social life of the society. There can be no progress unless social capital is strengthened to meet and anticipate the ever-evolving needs of the people. I would strongly suggest that the educated among us go back to the rural sector- either on full time or part-time basis- to educate our new generation and prepare it for the future. The youth may consciously equip themselves in education courses, special education courses, technical courses, etc.

2.4. Our Zo people are faced with perpetual shortages. In the face of so many shortages, there is one thing that we have in abundance: land. In fact, vast land is available to us in such abundance that we do not know how to make use of it. The beauty of this abundant blessing is that land is not barren-it comes with rich variety of flora and fauna. Tragically, however, our people have wreaked havoc on this wealth of forest life through ignorance and greed. It is imperative that we take immediate steps to regenerate the forest. This will be different from shifting cultivation, but it will still be a shift called paradigm shift in our mindset and land use.

a). First, we need to realize that land and whatever lives on it belong to the community-the past, the present and the future generation-and that we are custodians to conserve but not to destroy. In fact, there is a recent positive development heard about the younger generation actually obtaining training in re-generation of land through scientific and systemic intervention. The mindset change should also accept the fact that our right over the land is inalienable. Land is our inheritance and not someone’s personal fiefdom. A landless man is lost. This should be the strong message for everyone. The second involves adoption of better cultivation technique that encourages conservation while giving profitable yield. This step may require us to re-examine our shifting cultivation method in favour of high yielding crops or animal husbandry. Again the need for new ideas from educated, trained youth.

b). The land and the thick jungle around our Zo villages, the lofty mountain peaks, the clear bubbling streams, the dark rivers, the clean breeze, the cascading waterfalls and the salubrious climatic condition offer one of the most attractive getaway options to city-bred people. This new yearning for outdoor activity among natural surrounding is now called eco-tourism. The day is not far off when our villages will host, hopefully, domestic and foreign tourists who are prepared to rough it out. This potential opens very many gainful employment (including self-employment) scopes in managing tourist lodges, providing guides, ferrying or transporting the tourists, etc. Can we prepare our people for the dawn of such a day?

2.5. Poverty and Ignorance usually go in hand since one is the product of the other. A consequence of this vicious cycle is the chronic dependence on the government. In our Zo context, we tend to view the local MLA or Minister as the representative of the Government and expect him/her to bring about an end to our economic miseries through grants, doles, subsidies or appointment to some government jobs. This expectation being habitual, our dependence on government becomes chronic. Thankfully, this trend is beginning to be reversed after well-meaning NGOs run by enlightened, educated, and city bred people begin to take initiatives for development of rural areas in right earnest. Many of these initiatives began small, but grew and enlarged rapidly in a few years. It is reported that quite a few have grown both in stature and size as to be recognized and consulted by the formal agencies. Some have even gone up to represent the NGO sector as members of high-powered national level committees. This is an area where the well-educated city-bred youth can venture into and make a difference in the lives of the marginalized people. Again, the precursor will have to be training in the appropriate fields. Can we look forward to the day when the representatives of Government come to our doorstep for favour(not for votes!) and not us going to them?

2.6. Deprived of the many conveniences of modern day life, including proper education, our folks in the interior continue to live primitive existence. To them, today is pretty much the same as the day just gone by, and the morrow does not promise anything remarkable either. Issues such as human rights, tribal right to forest, etc. have no relevance in their lives until or unless such laws suddenly impact their routine, mundane existence and bring about some kind of upheaval. As of now, we don’t see any form of advocacy carried out on behalf of their rights by anybody. Our Zo people need protection from all sorts of inroads into their legitimate and fundamental rights. Our Zo folks need some form of outlet to air their grievances. Our Zo community is in desperate need of informed representation to talk to and act on their behalf. It is, therefore, important for them to have on their side someone to speak and act for them and stand by them. This is a vacuum a city-bred, educated person can only perform.

2.7. One of the essential infrastructure facilities which collapsed in the interior is health-care. Until recently, there used to be basic medical facilities- a primary health centre, a dispensary, rural hospital, etc., manned by medicos. For some very strange reasons, such buildings have now become hollow structures and the manpower (including the female staff) are formally or informally stationed in relatively urban centres while people back in the villages suffer. Ironically, newly qualified medical people opt for the larger towns/cities for employment. There is now less number of qualified medical staff to serve the needy in the difficult interiors! The need is there in the villages. Can we think of trained people teaming up for charity work?

3. I have often been tempted to indulge in drawing comparison between our Zo folks living under the more caring Mizoram government and those under the utterly uncaring Manipur government. To any one who has passed through the Guite road from Manipur to its counterpart in Mizoram (or, vice versa), the contrast between the typical village on Manipur side and that of Mizoram is too striking to ignore. Mizoram boasts of better road, better dwelling houses, water supply, electricity connection (with power), schools, dispensaries, post offices, the works, against none of these in Manipur side. While our Mizoram folks can look to the Government (besides their heavenly Father) in critical times like, say, famine conditions, our Manipur Zo folks have only their heavenly Father to look up to. What I mean is that given the kind of government (or is it the government we deserve?), there is the more compelling reason for the well educated to play constructive roles in restoring and developing our rural economy. It is well known that our rural economy depends heavily on agriculture, and that too on paddy crop through shifting cultivation. The present day Zo farmer follows the same agricultural methods that his father did who also followed his father’s practices before him…. so on and on. The same kinds of crops have been grown, the same kinds of animals are reared, and in pretty much the same methods they were done hundreds, if not thousands, of years earlier. And why not since no one has come forward to show them better and more scientific methods of production? This is where the educated, smart guys from the cities come in.

3.1. Nearly the entire Zo population is ravenous non-vegetarian in eating habits. This habit is not going out of fashion for the next centuries unless we eat up all the animal supplies. This distant possibility should encourage some of us to think seriously on the lines of going commercial in animal rearing-piggery, poultry, cattle farming, fishery, duckery, etc., which will ensure meat, egg and milk supply to the towns. One may now think of a dog farm too seeing that dog meat has gained in popularity in some areas. Our Zo folks have all along been rearing animals for private consumption. Commercialization will become viable once the technical inputs are available from trained people. The business will also get a boost if support from insurance firms can provide the risk cover-again you need an insurance man who will bring the benefit of city training. There is a lighter side to all this business of meat eating: About 15 years back there actually was a businessman who lived in Kolkata engaged in collecting and shipping out the sexual organ of bulls because these were believed to act as aphrodisiacs.

3.2. In case one does not have the taste for living with animals, one can think of adopting horticulture on commercial line. Thanks to the improvement of transport facilities including regular air transport, there now exists scope for business in what was until recently considered exotic like floriculture. A good number of womenfolk in Mizoram have now taken up floriculture and are now doing profitable business because of patronage by the state government in the beginning. Flowers like anthurium, bird-of-paradise, roses, etc. are now readily available at flower shops in Aizawl. There are reports of such flowers being taken to flower markets in Kolkata and elsewhere. I am told that there is huge business potential in flower. One could think of taking up orchid farming as well. Of course, such things depend a great deal on penetrating the right market through good networking. This is where the city-bred youth with language proficiency and business acumen can step in for launching the business.

3.3. Horticulture provides a profitable alternative to the back-breaking agriculture that has been our mainstay in the Zo highlands for ages. While our people have gingerly started testing the waters, it is again the educated wise-in-the-ways-of-the- world youth who can really create business-like impact. One can think of fruits like apple, pineapple, oranges, passion fruit, banana, papaya, etc. that one can start growing in commercial scale. Besides we may think of rubber plantation, cardamom, chilly or other medicinal plants where tie-up with buyers may need to be made. Given the fact that land is available abundantly, there is immense scope is taking up horticulture. A forward integration in the form of a medium food processing plant will greatly add value to the planters/farmers’ labour.

3.4. Agriculture in the modern practice involves a lot of inputs that only appropriate training can inculcate. There are new practices like cold storage with minimum electric power supply for stocking perishable agri-products, there would be the distribution chains to be thought through, relationship building with government departments or input suppliers that a modern educated person can effectively carry out. There is also heavy mechanization in agricultural practices from tilling to harvest. There are seminars, meetings and trainings where a better educated person from urban background can be adept at. Thus, we see the city youth playing active role in transforming rural practices for the better.

4. It is a well-known fact that the process of urbanization is happening everywhere. The metamorphosis towards town status is evident all around us. What was a village earlier is slowly but surely becoming a town with amenities like electric power, piped water, tele-communication, transport, market places mushrooming. Such growth call for different set of skills previously thought superfluous in village life. Thus, one may see roadside auto-mechanic shops springing up, the hair saloon or beauty parlour making its presence, the plumber and the electrician being in great demand, the computer hardware or software guys or any other type of skill coming together to cater to the growing demands of the new township. All these skills can be had of through training with the respective centres in the metros or larger towns. Thus, one can see that the city youths can have definite advantage to come to the rural areas with their skills.

5. The image of the metro-bred youth coming home with weird looks, habits and inappropriate culture should be a thing of the past. There could have been instances of city-educated youth taking home inappropriate urban lifestyle back home and causing some social problems. It’s time we change that by taking home valuable lessons and use them constructively to restore and build up the economic, social, and spiritual life of the rural folk. After all, we are not Cain to say: Am I my brother’s keeper?


Philip Thanglienmâng
B.E (Civil), M.A (Linguistics)

There are various linguistic realms/regions amongst the Kuki-Chin family of Tibeto-Burman race depending upon the spatial distribution of mores, cultures, and traditions. These are Zo realm, Simlam realm, Thado-Kuki realm, Paite realm, Vaiphei realm, Gangte realm, Mizo realm, Hmar realm, Khalkha realm, Falam realm, Haka realm, Siyang realm, and other related realms. This system of classification into various realms is not strictly rigid since there can be more or less realms or sub-realms. The Vaiphei, Gângte, Tedim-Chin, Paite, Mizo, Hmar realms may be classified as ‘K-ending’ group as a whole. Further amongst the K-ending groups there are ‘R-beginning ’ and ‘G-beginning’ groups. Zo (Hâidawi, Khodâi, Khuongnung/Simte) and Thado-Kuki may be classified as ‘H-ending’& ‘G beginning’ Groups. Other classifications can be such as ‘IA/UA and IE/UO sub-groups, Hing sub-groups, Hung sub-groups, Hong sub-groups, Hang sub-groups, Sih sub-groups and Kei sub-groups etc.

The Zo realm can be divided into 4(four) sub-realms viz; Hâidawi sub-realm, Khodâi sub-realm, Thangkhâl sub-realm, and Khuongnung sub-realm. Now, let us discuss them one by one in nutshell.

Hâidawi sub-realm is considered to be the oldest and the most ancient amongst the languages (dialects). It is believed to be the original stock (root) of Zo language and other Zo dialects as told by oral traditions by the elders. It is recognized by the frequent usages of Hang instead of Hing, Hung & Hong, Sih instead of Kei, Vang instead of Ning. Ha, hapi, hakie, hlakie instead of Kha, Khapi, Khakie, etc. Imploring word such as ‘Ei’ is used in ordinary speech and in poetic words in place of Hing or Ang. Vawi, vawng, ve’ng etc are employed in this sub-realm. The phoneme ‘HL’ of Zo (Hâidawi) is alveolar (tip of tongue touches backside of front teeth and the air is released) in sound which is pronounced somewhere in between the phonemes of Mizo ‘thla’ leh Thado-Kuki phoneme ‘lha’. It is allophone of form consonant ‘H’. It is rich in thrasonical songs, threnody, patriotic songs, and Romantic songs.

The Khodâi sub-realm is identified by mixture of above realms. It often employs the letter/phoneme ‘K’ at the end of a word such as tak in place of Tah, Sak in place of Sah etc. Hang or Ang is used in place of Hing, Hong, or Hung.

The Thangkhâl sub-realm relies heavily on the sounds of Hung instead of Hing, Kei instead of Sih, Ning in place of Vang, Ku’ng in place of Ka’ng, Nu’ng in place of Na’ng; Ni is used in place of Vai. Kha, Khapi, Khakie instead of Ha/Hla, Hlapi, Hlakie etc. This sub- realm is credited with many romantic folksongs. It seems to be admixture of Zo, Tedim-Chin, and Thado-Kuki realms; still it is classified under Zo realm because of its closeness to the Hâidawi and Khodâi sub-realms in using demonstrative pronouns.

The present Simte of India characterizes the Khuongnung sub-realm. Here Hung is used instead of Hing, Thian is used in place of Sien/Sian, Ning in place of Vang, Ni is employed in place of Vai. Chiah in place of Pei or pai. One distinctive feature of the Khuongnung realm is employment of words ending with the nasal stop ‘H’, invariably in most of the words, which are of course inflections from original words. In this realm, Tha (new) becomes Thah, Khangtha becomes Khangthah, da (sad) becomes dah, dangta (thirsty) becomes dangtah etc. It is seems to be admixtures of by Thado-Kuki realm,Lusei realm,Paite realm and Tedim-Chin realm the main base language being Zo.

The Simlam realm is represented by the Tedim/Tiddim-Chin culture. Here, the styles quite vary from the Hâidawi, Khodâi, and Thangkhâl. Ciah is used in place of Pai or Pei. Hong is employed in place of Hing; Kei is used in place of Sih. Almost all the words are glottal stop ‘K’ ending. It employs ‘C’ instead of ‘Ch’. Si in place of Shi. Ni is used in place of Vai of Zo realm. Ning is used in place of Vang, Vawng of Zo (Hâidawi). Ve ni is used in place of Va ui. It uses IA/UA system and so; Suak in place of Suoh. It is one of the closest realms with respect to Zo realm. The base language must have been Teizang dialect. It is also very rich in folksongs and modern songs. The real difference between Zo realm and Tedim-Chin realm is in the use of nasal ‘H’ and glottal stop ‘K’ respectively, otherwise their phonetics do not vary much in reality. The spelling conventions have altered most of its original phonic patterns for alteast a hundred year or so.

Paite realm and Tiddim-Chin realm are very close except for few differences in usage of spellings such as; Ch is used instead of C. Ou is used instead of O. ‘Shi’ is used in place of ‘Si’ of Tedim-Chin realm. Like Tedim-Chin and Zo (Hâidawi) sub-realm the word ‘Om’ is used instead of Um. Pai is employed in place of Pei of Zo (Hâidawi) or Ciah of Tedim-Chin. In some cases, R is used such as ‘rengreng,remna’ etc which must have been borrowed from Lusei(Lushai/Mizo) realm. It seems to be younger than the previous realm. It is very close to Zo realm in its poetical forms and modern songs.

In the Thado-Kuki realm in Sih inflected as Hih. T takes the form of Ch and so,Tun becomes Chun, Hing becomes Hin or Hung, Ta becomes Cha. Che or chieh is employed in place of Pei or pai or Chiah. Like Zo(Hâidawi) and Simte certain words end with nasal stop ‘H’and some words begin with phoneme ‘LH’. E.g; Lhâng,Gollhang,Lhapi,lhung etc. In some cases, S inflects into TH,and so Sing inflects to become Thing. In other cases, the phoneme T is inflected into CH. E.g; Têng-->(becomes)Chêng. The word ‘Om’ in Zo(Hâidawi)/Tedim/Paite becomes(inflects into) ‘Um’. This realm can be sub-classified as ‘IE’ /‘UO’ sub-group and ‘E’ /’O’ sub-group. Earlier,prints of Thado-Kuki song books i.e Lathah Bu(Palal Labu) uses the spelling ‘LEN’ in place of LIEN or LIAN. Sopi is used instead of Suopi or Suapi. Nom in place of Nuom or Nuam. The Suongmantam Dictionary and School Chapang Dictionary both in Thado-Kuki employs phonemes ‘IE’/’UO’ instead of ‘E’/‘O’. This realm is also very rich in folksongs and modern songs..

Lusei/Lushai realm,now also known as Mizo realm is not so rich in folksongs but it rich in Modern Christian Songs.It uses Chh in place of S, TH instead of S, O instead of OU, IA/UA in place of IE/UO. Around 1915 or so, the ‘IE/UO’ was used by the White rulers as given in ‘Gazetteer of Northern Lushai Hills’ by A.W.Davis,I.C.S,Political Agent of North Lushai Hills. When did the shifting of phonemes from IE/UO to IA/UA take place is not known. The symbol (^) was also in vogue. ‘An’ seems to be inflection of Zo(Hâidawi) word ‘Hang’. SUH seems to be inflection of SIH. It has influenced all the realms with these modern Christian songs since 1950s.

Hmar realm is very rich in folksongs.This realm is identified by the use of phoneme ‘R’ in place of ‘G’ as in Mizo realm. It employs phonemes ‘IE/UO’ in place of IA/UA as in Zo and Gângte. SIH seems to be inflected into Nawh/noh. Here also,the word ‘Hung’ is used in place of Hing,Hong, Hang. It has rich folktales and legends.

Vâiphei realm is admixture of many realms. Hing -->(becomes) Hung. Like, Zo(Hâidawi) the syllable/word ‘Ei’ is used in place Hung. T-->(becomes)Ch thus;Tun-->Chun,Ta-->Cha,Teng-->Cheng,Sih-->Puai. Here syllables ‘IA/UA’ are employed in place of syllables ‘IE/UO’ being similar to the Tedim-Chin,Mizo(Lusei),Paite realms. Just as as in Tedim-Chin,Paite,Gangte,Lusei leh Hmar realms some words ends with glottal stop ‘K’ Examples ‘zieh/jieh’.becomes ‘ziak . The demonstrative pronoun is written as ‘zia’. It seems to be complex mixture of Tedim-Chin,Thado-Kuki,Mizo(Lusei) and Zo realms.

Gângte realm is similar to Vâiphei realm and it is a mixture of many tongues. Here also,Hing becomes Hung or else ‘Ei’ as in Zo(Hâidawi). It possesses rich folktales of olden days. Ch is employed in place of T. Likewise; Tun-->(becomes)Chun, Ta-->Cha, Tem-->Chem, Teng-->Cheng, Tung-->Chung, Puai of Vâiphei becomes Puoi,it is used in place of Kei,Sih,Hih,Nawh/noh. Here syllables ‘IE/UO’ are employed in place of syllables ‘IA/UA’ being similar to the Zo and Hmar realms.As in the case of Tedim-Chin,PaiteVâiphei,Mizo(Lusei) and Hmar realms some words ends with ‘K’ Examples ‘zieh/jieh’.becomes ‘ziek . The demonstrative pronoun is written as ‘zie’. Compare with Vâiphei realm ‘zia’. It is rich in folktales,traditional songs as well as modern songs.

Lastly,considering all these linguistic realms, the Zo realm has its own uniqueness amongst all these realms. Because the demonstrative pronouns/adjectives and the adverbs of place in this realm is completely different from that of all the other realms. In all the other realms the demonstrative pronouns are;hi,hih,hiai,himi,he,hiche whereas in the Zo(Hâidawi) the demonstrative pronouns/adjectives are ; ‘ta,tam,tami,tammi’. For these reasons Zo realm is unique and it stands apart from all others in these respects,perhaps; a feature of its antiquity. The adverbs of place in other realms are; hiah,huah,huai ah,hu, but in Zo(Hâidawi) realm the adverbs of place are ; tan,tana,tanah,khunah,khum,khumnah.

In all these realms,the phonetics/phonology/phonic patterns do not vary much but due to the introduction of Whiteman’s system of orthography which did not consider the actual phonetics and sounds of the native speakers therefore,many of the words of the original mother tongues had suffered several phonetic changes;leading to further differentiations in terms of dialects(dialectical variations). Thus,leading to disintegration into ethnic groupings founded on the bases of dialects. Most of the inflections found in Zo language has been discontinued in other cognate languages such as Simte,Paite,Tedim-Chin,Gangte,Vaiphei etc. Perhaps,because of this reason, J.H Cope must had remarked that Zo tongue is not easy to learn. Therefore, Zo language is very difficult to learn as compared to other cognate languages. With the publications of the two versions of Holy Bibles viz; The Pasian Lai siengthou(Holy Bible in Zo 1983 A.D) and The Holy Bible in Zomi(1995) both of them became the springboards for the preservation and development of Zo/Zou literature in India and Burma(Myanmar).

The Zo tongue is gradually undergoing changes original phonic patterns especially in Lamka(Churachandpur district) all the same people still write in their mother tongue(basing The Holy Bible in Zo and The Holy Bible in Zomi) while recording or publishing books or in their daily writings.


On the basis of the above analyses,we see several features of linguistic affinities and similarities of Zo language with respect to other cognate languages and there is high degree of mutual intelligibility amongst these cognate languages. It looks as if Zo language is the proto-language i.e stock/base language of these various cognate languages. The antiquity of Zo language is mentioned back to 850 A.D in some books. In course of spatial dispersion of the Zo people,this language must have suffered consonantal inflections and derivational changes leading to emergence of several dialects of the original Zo language. In fact,there are no vowel/phonemic changes observed in actual speech of native speakers,whatever vowel/phonemic changes we find today are the consequences of the adoption of Whiteman’s orthographies which did not analyse the phonology of native speakers in depth. Thus,the system of writing has changed the phonemes of some languages 1920s. These variations are bound to increase with the passing of time. Therefore,the real challenges are in the hands of our young generations who could do a lot of research to find out the real proto-language of all these cognate languages and try to evolve some kind of common system of writing for all of these cognate languages which is achievable if one has the will to do it in the spirit of give and take.


  • The writer is a civil servant belonging to DANICS cadre in the Government of India,Ministry of Home Affairs. He is presently posted in the Union Territories of Daman and Diu. Prior to this,he was posted in Delhi from 1997 till 2005.
  • He has authored/compiled 5(five) books in one year(i.e 2006) they are; 1)Zo Lahâmtengte,Kigêntênate leh Kitêkâhnate Hâmbu vol.I(Dictionary of Zo poetic words,metaphors and similes Vol.I), 2)A Brief biography of Subedar Peter Thangkhokam 3)Ka hinkhuo tomkim by Mari Lienzanieng(compiled) 4)Ka Katekizam Masapên 5) Katholik Zailate leh Mass Lamzûina(compiled). He is doing his own amateur research on Zo language.

Khristiante Leh Zuu

Written by: M. Khamlianlal Zou

Simtu iit, tami article na sim in Mangpa’n hing gualzawl hen!

I gam leh I minam sung I et leh tulai in Khristian hinkhuo zauta (liberal) mama hi. A khen chieng in bang tulai a I ngaidante uh adih hing bang deh deh zeel hi. Khristian tawndan Zaute (liberal) pen mi tampite ading in kipahna abang a, nuom zong sa ua, tuoleh pom bailam sa mama uhi. Hinanleh, tuni’n I ngaidante uh hoitah in Pasian dan toh en-tha lei ut huoi kasa hi. Adieh in I minam ki-ngahna Khangthate, Delhi leh Shillong, adang dng. a omte’n khual chien in, enpha vai.

Tulai issue lien khat ahileh atung a I mu bang un “Khristian leh Zuu” ahi. Khristian tampi te’n “Khristian hinkhuo a ZUU dawn pen bang ma khawhlou! A siengthou hi ” I chi uhi. Tami pen tuni’n hoitah in ngaituo pha vai. A dih ahi na diei?

Mi tampi te’n I suonlam uh ahileh:

Jesu’n Galilee a Cana khuo a moupawi ah Tui (Water) khu Zuu (Wine) suohsah hi. Pasian in bawn Tui khu Zuu asuohsah leh Zuu dawn pen selou hi, I chi uhi.
Sawltah Paul in Timothy kuungah “Na dam thei na’ng in Zuu neu nou nou dawn zel in” achi hi. Tuazie’n, eite’n Zuu I dawn pen selou hi, I chi kia leu leu uhi.

A daa huoi mama khat ahileh, Laisiengthou pen eite’n a khietna (meaning) dihtah tah I theisih ua, I ut bang bang un I let ua, I hei lamdang (compromise) uhi. Laisiengthou pen ei ut dan dan a peipi ding hilou in, nang Laisiengthou na gingtaat leh Laisiengthou gen bang a na om ding pen kuul leh poimaw zaw hi.

Tuni’n a tung a point 2(ni) I geente uh hilchien vai –

Jesu’n Galilee a Cana khua a mou pawi ah Tui (Water) khu Zuu (Wine) suohsah in bang sil atung ei? John 2:11 – “Tami pen Jesu sil lamdang bawl masa pen ahia, tami a pan I Pasian athupina ki lang a, A nuazuite’n gingta uhi.” (NASV) En-le chin, Jesu’n sil lamdang a bawl zieh in mite’n gingta uh chi I mu hi. Ahileh nang Zuu na dawn zieh in mi bang zaat in Pasian ginna a neilaw ei? I thei ding ahileh Pasian in bawl theilou neilou a, silzousie ahoinang in bawl thei hi. Pasian sil lamdang bawl pen nang mihing leltah in na geen ding omlou hi. U-nau, ngaitua tha in, na thei khiel hikha ding hi. Nang Jesu sil bawl enton a, Zuu dawn na hileh nang zong Jesu dan a ki ngai na mah? Khuchia nalung na gelleh Jesu sil lamdang bawl dangte bang chin na gel diei le? Thuhoi dang zui dinga agen te na zuikim nai? Ahilouleh Zuu a genna pen chauh ‘sumkuang chiengpe’ ding na mah? Paunate in “Little knowledge is dangerous” chi hi. Laisiangthou na thei tawm seng zieha a khietna (meaning) na theilou hikha ding hi. Laisiangthou a kal kal a simlou in a bawnpi in sim lechin na theina hing kikhel dinga, na hinkhuo ding in zong hoina hi ding hi.

Sawltah Paul in Timothy kung ah, “Na dam thei na’ng in Zuu neu nounou dawn zeel in” achi pen entha kie vai – I Tim 5: 23 – “Tui chauh na dawn pen tawp san inlen, hinanleh na sung adamthei na’ng in Zuu neu nounou dawn zel in” Tami thulu en-lei, Timothy in Zuu pen adu zieh a adawn hilou in, a dam thei na’ng a Paul in na dawn zeel in a chi hi zaw hi. Eite’n I dam thei na’ng ua I dawn uh hilou in I du zieh ua I dawn uh hizaw hi. A zieh ki khie e maw, lawm lawm!!! Sanggam, Satan in sil neu khat zanga ahing pui mang ding in na pammai taluo hi. Satan sol in om nonsin, Pasian lam hing nai zaw in.

Zuu dawn ahoi a I geel tah tah uleh tam anei a dohna te en vawi le –

1. Pastor leh Upa te’n bieh inn sung ah Zuu nam sa’n thu hing gen uleh bang ngaidan na nei diei?
2. A hoi ahi tah tah leh innsung ah Nu-le-Pa, U-le-Naute’n singpi dawn nonlou in Zuu dawn zel lei bang ngaidan na nei diei?
3. Na Nungahnu/ Tangvalpa, hinkhuo adiing a na deipen pen in na mai ah Zuu hing dawn henlen, hing kham ta leh bang ngaidan na nei diei le? Na kipah tah tah na diei?
4. Nu-le-Pa (Couple) Zuu dawn khawmte na ki pah pi ei le?
5. “Zuu dawn vai, a hoi hi” chin movement pan lei na ut na diei? Mite’n bang ngai dan a nei ding uai?

Tuazieh in, nang in bawn na lungsim sung tah tah, koima mu theilou sung a Zuu ahoi a na geel theilou leh bang ding a na du / kideh theilou zieh mai mai a Zuu ahoi hi na chi a hiei? Ki ngaitua tha in.

Laisiengthou pan in entha vai –

# Noah in leengga Zuu (grape wine) adawn zieh in melsietna tuohlaw a, a tapa Canaan haamsiet lawh in um hi. (Gen. 9:20-25)

# Kumpi Nebuchadnezzar tapa, Belshazzar in ann-zaluina ah Zuu adawn a, a’ng kham tah in a suahte kungah thu pie hi, A pa’n Jerusalem inn sung apat alahdoh sana noute (glass) khu Zuu dawn na’ng in zang hi. Tuazieh in Pasian lungthah na tuohlaw a, a lenggam taan law hi. (Dan.5:11-31).

Tuazieh in, Zuu in hoina saang in sietna tun zaw gige chi I mu hi. Tuni’n dawn siem, limit thei ki chi nanleh chin a tawpna pen siet na hi veve hi, Zuu enla leh tuo glass sunga luong suh va hieu enlahte ahileh atawpna ah guul in mi tuh bang in dawngawh va giep uhi. Tu’n na limit na thei nalai maithei a, sietna zong na bawl nailou maithei hi. Hinanleh bang tan na hoi zou tah tah na diei? II Tim. 2:16, “Leitung sil te, sil mothuoite tawpsan in, tuate’n Pasian a pan in hing gamla sah hi” chi hi. Sanggam, bangma a na gellou vang in na Zuu dawn in Pasian a pan ahing gamla sah hilou a mah? Bang tan nang le nang ki sol a, Zuu dawn sa a Pasian bie bie ding na diei? Ki ngaitua tha in. Ni khat ni chieng in tunia na lunggel in siemmaw hing tan ding hi. (Phil 3:15).

Pasian in nang hing iit a, a siengthou ding in hing dei hi. Na tahsa khu Pasian biehinn ahi chi gel tha in (Rome 12:1-2). Leitung sil a na lung na ngah laisie Pasian pen da a kap kap ahi chi thei in. Tuni’n I nam sung mai mai enlei Zuu zieh a sietna tung teng mai mai zong pilna tham hita tham hi. Zuu zieh a I nam sung leh inn-sung tampite asiet zong na mu nua a, Zuu dawn hoi na chi na lai lai le vang, Zoudawn a daahdoh zou nailou khat nahi kha diing hi.

Tulai mi tampi’n I pansan zeel uh, “Mihing kam a luut in silsie bang ma bawllou a, a pawt pen hizaw” I chi uhi. (Matt. 15:11). A dih hi… tami na chi le zong a dih hi. Rome 14:14 ah, “Hinanleh ke’n Jesu Khrist pan in sil sienglou bangma omlou hi chi ka thei hi, ahivang in mi khatin a lunggeel ah hoilou a ageel leh tuami pen sil sienglou hi mai hi.” achi hi. Tualeh Rome 14:23, “Ginna a hing kipanlou sil khat pou pou pen khelna ahi” achi hi.

Tuni’n ngaitua vawi – Zuu na dawn khu ginna a hing kipan a diei? Hoi sa tah tah a na dawn ahi nai? Na lunggel pen nang ma bou in na thei ahia, nang maw na ki puah ding ahi. Ahivang in na thei ding khat ahileh Pasian in na ngaituana teng athei hi.

Tam a nuai a BIBLE taangte Pansan in kikum vai –

# Zuu in mi adawnkhaw vagiep a, zuu kham pen mitoh kihau kikawhna ahi; koi hinanleh zuu in apuisiet pouma mipil ahisih hi. (Paunahte 20:1).

# Pawlpi lamkai leh upa diing khu …… zuu dawnlou mi ahi diing ahi. (I Tim. 3:3)

# ……… koi hinanleh zuu hai zousie ahau ngei vawtsih diing hi. (Paunahte 21:17).

# Zuu haite lah ah kihal sin len …………………………….. ( Paunahte 23:20).

# Prov 23:29-35, 29 Koi e vangsieh kisa? Koi e adaah? Koi e aki haau a ki kawh? Koi e a guuitam? Azieh neiloupi a liem koi ahei? Amit san giegua koi ahei? 30 Zuu dawnkaal ngahlaahte ahi ua, zuu chie chiem nuomte ahi uhi. 31 Zuu san ngiungeu nou sunga de kilkel leh aluong suh va hieu khu enlaah sin. 32 Atawpna ah guul bangin mi atu vagiep hi, tuo leh guulsum bang in mi atu hi. 33 Na mit tegel in sil lamdang tuomtuom namu diinga, tuoleh na lungsim in tahleehna nasuokhe kha diing hi. 34 Tui suogiet laikim a lum na bang diinga, khuom dawn a lum in naki ngaisun kon diing hi. 35 "Kei ahing saatthop ua ka liemtuom sih hi, kei ahin vuo ua lah ka khophawh tuomsih hi. Bang chi chieng’n ka khanglou diei I zaw? Ka dawnkieh diing suibeeh vang e" na chi diing hi".

U-Nau, tami Laisiengthou sunga taangte’n ahing hilchien ding ka gingta hi. Na lung taah sah nawnsin. Tuni’a na kisieh utlou leh zong Khristiante diing in Zuu dawn pen a hoi hi ana chi nawn da in. Na du a na ngawl zoulou leh zong mite kung ah Laisiengthou in Zuu dawn pen aphal hi ana chi nawn da in. Aziehpen, Pasian in A tate siengthou ding in dei hi.

A tawpna ah, I nam sung pen Zuu ahoilou a gel Nam ahizieh in ‘Gingtute’ mai a Zuu na dawn pen sil hoi hilou hi. Laisiengthou in “Na sanggampa ginna buoisah ding in bang ma bawl sin” a chi hi. Na hinkhuo pen nang thu hi in na gel maithei a, hinanleh a nei tah tah pen Pasian hi veve hi. Eccl.11:9, “Khangdawng pa aw, hoi na sah na leh na ut bang bang in om in, hinanleh tuate’n thukhenna (judgement) hing tun ding ahi chi thei in.” achi hi. Tuazieh in sanggam, nang thu ahi. Hinanleh tami thu ngaitua pha kia in aw!!!

Pu Zamkholien in pawna tah leh mittui-naptui luong zeen ana gel:

“Bang chi’n ma chieng I suon diei? Bang chi’n paah bang I luun diei? Zuu-le-sa, khamthei toh I buol leng leh… Mite khang aw kikhel in naubang in a nui ta uh…Eite’n zong ning Zuu, khamthei I hamsiet ding... “. Bang tan vei ki buol a bang tan vei thaam den di I tadiei… ?

Feed back at:

Overview of abortion: An unsolvable dilemma?

Definition of terms: Most web sites that deal with abortion do not pre-define their terms. This is important, because
many conservative Christians and pro-lifers often assign unique meanings to common words and terms that are not shared by other people and groups. The three key terms that we use throughout this series of essays are:

"Life:" Any form of living animal or vegetable.

"Human life:" Any living entity containing human DNA. A spermatozoa, ovum, pre-embryo, embryo, fetus, newborn, and infant are different forms of human life. However, they are not all considered to have equal value.

"Human person" This is a form of human life which is considered to be a person whose life and health should be protected. No consensus exists about when this state begins. Many pro-lifers say it happens at or very shortly after conception, when a human life with a unique DNA begins. Many pro-choicers say that it happens later in gestation; some believe that personhood only begins after birth when the newborn is breathing on its own.

What is the question?: There are really two, different, very controversial abortion questions:

What is the best (or least awful) option in a specific situation? If a woman finds herself pregnant, and does not want to be, what is the best (or least worst) solution for her, the potential newborn that she is carrying, and all the other people involved -- including her boyfriend or husband and their families? 1) To take no action, have the baby, and raise it herself (hopefully with support from others).2) To take no action, give birth, and give the baby up for adoption.3) To have an abortion and terminate the pregnancy.

Should the state overrule the woman's or couple's decision? If a woman finds herself pregnant, discusses her options with her physician, perhaps her spiritual counselor, and other people involved, and decides to have an abortion, should the state override her decision? That is, should the state have a policy of enforced parenthood for all or most pregnant women?

The first decision is a personal one, between the woman, her physician and/or counselor. The second decision was answered by the U.S. Supreme Court in its Roe v. Wade decision in 1973. Since that ruling, women have had the right to obtain an early abortion. She also has the right to have a later abortion if it is needed for health reasons. It is in this area of abortion access that there is a great deal of political activity, at least in the U.S. Many states are passing laws which would criminalize almost all abortions. Their apparent motivation is to force the U.S. Supreme Court to reconsider Roe v. Wade and perhaps reverse their decision.

How often are abortions performed: In the United States, women choose to end about 25% of their pregnancies through abortion.
1. This number has been gradually declining since 1979. This is similar to the Canadian figure of 21%,
2. but is much lower than that of the former Soviet Union (60%) and Romania (78%) where contraceptives remain in short supply.
3. Opposing beliefs about when human personhood starts: Many, but not all, pro-lifers and pro-choicers believe that once human personhood starts -- i.e. when human life becomes a human person -- the person's life must be protected. Many religions, organizations and individuals have passionately held conflicting beliefs about when this happens. This naturally leads to opposing beliefs about when and under what conditions the state should intrude and deny a woman access to abortion.

To many, if not most, pro-lifers, human personhood begins at the instant of conception. Thus, they view each abortion as a form of murder. They often support this argument by noting that, at conception, a human life with its own unique DNA comes into being. The platform of the Constitution Party expresses this clearly. It " the only national political party that advocates a 100%, no-exceptions pro-life position in its platform. The Constitution Party platform states, 'The pre-born child, whose life begins at fertilization, is a human being created in God's image. The first duty of the law is to prevent the shedding of innocent blood. It is, therefore, the duty of all civil governments to secure and to safeguard the lives of the pre-born'." 8,9 Many pro-lifers generally view an abortion clinic as a place where babies are murdered. Some pro-life groups and individuals have considered abortion clinics the ethical equivalent of a Nazi death camp.

To many pro-choicers, human personhood begins later in gestation or at birth. They note that a pre-embryo -- a just-fertilized ovum -- consists of a simple grouping of undifferentiated cells. The pre-embryo has no human shape, skin, brain, or other organs; it cannot sense the environment; it has no brain; it is not sentient; it is not conscious. Carl Sagan wrote an essay supporting this position.
4. The pro-life and pro-choice movements: These two groups differ about abortion access. Generally speaking:
Pro-lifers feel that abortion access should be restricted to special cases, or prohibited completely. Many are motivated by a belief that human personhood begins at conception. Thus, an abortion murders a baby.
Pro-choicers believe that each woman should be relatively free to follow their own ethical beliefs concerning the termination or continuation of a pregnancy. Many recognize that there is a diversity of beliefs about abortion access, and that the state should not attempt to enforce a common belief system on all pregnant women. Many pro-choicers believe that human personhood begins later in pregnancy.

Both groups would like to see a reduction in the number of abortions performed. Many pro-choicers promote support services for women in crisis pregnancies and/or seek legal restrictions on abortion access. Many pro-choicers promote better comprehensive birth control education in schools and greater access to contraceptives.The groups find it difficult to cooperate. They expend enormous energy fighting each other. If they were able to collaborate, they could make major reductions in the abortion rate, perhaps lowering it below the rate of most other developed countries. Within each movement there is a range of beliefs concerning restrictions on abortion, as described below.
Conflicting beliefs about abortion access: In spite of what the media might imply, there are not just two conflicting positions on abortion access -- pro-life and pro-choice. There is a spectrum of beliefs.
A small minority of the public believes that a woman should be free to terminate her pregnancy at any stage and for any reason that she feels to be valid.

Some feel that she should be able to choose to terminate the life of the pre-embryo, embryo or fetus for any reason before a certain point in gestation. This might be before:

26 weeks gestation -- the point when higher functions of the the fetus' brain are first activated and the fetus becomes a sentient being and is able to sense its surroundings, or
Quickening, or
It begins to look human, or
It loses its tail and gill slits, or
Its heart begins beating, or
The pre-embryo becomes attached to the inner lining of the woman's uterus.
Some would only allow legal abortions in one or more of the following situations:
If an abortion is needed to save the life of the woman, or
To prevent the woman from experiencing permanent disability, or
To prevent the woman having serious health problems.
When the fetus is so malformed that it will only live a matter of hours after birth.
When the fetus has a chromosome abnormality -- e.g. those that cause Down Syndrome.
Where the pregnancy was the result of rape or incest.
A small minority believe that all abortions should be banned, even if needed to save the life of the mother.
We feel that it is naive for the media to imply that there is a unity of belief within the pro-life and within the pro-choice movements.

In the U.S., the pro-life and pro-choice movements are both powerful and active. Pro-life groups are particularly active at the state level and have successfully influenced legislators and governors into creating many laws that restrict abortion. Many of the laws have been ineffectual; they are so broadly worded that court injunctions suspend them shortly after having been signed into law. Courts often find that these laws are so vaguely worded that physicians are unable to determine whether a specific act is allowed or prohibited. Those laws which survive court challenges are not particularly effective; they often merely have the effect of deflecting abortion seekers to nearby states. Approval of the drug RU-486 has forever change abortion in America. Doctors are now able to prescribe the pills and women may be able to take the pill at their homes. Rural women will not have to drive long distances to abortion clinics; women will not have to run the gauntlet of abortion protestors.

In Canada, the pro-life movement has lost most of its funding after some groups started to harass abortion providers in the vicinity of their homes. This also terrorized the families and neighbors of the providers. During the late 1990's, two Canadian pro-life groups lost their charitable status with Revenue Canada because of excessive political activity. Abortion protests now fail to attract large numbers of supporters. The groups now do little more than conduct candlelight vigils, and issue press releases. With the exception of news about attacks by a lone, anti-abortion, "November 11th" assassin, abortion rarely is discussed in the media. The country does not even have a law to regulate abortions.

The law elsewhere in Europe:

· Italy: Abortion on demand is legal until the end of the 12th week. This law was introduced in 1978 and backed by a referendum in 1981.
· Ireland: A referendum in 1993 voted to keep abortion illegal, though it made it legal for the first time to travel abroad to have an abortion.
· Poland: For many years, abortion on demand was legal, but in 1993 the country outlawed abortion for all but strict medical reasons. In 1996, the Polish parliament passed a slightly more liberal law, but this was deemed unconstitutional by the high court.
· Spain: Abortion is legal in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy in cases of rape, foetal abnormality, or risk to the pregnant woman's life or mental heath, according to a 1985 law
· United Kingdom: Abortion is legal in the first 24 weeks of pregnancy, according to a law introduced in 1967, but only in England, Scotland and Wales. In Northern Ireland, the 1967 law never came into force, so abortion is still not legal, though no law specifically prohibits it.
· Switzerland: Abortion is illegal, unless the life of the pregnant woman is in danger.
· Germany: Legal on condition that the woman has consulted a recognised counsellor.
· Sweden: Abortion is legal.
· Denmark: Abortion is legal until the 12th week of pregnancy.
· Romania: Abortion is legal until the 12th week of pregnancy.

1. American statistics are listed by Baptists for Life, Inc. at:
2. Canadian statistics are listed by Action Life (Ottawa) Inc. at:
3. Bob Enyart is an extremely conservative talk show host. He has a "Bob Enyart Live Abortion Clock" on his web site. It lists the total number of legal abortions that have been performed since 1973. See:
4. Carl Sagan, "Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium: Chapter 15" Read reviews or order this book safely from online book store Chapter 15 has been reprinted at:
5. S. Boyd, "Give us liberty: The approval of RU-486 isn't about morals, it's about options," at: (This may be a temporary posting)
6. A.T. Hyman, "The 'A' Word." This is an essay on the legal aspects of the abortion debate. See:
7. Nellie Gray, president of March for Life, at the 28th annual March for Life, 2001-JAN-22.
8. "Constitution Party supports statewide abortion ban," Stop Abortion in Ohio, undated, at:
9. "Sanctity of Life," Platform, Constitution Party at:

Total Literacy Mission 2020 in the Zou Community

KHOVEL MUN TUAMTUAM a um Zou kampau-ten Zou Workshop forum [on-line] tungtawn in mimal leh minam khantouna toh kisai lunghimawna thute ka kikum zing ua, khantouna di'a kisam tampi te lah ah, Total Literacy ah kipan masaleh lamzang pen di'n gintatna thupi tah ka nei uhi. Zou mipite apat panpina (support) a kimu thei leh, tam Literacy Mission pen kum 2020 chieng a suhpiching di'a lamet ahi. Tu 21st century hun ah, Zou tate pen mi “madel” (nuadel hilou) a pan ding ahita chi deithusam khanglai ten ka nei uhi.

Zawnna(Poverty) pen ibul sui leh sum neilou zieh maimai sang in, laithei louna (illiteracy) leh mawlna toh kitanau ahi uh chi mukhiah ahi. Zou laukha a pallun theina di'n Total Literary Mission pen khutlai poimaw khat ahi. Tami Mission pichinna di'n Sunday School, Mission skul leh LP/JB oja-te ban ah, Zou sung a organization tuamtuam – UZO, ZLS, ZSP, ZYO, etc. ten mawpuahna lianpi anei uhi. Kum 2020 chieng a Zou te'n Total Literacy lawchinna lungdam pawi akilop theina di'n, kilawp tah a aneu-alian pankhawm kisam hi. Kum 2020 tan a i motto uh tami hihen: "Laithei lou, minam samsietna ahi!" Tami Literacy Mission pichin theina di'n Zou Workshop member-ten ngetna (appeal) tam anuai abang ka hing bawl uhi:

1. Skul oja-te kung a ngetna: Zou sung a Total Literacy umtheina di'a "agent" poimo penpen ka sui lai un, Zodawn a koima theikha lou a nasem Mission oja-te ahi uh chi ka theikhia uhi. Solkal skul nasan um louna mun a nasem mission skul oja-te pen minam khantouna palai (ambassador) ahi uh chi ka gingta uhi. Tualeh LP leh JB oja-te um lou a Total Literacy 2020 tan a pichin sahdan ding lampi hamsa mama hi. Tu-le-tu dinmun ah Zou khua a LP/JB oja khenkhat a post a um lou uh chi report ka za uhi. Solkal oja-te zong Zou momnou tampite maban keemtu ahi uhi. Tualeh solkar leh mission oja tampi Zodawn posting na mun a gin-um tah a sem tampi a um a, tami nasem ginumte zong missionary poimo ahi uh chi ka gen ut uhi. Oja ginum ten maban ah minam tawisanna – Best Teacher Award leh Citation – bang muthei ta uleh dei huai hi. Tualeh Zou kual a solkar skul leh mission skul tengteng atuam apai a ngaisut nonlou a, a fel thei pen leh lawching thei pen di'a "coordination scheme" hoitah siamtha ding deina in, joint workshop khat nei khawm uleh chi ngetna ka bawl uhi.

2. Sunde Skul vaisaite kung a ngetna: Sunde Skul chiindan England a ahing khanlet apat Pasian thu leh laisim-laigelh dan (literacy) kisinsahna toh kizopkhawm zing hi. I innveng Mizoram ten zong tuabang in na bawl ngai tham uhi. Tualeh Zou sung a Sunde Skul a "kam a dawng pawl-te" ("illiterate" hem genna) adin literacy class bawl thei ahisih ding, chi Bible ah kimu sam lou hi. Tuaziah in, naupangte ban ah, mi piching laithei lou-te adin zong Adult Literacy class pen Sunde Skul ten hing saikhawm uleh dei huai hi. Sunde Skul text-bu leh syllabus piching nei theina di'n, maban a Zou Sunde Skul Union Committee khat a umtheina di'n vaisaiten hing enkai uhen chi ngetna ka hing bawl uhi.

3. Khanglai lamkaite kung a ngetna: Khaglai-te kikhaikhawmna – ZSP, ZYO, MYCA, LYF, etc. – chi te'n Summer leh Winter Literacy Camp kum teng in hing sai thei uleh dei huai hi. Kerala a literacy rate asang ziah pen solkar leh nam ngaina Literacy Volunteer tampite panlahna ga ahia, a volunteer te un tam bang in kichiemna anei zel uhi: "I do hereby solemnly pledge that I will do everything within my capacity to liberate my motherland …from illiteracy and to arm the toiling and suffering millions with the weapon of letters" (Ka tunnu gam laithei louna apat asuohtatna din ka hitheina tan in ka pang ding a, genthei-liangvai mi zatamte laiteng-galvan toh ka thuom ding hi chi’n ka kichiem hi). Gam-le-nam min a kichiam maimai sang in, Zou khanglai-te'n kum 2020 chiang a Zou dinmun ding "vision" kichiantah nei a, tami Kerala te kichiamna phuiteng-te en zong ahithei tantan a zat ding in ngetna ka hing bawl uhi.

4. ZLS leh Statistician-te kung a ngetna: Statistics kichian tah um masa lou a maban kisahkholna fel tah kibawl thei lou a, tualeh Zou minam literacy bang din mun a um ahiai chi ngaidan kichian kinei thei lou hi. Tualeh statistics um lou in Literacy Award chite zong a sai dan ding lampi um lou hi. Census of India (Manipur) a Zou khua statistics ban ah hattuam statistics sung a Zou literacy toh kisai thute hing kaihuai ding in Zou Literature Society-te fel pen din ka gingta uhi. Amau un a sai zou lou uleh midang na aap sawn mai ta uhen. Tami din hattuam statistician-te kithuapina nasatah in a poimo ding hi. Hattuam statistics leh Census of India apat Zou sung pumpi Literacy dinmun a kithei khiat zou lou leh, a poimo bang a Literacy Survey zong bawl ngai ding hi. Tualeh maban a nasep fel tah a apei theina din ZLS in Literacy Monitoring Committee khat phut khe leh chi poimo ka sa ua, statistics ah adult, female leh child literacy te zong bihieh tah a "monitoring" bawl di'n ka hing ngen uhi.

5. UZO kung a ngetna: UZO pen Zou sung a kikhaikhawmna sang pen ahiziah in, ahithei tan a Zou minam pumpi a "represent" ding deithusam ahi. Zou milip a kim khat (50%) numei ahiziah in UZO in Zou numei-te "represent" kha nailou hi. I kimvel a Zomi tribe tuamtuam-te zong tami lam thu ah eima bang veve ahi. Tuazieh in nam hal leh khangtou zaw kol-le-vai te enton in, Zou numei-te adi'n UZO in 33% seat reservation bawl sah leh chi ngetna ka hing bawl uhi. Koima a siamsa leh chinsa um lou ahiziah in, Zou numei-te zong lamkai-hna (leadership) anei di’a kisinsah hunta hi. Zou numei-te khantouna pen Zou minam pumpi khantouna di'a poimo ahi. I numei-te thei lou kaal a, Zou pasal teng aguh-agal a tuam khantou dan ding lampi um lou ahi chi ka gingta uhi. Tuaziah in Zou kampau-te pen mi nuadel hinon lou a, mi madel hi ta ding in ngetna ka hing bawl uhi. Tualeh UZO a Women Cell te'n ahithei tan in Female Literacy lampang hing sai uleh chi duthusam ahi.

Tam teng jousia Zou sung khantouna di' a poimaw masapen ahi chi hun sawtpi kakikup nua un kamukhia ua, koipou u-leh-nau, nu-leh-pa, nungah-tangval leh pawlpi tuomtuom te'n Literacy ngaipoimaw in isep thei bang chiet uh sempan chiet ding in ngetna kahing bawl uhi”.
Source: ZouWorkshop

Manipur: Militants vs. Development

M. Amarjeet Singh

Research Associate, Institute for Conflict Management ‘Development' has often been touted as a panacea for militancy in various theatres in India, and this is almost a basic article of faith in the bureaucracy and planning establishment. The result is that large financial allocations are made under a range of special schemes for areas afflicted by insurgency and terrorism, and these are duly expended by the Governments in these troubled regions. Outsiders are often mystified, however, that there is little evidence of these enormous ‘developmental' allocations and expenditures having a visible impact on the conditions prevailing in the target areas or on the populations that are supposed secure benefits and relief.

Manipur is a case in point. Between 1993-94 and 2003-04, in addition to its share of central taxes, which amounted to INR 22.7 billion, Manipur received another INR 60.8 billion in Grant-in-Aid from the Central Government under various developmental programmes, special allocations and other provisions intended to secure advancement in the State. Despite this, however, the State remains mired in poverty and backwardness, with avenues for employment chronically stagnant in virtually every sector, with the exception of the militancy itself, which has emerged as the largest ‘employer' in the State, after the Government. The per capita net income of the State at current prices was INR 11,370 for 1999-2000 as against the All India average of INR 16,047. There are more than 400,000 unemployed persons as per the live register of the Employment Exchanges (which represent, at best, an incomplete picture of total unemployment in the State), in a population of under 2.4 million. 76 per cent of a total 774,904 workers in the State are engaged in agricultural activities over a total cultivable area that covers just 9.41 per cent of the total area of the State, suggesting very high levels of disguised rural unemployment. Worse, several large manufacturing industries have shut down, while small enterprises are being progressively crippled.

Why the ‘developmental panacea' does not – cannot – work is evident even on the most cursory study of the circumstances that prevail in a situation of widespread intimidation, disorder and terrorism. In Manipur, large proportions of the State's resources are both directly and indirectly siphoned out by the militants' extortion campaigns, even as the delivery mechanisms for the developmental and relief services of the State collapse, bringing planned developmental activities to a standstill.
Over the years, Government departments in Manipur have regularly paid out a fixed percentage of their revenues to various militant groups. Further, the insurgents also directly interfere in the award of Government contracts and execution of developmental projects, which essentially are reduced to largesse that they come to control, rather than projects to be executed on the ground. On February 8, 2006, employees of the fisheries department went on a general strike at Lamphel in the capital Imphal, in protest against extortion notices issued by unspecified militant outfits. More recently, four officials of the state food and civil supplies department were abducted by suspected United Kuki Liberation Front (UKLF) cadres from different places in Imphal on June 12, 2006, for their failure to meet monetary demands that have been intimidated to their respective offices. One of them was rescued by the Manipur police from a spot near Aimol village in the Thoubal District on June 16. Earlier, unable to cope with such undue interference, the taxation wing of the Manipur Government ceased to function after all the employees, barring the Head of Department, took leave en masse on August 25, 2005, following threats from various militant groups. Media reports indicate that this was the first time in Manipur that an entire office complex was closed down in protest against intimidation by the insurgents.
In such an environment of rampant extortion, compounded by widespread corruption at every level of the State administration, development activities have languished. Basic infrastructure facilities like roads, communications, health care and education, all show visible signs of decline. At a function in Imphal on June 2, 2006, the Chief Minister noted, "No outside firms take interest in working in the State due to huge extortion demands. Underground groups, irrespective of whether they belong to the Hills or Valley, have been demanding their percentage from any development project taken up in the State". Earlier at Khongjom in the Thoubal district on April 23, 2006, the Chief Minister said, "All development projects have been stalled for interference by militant outfits. The construction of a flyover in Imphal is delayed because the militant outfits are demanding a certain percentage of the project fund. The construction of the Assembly complex has also been similarly stalled." Confessing his Government's inability to deal with the situation, the Chief Minister asked ‘public organisations' for help in tackling the situation.
The Public Distribution System (PDS), which is intended to provide essential commodities at affordable prices, particularly to the poorer and more vulnerable sections of the population, has also been among the principal targets of the insurgents, who siphon off rice, sugar, wheat and other essential commodities, selling the bulk of these in the black market, though a small fraction of the total quantities is also distributed to narrowly targeted groups in their areas of domination at reduced prices in order to secure support and legitimacy. At meeting of legislators of the ruling Secular Progressive Front (SPF) held in Imphal on June 7, 2006, apprehensions were expressed regarding the failure of the PDS in the State, largely due to the activities of different militant groups. Some of the legislators who attended the meeting pointed out that at least 85 per cent of the PDS items were ‘diverted' to meet the militants' demands.
The functioning of Manipur's only medical institute, the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) at Imphal, has also been repeatedly affected by undue militant interference. On June 14, 2005, an unidentified militant group served an extortion demand of INR 1.5 millions to its management. Earlier on May 9, 2005, a senior doctor, Yumnam Nandabir Singh, was abducted by the militants and a demand for INR 3 million in ransom was raised. He was ultimately freed on May 14, but it is not clear whether Singh bought his freedom by acceding to the ransom demands. Such developments have compelled at least seven senior doctors and professors to leave the Institute. There have also been several reports of the possibility of the Institute being shifted to Shillong on security grounds. Over 52 per cent of the respondents in an online poll conducted in January 2005 by Kanglaonline – a web portal – felt that "Underground organisations" should be held responsible if RIMS is shifted from Imphal to Shillong – as contemplated by the North Eastern Council, the region's planning body, which funds the Institute. "Even during war, hospitals are not targeted. But here in Manipur, several militant groups are trying to loot the hospital and people in the name of sovereignty. It is very unfortunate," the chief minister declared in the State Assembly on June 24, 2005.
Militant groups have also increased their share of booty from the general population, with extortion targeting almost every segment of the population. This has resulted in both protests and in the stifling of projects in the private sector. Thus, on May 30, 2006, the All Manipur Auto Rickshaw Owners and Drivers Association appealed to an unspecified militant group not to serve monetary demands on auto rickshaws owners and drivers. A statement issued by the Association in Imphal appealed to the group to understand the difficult conditions under which they earned their livelihood. On May 18, 2006, unable to meet the extortion demands served by suspected People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK), twelve brick-kilns located at Pangei, Haotal and Waiton areas in the Imphal East District, temporarily closed down. On April 1, 2006, four staff members of a private recording studio were abducted by suspected Kuki National Front (KNF - Zougam faction) from Tuibong for their refusal to pay extortion amount of INR 200,000. They were subsequently released after an unspecified amount of money changed hands.
The road transport sector in the State – Manipur's lifeline, since virtually all goods and commodities have to be brought from the outside – is regularly targeted, and large segments are controlled by various insurgent groups, each of which levies a variety of ‘taxes' on every vehicle. On several occasions, services of passenger and transport vehicles running along the two national highways (NH-39 and 43) were disrupted following the threat from militant outfits to increase the amount of extortion collected from the vehicle owners. There have also been number incidences of attacks on tankers carrying liquefied petroleum gas and diesel/ petrol over the years. Militancy has also disrupted road construction and maintenance work on these highways, as militants have hijacked vehicles and abducted and harassed construction workers.
Of late, there have been some isolated incidents of protests against the militant diktats. On June 12, 2006, the entire Sagang Bazar observed a shutdown and local residents staged a dharna (sit-down strike) in protest against excessive monetary demands imposed by the UKLF, on some shopkeepers and other residents of Sagang and Borayangbi villages. Earlier on July 23, 2005, about 500 students took out a ‘peace rally' in Kakching town against illegal demands by militants on school authorities. On July 14, 2005, about 12 village Pradhans (head men) of Langmeidong block submitted mass resignations to the Deputy Commissioner of Thoubal District in protest against the militants' extortion demand. The insurgents had demanded a share out of money allocated to the Pradhans for village development.
Manipur has a vocal ‘civil society' which has dramatically protested against alleged human rights violations by the Security Forces and worked to fight against other social ills, including drug addiction, AIDS, alcoholism, etc. Despite the enveloping and uniformly adverse impact of extortion and militant intimidation on the State's development and on the living conditions of the people, however, otherwise vocal civil society bodies have remained persistently silent, strengthening significant claims that many of these ‘civil society' groups are, in fact, front organizations of militant outfits. That said, the utter incapacity of the State Government to recover even a narrow area of order free from extortion and intimidation at least within the Imphal Valley, indeed, even in State Capital, Imphal, points to a political paralysis and administrative incapacity that shows no signs of diminution.

Somewhere I Belong

How can I possibly claim that I ‘belong’ to a place where I ‘never belong’?

by Haumuanlun Samte New Delhi

It was an usual humid Delhi evening. I was boarding a bus for North Campus. As I got into the bus I heard someone from the back row yelling, “Hey, Bahadur!”. Oh, God, not again! I didn’t look back. I didn’t care. After all, I’m not a “Bahadur.” However, a slight feeling of embarassement and anger began to creep into my psyche. Such insulting words flung at us – we, the north-eastern tribals - has become quite a common experience. And by now, I’m beginning to get used to it. My take here is that it’s all part of a modern city life.

Racism is a bit too endemic here in New Delhi. Themes like ‘democracy,’ ‘multiculturalism,’ ‘unity-in-diversity,’ ‘secularism’, ‘humanism,’ and ‘tolerance’ don’t seem to find their place in the common man’s world. You maybe holding a MotoRizr phone, a Nokia N70, or sporting the latest in fashion trends, and you maybe far better off in every way, but you just can’t escape these age-old racial stereotypes – as long as you are a ‘chinky.’ The mindset of the mainland Indians are transfixed on the belief that we, north-easterners, are inferior to them in every way which has a deep psychological root from generations past and would continue through generations to come. I often ask myself, why don’t they call us Japanese or Korean instead? Why Nepali? Why Bahadur?

As I rode on the bus, painful memories of all my past experiences began to flood my mind. From the moment I stepped down at the New Delhi train station in early 2004 - the sneaky auto-driver, the brutal bus conductor, the first day at my college where I was ragged thrice, the cunning landlord, the constant glaring at the market places, et seq. - to this day I had been going through numerous stresses. Why do we have to be targetted and humiliated and abused simply because we ‘look’ so different? All these reminiscences made the blood in me began to boil. I wanted to scream out loud, “I, too am an Indian, stupid!” Well, I’ve got to keep my cool. There’s nothing I could do.

The man who sat right next to me seemed quite a gentleman. He was well dressed and had a friendly, cheerful face. His eyes told me that he genuinely had an interest in me for some reasons unknown to me. The man introduced himself, “Hi, I’m Ravish,” and I responded, “I’m Lun.” After spelling out and teaching him how to pronounce my name, we began to converse intimately.

At some point he said, “You must be from Manipur?”

“How could you say that?” I asked.

“Oh!” he grinned, “I’m just guessing.”

I still wonder how the hell did he guess!

“I’m not from Manipur,” I told him point-blank. You don’t know how I hate to be called a Manipuri, and that I am from Manipur. When people asked me what my native place was, I usually told them that it’s, rather, Mizoram or Nagaland. To be a Manipuri here is a huge liability, what with landlords refusing anyone who they know hails from the god-forsaken state. And Manipur is being associated with all the ills afflicting the whole north-eastern states.

“Then where are you from?”came the next question.

“I’m from Zoland. The land of the Zo people.” Period.

I’m tired by now and thought that, with this he would stop bothering me. I was wrong. He seemed to be more and more enthusiastic about our new topic of discussion, and even told me that Regionalism and Linguistics had once been his chosen preoccupation.

“Where is that place?” I now felt sorry that I talked to him in the first place.

“Well, it’s a long story. You would never know where I come from. Nobody would know that. I too don’t know where I belong. And I’m still working on it.”

He was completely amazed.

“I had never heard of such a place. Is it somewhere in Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, or somewhere else?”

To me this guy was still a mystery. He was innocent, polite, friendly, humble and truthful. And yes, quite curious.

For the sake of the intimacy we had just created, I began to narrate who I am and where I belong. “We are a people, independent from time immemorial. We lived peacefully in our own land, far away from the bustling world. We had our own chiefs who looked after our welfare. However, our legacy began to fall apart with the advent of western imperialism, like you had faced a couple of centuries ago. By the middle of the past century, when the Queen of England left India our land got demarcated into separate nations. And as of the present day, we are being cut across by three countries - India, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Her Majesty, the Queen had done a terrible mistake for leaving us to our own fate. And worse, she never knew that.”

Ravish listened attentively. I was too engrossed in my own discourse that I didn’t even give him a chance to speak anymore. Whether he was interested in all that I had said or not, didn’t matter. My own enthusiasm let me go on and on. Which is what I did. And, thanks to his curiosity, he didn’t lose his interest either.

I said, “Actually, I’m coming from the state of Manipur. But you can’t call me a Manipuri. Our place is called ‘Outer Manipur’ and we are alienated from the real state. “

He seemed a bit surprised.

“See, like the mainland Indians treat people from the north-east as if they are foreigners and that too, with pure humiliation, we are being oppressed and treated as different people in our own tiny state. All channels of growth have been barred for us. Our interests, traditions and cultures are different from those of the plain people.”

I awaited some questions from him, but he was rather looking for an answer on my face. So, I continued, “The condition of our land, and our peole is pathetic. Our future looks bleak. The system of local government run by corrupt politicans chain our people while the rest of the country is shining. And though small, secluded and marginalized, we fight and kill amongst ourselves due to identity crises. Among us. Between us.”

“Which is why I told you I don’t know where I belong. I do know that I’m a Zomi. But the land I referred to as the place I’m from, called Zoland, is just a romanticized aspiration for our dreamland. A dream that someday we would have our own land and live freely.”

He tried to say something, but rather stopped mid-way.

I paused for a moment, and said, “Rest assured, one thing is for sure. I come from a place somewhere I belong.”

Time seemed to grind into slow motion as I went on unveiling layer by layer the intricacies of identity consciousness in Manipur valley and the segmentary hill society to which I belong. The snarling traffic got a sigh and our bus speeded up for a moment. Now we were nearing my stop. We exchanged some more friendly words and then, bidding goodbye I stood up from my seat and rushed off into the busy traffic.

Biakna leh nampi lungsim

H Kham Khan Suan

Biakna leh nampi lungsim a tonkhawm den hi a, Zomi Christian Fellowship, Delhi (ZCF, Delhi) zong hih sung pan hong piangkhia ahi hi. Biakna i gen ciangin a bia ding ‘mi’ kisam a, tua mite’n amau tungah a uk, thunei, leh a vanglian Pasian khatpeuh um in a san/pom kim ding uh thupi hi. Tua bang a piantheihna dingin mite sungah kituah-kilemna (kilunghualna), kipawltheihna leh ki-ukzawhna kisam hi. Biakna in mi kaikhawmin kihotheisak a, kilungtuaksakin kipumkhatna piangsak a, kiit, kilemna meng khiasak hi. Khristiante sungah hih bang thuphate a om ding pelmawhin kingaihsun hi. Bang hang hiam cih leh Pa, Tapa leh Kha Siangtho a kipumkhat bangin thu um mite zong kipumkhatin i om ding ahi hi. India ah zong ZCF kici kipawlna khuapi lian tengah nei ta ihih manin lungdam huai hi. ZCF in Zomite sungah ki-it, kilemna, kipumkhatna leh nampi lungsim hong piangsak takpi mah hiam cih pen i lungngaih kikkik ding thu lianpi khat a suak hi.

ZCF bang hangin ci sese i hi hiam?

Mundang, gamdang ah a zinkhia zo i tam nai loh hangin, India gamsung a om Zomite adingin 1980 pawl i gamlek hun hi a, Shillong, Allahabad, Delhi leh India khuapi lian tuamtuam ah laisim, nasem, sum metbawl in i om a, giautau kisa in kipawlkhop ding i lunggulh tek hi. Zo ngeina, lai leh minam hihna (identity) a kisapna zia i phawkkhiat san hun zong ahi hi. Hih bang minam kipawlkhopna pen i theihsa bangin Kawlgam ah 1952 in Hakha, Falam leh Tedim biakna makaite’n Zomi Baptist Convention phuanin na pankhia zo uh hi. Zo minam sungah a tangzai zaw in Pasian na semin, biakna bangci hatsak ding cih lunggulhna pan ZBC hong piangkhia hi cih zong i phawk hi. India gamah zong hih bang ngaihsutna mah nei in ZCF i phuankhia hi. Delhi pan a kipankhia kipawlna pen a tungin Zomi Fellowship bek na kici hi. Kum 1988-89 pawlin Zomi Fellowship pan Zomi Christian Fellowship ciin kilaih hi. A tangthu tawm sut pak leng ZCF pen nam itna leh awlmawhna, kikholhkhopna/kipawlna kician lunggulhna leh Zomi hihna kepbit nadingin kiphuankhia ahihna thu i mu thei hi.

ZCF, Delhi hanciamna tawh Zo minam sung pau tuamtuam panin late khilkhawmin in ZCF labu i neithei hi. I paukam tuamtuam tawh lungkihualin biakna nei thei ihih manin manpha hi. Mun tuamtuam pan kipanin, pawltuamtuam ah a om kimlai Zo minamte sungah kimuh, kikholh, kithu santuah theihna hong piangsak a, sanggam-laizom i hihzia leh minam khat i hihzia hong phawksak semsem hi. Kha thu bek hilo in ci leh sa lamah zong kipumkhatna hong piangsak hi. I nasep theihna ding gam hong keksak a, i lungsim ngaihsutna hong tangzaisak hi. I pau leh lai, ngeina leh biakna hong kepbitsak in minam lungsim lianpi hong neisak hi. Zomi Christian International kici thukizakna a simkhate in limtak tel ding hi. Ahi zongin khuapi tuamtuamah a om ZCF-te’n tu dongin kizopna i nei thei nai kei hi. I omna tek ah eimau lamsa Biakinn zattang ding kician i nei zo nai kei hi.

I pawlcin tawh kituakin pawltuam ngaihsutna, a tuamin kituun, kihuaikhopna lungsim hong piang hi. Sum leh pai zekna ah i sanggam lom sung (tribe) ading mah ngaihsutna hong khang a, gamkek in, kigawm in a kipumkhat semsem ding kimlai kikhen thaangin kiamlam i manawh zawsop hi. Pawlkhatte’n hih bang a kikhenthaangna in nampi lungsim a neitheilo minam i hihna hong pulak hi ci thei kha ding hi. Amau ngaihsutna panin hih bang thu hong om pen dahhuai in limtak a lungngaih phat huai thu ahi hi. India leh leitung kiuli ah biakna kipawlkhop ding, gamkek ding mah a kithupi gen laitakin Zo minamte sungah neucikcik kilemlohna leh kitelkhialhna hangin pawltuam phuan in, kitamkham gawp ding i bang hi. A kigawm theilo minam hi lim i hiam cih hong lungngaisak hi.

Pawlkhat leuleu in hih bang a meengkhiatna leh pawltuam phuatna hangin khantohna leh gamkekna, nasep tangzaisakna in ngaihsun thei leuleu uh hi. Hih bangin a ngaihsunte in paubing siksanin pawlsatna, a za huaplualo in kikhenna in pawlpi sungah khat leh khat ki-it, kilemna leh kipawlkhopna hatsakin, pawlpi mite limtakin van zo zaw hi ci uh hi.

A thulai gen le hang: Pawlpi (biakna ahi a, biakna hilo ahi zongin) vai khat peuhpeuh pen thupisakin tangzaitak in na i sepkhiat theih nadingin pawlmi khat leh khat kithei in, tha kipiaktuah theih ding kisam hi. Ukpi leh ukneu a hunkhop mah kisam ding a, amaute limtak kizomin thu kihual ding hi. Thutanna leh ngaihsutna/gelkholhna khatpeuh kiciantakin nei in, limtakin zong semkhia thei ding hi. Mipi lungsim, uk, deih leh lunggulh, haksatna leh thanemna limtak theisiam in a kihualin na a semkhia thei leh mipi so a dom thei ding kipawlna kisam hi. Tua in pawlpi lawhcin nadingin milip leh pawltampi a kikhen kisam masa pen lo hi cih hong lak hi. Ki-ukzia leh kipawlkhopzia tawm laihin limtak vaihawm khawm thei le’ng na lianpi leh a thupi zaw na tampi kisem thei ding hi cih hong phawksak hi. United Nations kici leitung kipawlna lianpen nakpitak a lawhcinna in vaihawm siamna leh tavuan limtak hawmsiamna pan hong kipan hi ci le’ng kikhiallo ding hi. Roman Catholic Biakna leitung kiuli tengah kizelin tangzai takin Rome pan Pope ukna nuaiah a om theihna zong tuabang uksiamna/vaihawmsiamna pan hong kipan ahi hi. Nasep leh tavuan hawmsiam le’ng milip then za, then tul i val phial zongin ki-ukna hamsa tuan lo ding hi. Mosi leh Joshua in Israel-te Egypt gam saltanna pan honkhia in, gammang lakah kum 40 sung limtak a makaih theihna dingin Pasian in vaihawmsiam thusim a lak hi: Israel nam 12 sung panin makai ding telkhiasakin tuate tawnin limtak vai a hawmsak hi. Minampi lungsim ngaihsun sakin, kipawlkhawm sak a, a lunggulh tawntung uh ‘khuaizu leh bawngnawi luanna gam’ Kanaan gam lutpih hi (Paikhiatna leh Joshua Laibu limtak sim in).

A tomin gen pak le’ng: kipawl/kizopna in khat leh khat hong kitelsak semsem ding hi. A cingtak minam in minautang sungah a hoih leh a hoihlo, a thulim leh a thulimlo, a hat leh a hatlote theisiam in lungkihualin na semsak thei hi. Si leh sa ah kinaite kaikhawmin ‘kipawlkhop lunggulhna’ (corporate will) pia ding hi. Minampi tawh kisai laigelh minthang mahmah Hans Kohn in, “Hih bangin ‘kipawlkhop lunggulhna’ a om ciang bekin pau leh ham, ngeina leh khangthu, biakna leh nam kibangte tuunkhawmin kaikhawm thei ding a, gam leh minampi bawl thei bek ding hi.” ci hi.

ZCF Babel Tausang suaksak liang ding i hiam?

Thuciam Lui sungah tausang a tallang mahmah pen Babel tausangpi ahi hi. Noah hunlai, Tuiciin tunkhit ciangin mite pilna, siamna leh thupina a langsak dinga kibawl hih tausangpi pen tu hun tumlam ah gam/nampi lungsim piankhiatna a sut/kante’n thu gentehna in zang thei uh hi. Babel tausang pen thupi in a etlawm mahmah hangin a cim (collapse) dingin a kilam na hi lel tak hi. A tau cip pen a pammaih hilo zaw a, a lipkhap huai zaw thu in: a cip ma in minampi leh paupi khat a nei Noah’ suante pen tausang a cip khit ciangin nam tampi, pau tampi in hong kikhen uh a, kithutuah leh kipumkhat nading piang thei nawnlo hi (Piancilna 11). Tua mah bangin ZCF hong piankhiatna in a thupi pen leh a tawpkhawk i tunna lim (symbol) hisak liang ding i hiam ngaihsun pha ni. Kei ngaihsutna panin ZCF pen Zo minampi ngaihsutna (national consciousness) a om lai teng manglo ding a, hong kho semsem in hong manpha semsem zaw ding hi.

Biakna leh nampi lungsim

I biakna, ngeina leh hihna a tangzaizaw in i kep ut leh ZCF i phungvuh semsem kul hi. ZCF in Zo minampi bawl nading tavuan lianpen in nei lo ding hi. Ahi zongin ZCF hangin mi namdangte’n Zo minamte pen ‘Pasian tel minam, minam hamphate hi’ cih hong muh theih ding thupi hi. Tua bangin hong piantheihna dingin khat-leh-khat ki-it, kikem, kizun in i kipawlkhawm theih kul hi. India leh gam tuamtuam ah a om ZCF kipawlkhawmnate hangin kizom in limtak thu kikumkhawmin i kalsuan ding hi. Sangamlom (tribe) pansanin biak kipawlna a neite tawh thu kisangtuah in, i pangkhawm ding hi. Mizawng, tagah, meigong, pagong leh khanghamte i huh ding hi. A nangte huhin, thazawm (sa leh khalam) a kisate tha i pia ding hi.

I gamah Lungdamna Thupha hong tun cil lai in a Thu bek hong lut lo hi cih zong i tel ding hi. Zomi Baptist Convention phuat ding a kingaihsut lai in Lokhawh Sang (Agriculture Institute), Zato (Hospital) leh Laisiangtho Sang (Bible College) tawh phuh ding na limbawl uh hi. Lungdamna Thupha in khalam thu bek tawh kisai hilo a, pumpi cidamna, laipilna leh nek leh tak zonna ah cihtheihna tawh zong kizom hi cih mangngilh kei ni. Laphuah siam khat in ‘Jesuh pen samsiatna a kizelhna dong ah gupkhiatna a pia dingin hong pai hi’ na ci hi. Biakna in gupkhiatna i ngahna, Topa minthanna, itna leh hehpihna i phawkkhiatna ahih ding ahi hi. Khat leh khat kizomin, i kilem theih nading, kipawlthei in, i kipumkhat theih nading (Johan 15) leh nampi lungsim i neih theih nading i Biakna in hong sinsak hi cih lungngai kikkik ni. Zo minampi ading bek hilo in leitung bup mikhempeuh nampi khat hi in, Topa lenggah huanah a om lenggah hiangte hi hang a, i lengggah kungpi pen Jesuh hi cih i tel semsem ding hi. Jesuh sungah pumkhat a suak ding hi hang cih i phawk den ding hi.

Doctrine of Christians

We Believe....
THE SCRIPTURES - The Bible is the inspired Word of God, the product of holy men of old who spoke and wrote as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. The New Covenant, as recorded in the New Testament, we accept as our infallible guide in matters pertaining to conduct and doctrine (2 Tim. 3:16; 1 Thess. 2:13; 2 Peter 1:21).
We Believe....
Our God is one, but manifested in three Persons - the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, being coequal (Deut. 6:4; Phil. 2:6). God the Father is greater than all; the Sender of the Word (Logos) and the Begetter (John 14:28; John 16:28; John 1:14).
The Son is the Word flesh-covered, the One Begotten, and has existed with the Father from the beginning (John 1:1; John 1:18; John 1:14).
The Holy Spirit proceeds forth from both the Father and the Son and is eternal (John 14:16;John 15:26).
We Believe....
MAN, HIS FALL AND REDEMPTION - Man is a created being, made in the likeness and image of God, but through Adam's transgression and fall, sin came into the world. The Bible says "...all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God," and "...There is none righteous, no, not one." (Rom. 3:10; 3:23). Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was manifested to undo the works of the devil and gave His life and shed His blood to redeem and restore man back to God (Rom. 5:14; 1 John 3:8). Salvation is the gift of God to man, separate from works and the Law, and is made operative by grace through faith in Jesus Christ, producing works acceptable to God (Eph. 2:8-10).
We Believe....
ETERNAL LIFE AND THE NEW BIRTH - Man's first step toward salvation is godly sorrow that worketh repentance. The new birth is necessary to all men, and when experienced, produces eternal life (2 Cor. 7:10; John 3:3-5; 1 John 5:12).
We Believe....
WATER BAPTISM - Baptism in water is by immersion, is a direct commandment of our Lord, and is for believers only. The ordinance is a symbol of the Christian's identification with Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection (Matt. 28:19; Rom. 6:4; Col. 2:12; Acts 8:36-39).
We Believe....
BAPTISM IN THE HOLY GHOST - The Baptism in the Holy Ghost and fire is a gift from God as promised by the Lord Jesus Christ to all believers in this dispensation and is received subsequent to the new birth. This experience is accompanied by the initial evidence of speaking in other tongues as the Holy Spirit Himself gives utterance (Matt. 3:11; John 14:16,17; Acts 1:8; Acts 2:38,39; Acts 19:1-7; Acts 2:1-4).
We Believe....
SANCTIFICATION - The Bible teaches that without holiness no man can see the Lord. We believe in the Doctrine of Sanctification as a definite, yet progressive work of grace, commencing at the time of regeneration and continuing until the consummation of salvation at Christ's return (Heb. 12:14; 1 Thess. 5:23; 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Cor. 3:18; Phil. 3:12-14; 1 Cor. 1:30).
We Believe....
DIVINE HEALING - Healing is for the physical ills of the human body and is wrought by the power of God through the prayer of faith, and by the laying on of hands. It is provided for in the atonement of Christ, and is the privilege of every member of the Church today (James 5:14,15; Mark 16:18; Isa. 53:4,5; Matt. 8:17; 1 Peter 2:24).
We Believe....
RESURRECTION OF THE JUST AND THE RETURN OF OUR LORD - The angels said to Jesus' disciples, "...this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven." His coming is imminent. When He comes, "...the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air..." (Acts 1:11; 1 Thess. 4:16,17). Following the Tribulation, He shall return to earth as King of kings, and Lord of lords, and together with His saints, who shall be kings and priests, He shall reign a thousand years (Rev. 5:10;20:6).
We Believe....
HELL AND ETERNAL RETRIBUTION - The one who physically dies in his sins without accepting Christ is hopelessly and eternally lost in the lake of fire and, therefore, has no further opportunity of hearing the Gospel or repenting. The lake of fire is literal. The terms "eternal" and "everlasting," used in describing the duration of the punishment of the damned in the lake of fire, carry the same thought and meaning of endless existence as used in denoting the duration of joy and ecstasy of saints in the Presence of God (Heb. 9:27; Rev. 19:20).